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Species: Pseudomyrmex cubaensis   (Forel, 1901) 


Classification:
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See Also:

Pseudomyrmex cubaensis_nr

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2017)

Pseudomyrma elongata var. cubaensis Forel, 1901j PDF: 342 (w.) CUBA. Neotropic. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

Forel, 1913m PDF: 215 (q.); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1956 PDF: 384 (l., misidentified as Pseudomyrmex elongatus).
Combination in Pseudomyrmex: Creighton, 1957b PDF: 18.
Revived from synonymy and raised to species: Ward, 1985b PDF: 226.
See also: Ward, 1989a PDF: 413.

Distribution:


Nearctic Region: Florida, Mississippi, North America, United States
Neotropical Region: Americas, Argentina, Artemisa, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Camagüey, Canindeyú, Caribbean, Cayman Islands, Central America, Chiapas, Colombia, Comayagua, Costa Caribe Norte, Costa Caribe Sur, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Exuma, French Guiana, Granma, Guanacaste, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Heredia, Holguín, Honduras, Huánuco, Izabal, Jalisco, Jamaica, Limón, Madre de Dios, Matagalpa, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mexico, Nayarit, Nicaragua, Oaxaca, Panama, Panamá Oeste, Paraguay, Peru, Pinar del Río, Puntarenas, Rondônia, Sancti Spíritus, Santiago de Cuba, South Abaco, South America, Venezuela, Veracruz, Westmoreland

Distribution Notes:

Pseudomyrmex cubaensis is distributed from southeastern United States (Florida), the Caribbean and Mexico, south to Argentina.

Biology:

In the Caribbean region, colonies of P. cubaensis occupy dead stems of various woody and herbaceous plants (Ward, 1985), often in littoral environments. Mainland populations come from a variety of habitats, including tropical dry forest, savannah, roadside verge, second-growth lowland rain forest, rain forest edge and montane rain forest edge. Nesting habits of these mainland populations are probably also generalized, but unfortunately most records consist of foraging workers rather than nest series.

Identification:

Among members of the oculatus group (see Ward, 1989), workers of cubaensis can be recognized by the following combination of features:
  • medium size (HW 0.65-0.78)
  • punctate-sublucid head; at least some punctures separated by half their diameters or more, especially between the ocelli and compound eye, and immediately posterior to compound eye
  • relatively short eyes (REL2 0.65-0.76)
  • moderately broad fore femur (FI 0.41-0.50)
  • petiole with rounded dorsolateral margination

Taxonomic Notes:

P. cubaensis can be diagnosed minimally by the combination of medium size (HW 0.65-0.78); a punctate-sublucid head; relatively short eyes (REL2 0.65-0.76); moderately broad fore femur (FI  0.41-0.50); and petiole with rounded dorsolateral margination. The largest workers of P. cubaensis from South America overlap in size with the smallest workers of P. curacaensis; they are distinguished from the latter by the possession of a broader fore femur, longer head, flatter occipital margin, shorter funicular segments, and gentler dorsolateral margination of the petiole. At the lower limits of its size range, P. cubaensis can be difficult to distinguish from P. urbanus. Workers of the latter have broader fore femora and longer eyes for a given head width, compared to P. cubaensis (see scatter plots in Ward, 1989). Workers of P. cubaensis differ from those of P. elongatus by their larger average size, shorter eyes and lower petiole height in the region of size overlap, and sublucid head and mesosoma.

References:

Ward, P. S. 1985. The Nearctic species of the genus Pseudomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Quaestiones Entomologicae 21: 209-246.

Ward, P. S. 1989. Systematic studies on pseudomyrmecine ants: revision of the Pseudomyrmex oculatus and P. subtilissimus species groups, with taxonomic comments on other species. Quaestiones Entomologicae 25: 393-468.

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 10 times found in mangrove, 3 times found in CES 400, 2 times found in Entre SHO y SSE, 5 times found in montane wet forest, 3 times found in lowland wet forest, 2 times found in 2º lowland rainforest, 3 times found in hammock/wetland edge, 2 times found in CC 1500 m., 3 times found in Mangrove swamp, 1 times found in 2º wet forest edge, ...

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 6 times Malaise trap, 1 times collecting from Carapa guianensis, felled yesterday, along new roadcut just beyo, 3 times copa de árbol, 4 times beating vegetation, 3 times in dead stick, 3 times ex Cordia alliodora, 0 times in Pinus caribaea twigs, 1 times hand collections, 1 times Foraging on tree, 1 times ex domatium Cordia alliodora, st times Virola tree felled yesterday at edge of lab clearing behind new lab. #3381-s, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods: 20 times Search, 14 times Fogging, 15 times Malaise, 9 times ex dead twig, 5 times Beating, 3 times Nest in twig above ground, 3 times Dead twig above ground, 2 times flight-intercept trap, 1 times Hand, 1 times Baiting, 1 times foragers, ...

Elevations: collected from 2 - 1100 meters, 208 meters average

Type specimens: syntype of Pseudomyrmex cubaensis: casent0907536



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