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Species: Pheidole flavens   Roger, 1863 

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See Also:

Pheidole flavens thomensis

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2018)

1 subspecies

Pheidole flavens Roger, 1863a PDF: 198 (s.w.q.) CUBA. Neotropic. "Neotype: Barrajagua, Las Villas, CUBA (E.O. Wilson)." MCZC. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history


 Species is native to: Indomalaya, Neotropical bioregions (based on species list records).

Indomalaya Region: Asia, India, Southern Asia
Nearctic Region: California, Florida, Louisiana, North America, United States
Neotropical Region: Alajuela, Alta Verapaz, Americas, Argentina, Atlántida, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Brazil, Canindeyú, Caribbean, Cartago, Cayo, Central America, Chiapas, Chontales, Cienfuegos, Colombia, Comayagua, Costa Caribe Norte, Costa Caribe Sur, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Progreso, El Salvador, Galapagos Islands, Galápagos, Gracias a Dios, Granada, Guadeloupe, Guanacaste, Guantánamo, Guatemala, Haiti, Heredia, Holguín, Honduras, Huehuetenango, Islas de la Bahía, Izabal, Jamaica, Jinotega, Limón, María Trinidad Sánchez, Masaya, Matagalpa, Mexico, New Providence, Nicaragua, Olancho, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Petén, Pinar del Río, Puerto Rico, Puntarenas, Saint Ann, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San José, San Salvador, Santa Catarina, Santiago de Cuba, South America, Suchitepéquez, São Paulo, Trinidad and Tobago, Veracruz, Yucatán, Zacapa, Ñeembucú
Palearctic Region: Eastern Asia, Japan

Distribution Notes:

Very widespread in Neotropics: Florida, West Indies, Central America, South America to southern Brazil. Costa Rica: throughout the country to about 1000m elevation.


Natural History:

This species is very common and very generalized. It is found in dry forest and wet forest habitats. It is common in Winkler samples and at baits. Nests are found in small cavities (under dead wood on ground, in dead sticks, in dead knots on tree trunks, under bark flaps, under epiphytes) from litter layer to high canopy.

Wilson (2005) observed that P. flavens and two other species of small Pheidole (bilimeki and nebulosa) frequently prey on oribatid mites in the leaf litter.


Wilson (2003) considers there to be two closely related species, flavens and exigua, that have broadly overlapping ranges. The type locality of exigua is French Guiana. The type locality of flavens is Cuba (based on a Neotype designated by Wilson). In the key to the flavens group the two species are distinguished at couplet 129: the edges of the pronotal humeri bear small patches of rugoreticulum in flavens and lack rugoreticulum in exigua. We have not been able to separate Costa Rican material into two species and we treat flavens and exigua as synonyms here.


Wilson, E. O. 2003. Pheidole in the New World: A Dominant, Hyperdiverse Ant Genus. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass

Wilson, E. O. 2005. Oribatid mite predation by small ants of the genus Pheidole. Insectes Sociaux 52:263-265.

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Pheidole flavens nov. sp ..  Roger, J., 1863, Die neu aufgeführten Gattungen und Arten meines Formiciden-Verzeichnisses, nebst Ergänzung einiger früher gegeben Beschreibungen., Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 7, pp. 131-214: 198, (download) 198 4101
Pheidole flavens   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 35, (download) 35 21367
Pheidole perpusilla   Longino, J. T., 2009, Additions to the taxonomy of New World Pheidole (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 2181, pp. 1-90: 60-61, (download) 60-61 22820
Pheidole flavens   Forel, A., 1908, Fourmis de Costa-Rica, récoltées par M. Paul Biolley., Bulletin de la Societe Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 44, pp. 35-72: 60, (download) 60 4014
Pheidole flavens   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 34, (download) 34 21367
Pheidole flavens   Wilson, E. O., 2003, Pheidole in the New World. A dominant, hyperdiverse ant genus., Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press: 419-420, (download) 419-420 20017

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 171 times found in mature wet forest, 110 times found in montane wet forest, 101 times found in tropical rainforest, 100 times found in tropical wet forest, 83 times found in 2º lowland rainforest, 63 times found in tropical moist forest, 35 times found in 2º wet forest, 33 times found in lowland rainforest, 28 times found in 2º tropical rainforest, 29 times found in lowland wet forest, ...

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 587 times ex sifted leaf litter, 166 times at bait, 48 times Hojarasca, 18 times sifted litter, 9 times beating vegetation, 7 times ex sifted litter, 6 times Sobre Vegetacion, 1 times nest under rock, 4 times Del cruce de Cascante hacia el Ceibo, 2 times at baits, 4 times Del cruce de Cascante hacia 1070m, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods: 471 times miniWinkler, 155 times baiting, 101 times Winkler, 44 times search, 52 times MaxiWinkler, 38 times Berlese, 44 times Mini Winkler, 32 times Fogging, 29 times Malaise, 8 times bait, 13 times Beating, ...

Elevations: collected from 2 - 1860 meters, 299 meters average

Type specimens: Lectotype of Pheidole flavens tuberculata: casent0915953; paralectotype of Pheidole flavens tuberculata: casent0915954; paratype Pheidole kuna: jtlc000016422; syntype of Pheidole flavens vincentensis: casent0901615; syntype of Pheidole flavens gracilior: casent0908267, casent0908268; syntype of Pheidole flavens haytiana: casent0908260; syntype of Pheidole flavens navigans: casent0908269, casent0908270; syntype of Pheidole flavens vincentensis: casent0908261, casent0908262; syntype of Pheidole flavens spei: casent0913323, casent0913324; type of Pheidole flavens var. haytiana: focol0032, focol0033; Type of unavailable quadrinomial: Pheidole flavens tuberculata platensis: casent0908276, casent0908277; Type of unavailable quadrinomial: Pheidole flavens tuberculata putata: casent0908275

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