And we've put together a handy little guide to show you all the new features and enhancements - why don't you have a quick look to check out all the new features and enhancements?
To cite this page, please use the following:
· For print: . Accessed
· For web:
Throughout the mainland Neotropics, from Guatemala to Brazil and Bolivia. In Costa Rica: throughout the country in wet forest areas, to 1500m elevation in Monteverde.
Founding queens are found under loose bark of dead wood, in dead branches, and very commonly under epiphyte mats on recently fallen trees.
In Penas Blancas, Longino observed an interaction with phorid flies. Workers were streaming up a tree trunk. Phorids were hovering above. One landed on the head of a soldier. Afterwards, workers grabbed the soldier by the legs and slowly began to drag it down the trunk.
biconstricta is a complex lineage with many infraspecific taxa in the taxonomic literature. Four of these have type localities in Costa Rica:
biconstricta surda Forel 1912:222
biconstricta bicolor Emery 1890:50
biconstricta bicolor regina (unavailable quadrinomial)
biconstricta rubicunda Emery 1890:50
Wilson (2003) synonymized them all under biconstricta.
In Costa Rica, specimens from the southern Pacific lowlands are light orange. In Monteverde, they are two-toned, with light orange head and mesosoma, and somewhat darker gaster. On the Atlantic slope they are brown to dark brown. The transition can be sharp: specimens of the two-toned Monteverde form are known from open areas in and around Monteverde, on the Pacific slope west of the cloud forest that covers the continental divide; the dark brown form is common in the Penas Blancas Valley, about 5km east of Monteverde on the Atlantic slope. There is also variation in sculpture, but it does not show geographic patterns and varies within populations.
Kugler, C. 1979. Alarm and defense: a function for the pygidial gland of the myrmicine ant, Pheidole biconstricta. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 72:532-536.
Wilson, E. O. 2003. Pheidole in the New World: A Dominant, Hyperdiverse Ant Genus. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass
Found most commonly in these habitats: 42 times found in tropical wet forest, 13 times found in montane wet forest, 22 times found in 2º wet forest, 15 times found in wet forest, 12 times found in mesophil forest, 13 times found in montane rainforest, 15 times found in ridgetop cloud forest, 17 times found in oak cloud forest, 8 times found in cloud forest, 3 times found in secondgrowth rainforest, ...
Collected most commonly using these methods or in the following microhabitats: 88 times Baiting, 52 times search, 22 times Beating, 21 times MiniWinkler, 15 times MaxiWinkler, 11 times Winkler, 4 times Sweeping, 2 times bait, 2 times Malaise, 2 times Berlese, 1 times in rotting log, ...
Elevations: collected from 5 - 1770 meters, 791 meters average
Type specimens: Lectotype Pheidole inermis: casent0601290; Paralectotype Pheidole inermis: casent0601291; paratype Pheidole xanthogaster: jtlc000016577; syntype of Pheidole biconstricta surda: casent0901477; syntype of Pheidole biconstricta bicolor: casent0904353, casent0904354; syntype of Pheidole biconstricta bicolor regina: casent0908085, casent0908086; syntype of Pheidole biconstricta hybrida: casent0904355, casent0904356; syntype of Pheidole biconstricta hybrida angustella: casent0908087, casent0908088; syntype of Pheidole biconstricta rubicunda: casent0904350, casent0904351; syntype of Pheidole biconstricta rubicunda fuscata: casent0904352; syntype of Pheidole biconstricta surda: jtlc000014066, jtlc000014067; syntype of Pheidole radoszkowskii lallemandi: casent0908089, casent0908090