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Species: Pachycondyla stigma

Download Data

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2014)

Formica stigma Fabricius, 1804 PDF: 400 (q.) SOUTH AMERICA. Neotropic. AntCat AntWiki

Taxonomic history

Combination in Ponera: Mayr, 1863a PDF: 450; in Pachycondyla (Pseudoponera): Emery, 1900b PDF: 314; Emery, 1901b PDF: 46; in Euponera (Pseudoponera): Forel, 1901l PDF: 398; in Pachycondyla (Trachymesopus): Emery, 1911e PDF: 85; in Trachymesopus: Wilson, 1958g PDF: 355; Kempf, 1960f: 424; in Mesoponera: Wheeler & Wheeler, 1976a PDF: 55; in Pachycondyla: Brown, in Bolton, 1995b: 310.


USA (Florida) to northern Argentina, widespread in Caribbean, oceanic islands throughout the tropics, New Guinea, Indonesia. Costa Rica: common in wet lowland habitats, including mangroves, usually in open or disturbed areas.


Natural History:

Pachycondyla stigma is well-known as a tramp species found throughout the world in the tropics. It is very widespread, and is able to colonize remote oceanic islands. It is extremely generalized with respect to nesting sites and habitats. I have collected it in mangrove swamps, banana plantations, and mature rainforest. It usually nests in dead wood or under loose bark. Nests may occur at ground level, in the low arboreal zone, or in the canopy. Colonies are small and inconspicuous.

This nest observation is from Corcovado National Park: In canopy of tall Licania (Chrysobalanaceae) tree. Nesting in rotten wood protruding from a knothole. The material was humus-like, covered with moss. The nest was in the form of small, inter-connected chambers, each about the size and shape of half a peanut shell, containing 5-10 larvae of varying sizes, some with 3-4 pupae.


Fabricius, J. C. 1804. Systema Piezatorum secundum ordines, genera, species, adjectis synonymis, locis, observationibus, descriptionibus. Brunswick: C. Reichard, xiv + 15-439 + 30pp. Ants - p. 395-428.

Roger, J. 1863. Die neu aufgefuehrten Gattungen und Arten meines Formiciden-Verzeichnisses nebst Erganzung einiger frueher gegebenen Beschreibungen. Berl. Entomol. Z. 7:131-214.

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Wild, A. L., 2007:
Boquerón , Caaguazú , Canindeyú , Central, Concepción , San Pedro (ALWC, INBP, LACM, MZSP). Literature records: Boquerón , Canindeyú , Central, Concepción , San Pedro (Wild 2003).
Literature records: “Paraguay” (s. loc.) (Kempf 1972).
Pachycondyla stigma var. attrita is a Caribbean form unlikely to be conspecific with southern South American species.

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 34 times found in disturbed forest, 13 times found in tropical rainforest, 16 times found in secondary forest, 12 times found in 2º lowland rainforest, 3 times found in forest, 6 times found in primary rainforest, 7 times found in mature wet forest, 5 times found in montane wet forest, 5 times found in tropical moist forest, 4 times found in tropical wet forest, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods or in the following microhabitats: 18 times Winkler, 16 times search, 19 times MiniWinkler, 10 times MaxiWinkler, 4 times hand collecting, 7 times Berlese, 5 times Malaise, 5 times Beating, 3 times hand collection, 4 times Baiting, 2 times in malaise trap, ...

Elevations: collected from 1 - 1500 meters, 215 meters average

Type specimens: Holotype of Euponera sexdentatus: casent0902506; Holotype of Ponera quadridentata: casent0901361; paratype of Euponera sexdentatus: casent0902507; syntype of Euponera brunneus: casent0902508; syntype of Ponera stigma attrita: casent0902509; syntype of Ponera stigma attrita: casent0907287

(-1 examples)

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