To cite this page, please use the following:
· For print: . Accessed
· For web:
Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Venezuela. Costa Rica: Atlantic and Pacific lowlands.
Occurs in various habitats, including seasonal dry forest, mature lowland rainforest, and second growth rainforest; occurs on the ground and in the canopy; nests opportunistically in small cavities; may build carton walls.
Types Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard.
Etymology Named after the type locality.
diagnosis A member of the fallaxHNS group close to caribbaeaHNS and obscuriorHNS, possibly synonymous with the latter, and somewhat less similar to cardinalisHNS, mantillaHNS, and rubicepsHNS, distinguished as follows.
Major: dark brown; antennal scape just attaining the occipital corner; humerus angulate in dorsal-oblique view; occiput in frontal view and ventral half of head in side view smooth and shiny; all of pronotum covered by transverse, "wraparound" carinulae; rugoreticulum on head extends on each side from eye to antennal fossa, posteriorly to halfway between eye and occipital comer, and anteriorly to halfway between eye and anterior border of head. Dorsal and lateral surfaces of head coated with dense, long, subdecumbent yellowish hairs.
Minor: occiput drawn into neck, with nuchal collar; propodeal spines reduced to denticles; anterior strip of pronotal dorsum foveolate and opaque.
Measurements (mm) Holotype major: HW 1.06, HL 1.16, SL 0.98, EL 0.20, PW 0.56. Paratype minor: HW 0.52, HL 0.66, SL 0.96, EL 0.14, PW 0.36. Color Major: body dark brown, appendages medium brown. Minor: body medium brown, appendages light to yellowish brown.
Range Known from the type locality, from both the Atlantic and Pacific lowlands of Costa Rica (J. T. Longino), and from Venezuela (4 km northeast of Biscucuy, Portuguesa, 670 m; W. L. Brown and J. Lattke).
biology In Costa Rica, kukranaHNS is very adaptable, occurring in seasonal dry forest, and mature and secondary lowland rainforest, and nesting opportunistically in small cavities both on the ground and in the canopy; it occasionally builds carton walls (Longino 1997).
Figure Upper: holotype, major. Lower: paratype, minor. NICARAGUA: Kukra River (Ivette Perfecto). Scale bars = 1 mm.
Found most commonly in these habitats: 3 times found in tropical wet forest, 7 times found in montane wet forest, 2 times found in lowland rainforest, 2 times found in tropical dry forest, 3 times found in 2º lowland tropical rainforest, 1 times found in bare soil near Raista boat landing, between lawn and trees., 2 times found in dry forest, 1 times found in wet forest, 1 times found in moist forest edge, 1 times found in old cacao plantation, ...
Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 6 times at bait, 7 times Sobre Vegetacion, 5 times ex sifted leaf litter, 1 times nest under carton covering dead knot, 1 times nest in soil, 1 times in canopy of Sloanea, 2 times at bait on ground, 1 times Neivamyrmex column, 1 times foragers.
Collected most commonly using these methods: 7 times baiting, 4 times search, 7 times Sweeping, 4 times MiniWinkler, 1 times Mini Winkler, 1 times Winkler.
Elevations: collected from 5 - 1100 meters, 250 meters average
Type specimens: paratype Pheidole kukrana: jtlc000016421