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Species: Pheidole rhinoceros   Forel, 1899 


Classification:
Download Data

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2017)

Pheidole rhinoceros Forel, 1899B: 73, pl. 3, fig. 23 (s.w.) PANAMA. Neotropic. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

See also: Wilson, 2003A: 738.

Distribution:


Neotropical Region: Alajuela, Americas, Atlántida, Central America, Chiapas, Chiriquí, Chontales, Coclé, Colombia, Comayagua, Costa Caribe Norte, Costa Rica, Gracias a Dios, Guanacaste, Heredia, Honduras, Jinotega, Matagalpa, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Puntarenas, San José, South America

Distribution Notes:

Southern Mexico to Panama.

Biology:

This species occurs in lowland wet forest habitats. Its upper elevational limit varies geographically: on the Barva Transect in Costa Rica it does not occur over 500m elevation. It occurs as high as 800m elevation in the Peñas Blancas Valley in the Cordillera de Tilarán, and it has been collected at 1100m on Volcan Cacao, an isolated peak in the Cordillera de Guanacaste. Nests are in dead wood on the forest floor, under loose bark, and occasionally in live stems (nests have been collected in live stems of Myriocarpa [Urticaceae] and the petiolar domatia of Piper cenocladum [Piperaceae]). Surprisingly, given the moderately common discovery of nests when general collecting, workers rarely recruit to baits and are rarely collected in Winkler or Berlese samples.

Comments:

Two similar species were conflated under this name until Longino (2009) separated the montane form P. rhinomontana. Wilson (2003) examined the lectotype of P. rhinoceros but later used specimens of the similar P. rhinomontana for illustrations. DNA barcoding data support the separation of P. rhinoceros and P. rhinomontana.

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Pheidole rhinoceros   Wilson, E. O., 2003, Pheidole in the New World. A dominant, hyperdiverse ant genus., Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press: 738, (download) 738 20017
Pheidole rhinoceros   Longino, J. T., 2009, Additions to the taxonomy of New World Pheidole (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 2181, pp. 1-90: 70-71, (download) 70-71 22820

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 31 times found in tropical wet forest, 8 times found in mature wet forest, 5 times found in wet forest, 9 times found in montane wet forest, 4 times found in cloud forest, 1 times found in cloud forest treefall, 1 times found in tall wet forest, 1 times found in cloud forest edge, 3 times found in mature rainforest, edge of forest near pasture and agricultural land, steep rocky terrain, 1 times found in wet forest stream edge, ...

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 23 times at bait, 28 times ex sifted leaf litter, 3 times nest in rotten wood, 3 times at bait nr stream edge, 2 times in rotten wood, 1 times nest in rotten stump, 2 times nest in dead wood, 4 times beating veg., 1 times nest under loose bark in treefall, 1 times nest in epiphytes, 1 times at cookie bait, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods: 26 times Baiting, 16 times search, 19 times miniWinkler, 8 times maxiWinkler, 2 times bait, 4 times beating, 2 times Winkler, 1 times hand collecting.

Elevations: collected from 300 - 1120 meters, 685 meters average

Type specimens: Lectotype of Pheidole rhinoceros: casent0610061; paralectotype of Pheidole rhinoceros: casent0610062; syntype of Pheidole rhinoceros: casent0901606, casent0901607, casent0904383



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