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Species: Pachycondyla unidentata

Download Data

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2014)

1 subspecies

Pachycondyla unidentata Mayr, 1862 PDF: 720 (w.q.) BRAZIL. Neotropic. AntCat AntWiki

Taxonomic history

Combination in Neoponera: Emery, 1901b PDF: 47; in Pachycondyla: Brown, in Bolton, 1995b: 311.
Senior synonym of Pachycondyla eburneipes, Pachycondyla maya, Pachycondyla trinidadensis: Brown, 1957e PDF}: 232.


Southern Mexico south through Amazonia. Costa Rica: Atlantic and Pacific slopes, wet and dry forests, sea level to at least 1200m in places.


Natural History:

unidentata s.s.: This species is a very common ant in most Costa Rican forests, occurring in the canopy and low arboreal stratum. It is an opportunistic cavity nester, most often using dead branches and stems. It may occasionally be found in Cecropia saplings, and the abandoned carton nests of other ant species. Nests are small, often containing fewer than 10 workers. I once collected two dealate queens together in a small rotten stick, suggesting that pleometrotic founding may occur. The larvae are subject to predation by syrphid flies. The following two accounts are of syrphids found in unidentata nests:

Corcovado National Park, Sirena; 22 December 1981. Dana Meyer found a colony in a piece of rotten stick, hanging vertically at 1m height, outside dia. 9mm, inside 6mm. There were 12 ants total in the nest, including the single queen, 8 pupae, and 8 large larvae. Some may have been lost when the nest was first broken open. Two of the pupae were parasitized. There were fly puparia inside cocoons that had been neatly cut to allow for the greater width of the puparia, making a chinese lantern effect. The cuticle of the puparium was translucent, the organs visible inside. There was a produced, oval callosity on the side with a longitudinal slit in the center of the callosity. A darkly pigmented nipple was on one end. Two parasitoids were isolated from the ants. On 8 January one fly eclosed. Its wings did not expand properly. The puparium opened circumcissally just above the callosity on the ventral side. I put the remaining puparium back in with the ant colony, and the ants immediately picked it up and carried it back into the nest, where they placed it with the rest of the cocoons. They then returned and picked up the naked, empty puparium of the first fly (with much difficulty). They licked and fondled the empty skin for much longer than they licked the first, entire puparium. Finally they put the empty puparium with the cocoons. On 10 January I found the second fly dead outside the ant nest. Its wings had been clipped off, by the ants I presume.

Near Monteverde, 28 July 1984. Nesting in center of suspended rotten stick. The nest contained 4 or 5 parasitized pupae. The cocoons were split down the sides to accomodate the globose fly puparia, creating a chinese lantern effect. I kept four pupae alive in the lab, attempting to rear adults. I removed the surrounding ant cocoon from one of the pupae, and left the cocoons on the remaining three. An adult fly emerged from the naked pupa several days later, but its wings never unfolded properly. I waited another four days, and then observed that the remaining three were dead. They were pharate adults, and the pupal skins had split, but they were trapped inside by the ant cocoons. Thus, the flies must require the presence of the adult ants to remove the cocoon.

JTL-008: This species is very common in the canopy of mature forest at La Selva Biological Station, where it has been collected in canopy fogging samples from at least 5 different trees, and as strays in recent treefalls. I have two other collections from other localities: (1) a worker from a canopy tree, at 500m elevation in Braulio Carrillo National Park; and (2) workers from a recent treefall, Maritza Biological Station in the Guanacaste Conservation Area.

JTL-009: This species I know from one specimen; a worker from a canopy tree at Sirena, in Corcovado National Park.

JTL-010: This species I know from two collections in Costa Rica: (1) nesting in an internode of a Cecropia insignis sapling, at Casa Plastico near Rara Avis; and (2) a stray worker from Hitoy Cerere Biological Reserve. I also have workers collected by Phil Ward (PSW#11398) from a roadside Cecropia in Ecuador, and they are essentially identical to the Costa Rican collections!


Brown, W. L., Jr. 1957. Biological investigations in the Selva Lacandona, Chiapas. 4. Ants from Laguna Ocotal (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 116:228-237.

Mayr, G. 1862. Myrmecologische Studien. Verh. Zool.-bot. Ges. 12:649-776.

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Mayr, G., 1862:
[[ worker ]] Laenge: 7 - 5 mm. Braunschwarz, die Mandibeln, Fuehler, das Ende der Schenkel, die Schienen und Tarsen, so wie der Mundrand und die dreieckige Erweiterung der Stirnleisten braunroth, die Hueften und die Basalhaelfte der Schenkel braeunlich gelb. Die abstehende Behaarung ist massig, lang und lichtgelb, auch die Beine sind abstehend behaart. Die anliegende Pubescenz ist ziemlich reichlich, nur am Thorax und Stielchen spaerlicher. Die Mandibeln fein laengsgestreift, mit zerstreuten groben Puncten. Der Clypeus hat in der Mitte des Vorderrandes einen dicken, abgerundeten, zahnartigen Vorsprung, er ist fein und seicht etwas runzlig laengsgestreift; die Fuehlergrube mit ihrer naechsten Umgebung bis zu den Augen laengsgerunzelt, der uebrige Kopf fein punctirt, die Fuehler runzlig-punctirt. Der Thorax ist fein und nicht dicht punctirt, auf der Scheibe etwas glaenzend, sonst nur schimmernd. Der Hinterleib ist etwas dichter punctirt als der Thorax. Die Schuppe ebenso wie bei P. villosa Fabr. geformt.
[[ queen ]] Die Groesse, Farbe, Behaarung, Skulptur und Form der Theile (mit Ausnahme des Thorax) wie beim [[ worker ]]. Die Fluegel sind mir unbekannt.
Aus dem Gebiete des Amazonenstroms (M. C. Vienn.).
Ich wuerde diese Art fuer P. carinulata Rog. halten, wenn der Autor nicht anfuehren wuerde, dass die Schuppenbildung der P. carinulata von der der P. villosa Fabr. sehr verschieden sei, denn bei meiner neuen Art ist die Schuppe vollkommen gleich mit der von P. villosa , ueberdiess stimmt wol auch nicht, dass die drei ersten Geisselglieder gleich lang sind.

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 45 times found in montane wet forest, 24 times found in 2º lowland rainforest, 21 times found in 2º wet forest, 15 times found in lowland wet forest, 13 times found in tropical moist forest, 13 times found in tropical rainforest, 9 times found in ridgetop cloud forest, 8 times found in mature wet forest, 7 times found in tropical wet forest, 7 times found in mesophil forest, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods or in the following microhabitats: 81 times Beating, 29 times MiniWinkler, 28 times Search, 30 times Sweeping, 14 times Malaise, 13 times Baiting, 2 times MaxiWinkler, 2 times Winkler, 2 times flight intercept trap, 2 times Fogging, 1 times Mini Winkler, ...

Elevations: collected from 5 - 1480 meters, 409 meters average

Type specimens:

(-1 examples)

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