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Species: Monomorium pharaonis   (Linnaeus, 1758) 

Download Data

See Also:

Monomorium pharaonis_cf1, Monomorium pharaonis_cf2, Monomorium pharaonis_nr

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2018)

Formica pharaonis Linnaeus, 1758 PDF: 580 (w.) EGYPT. Palearctic. "Egypt." AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history


 Species is native to: Afrotropical bioregion (based on species list records).

Afrotropical Region: Africa, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Eastern Africa, Eritrea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Middle Africa, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, South-West, Southern Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Western Africa, Woleu-Ntem, Zimbabwe
Australasia Region: Australia, Australia and New Zealand, Morobe, New Caledonia, New South Wales, New Zealand, Nord, Northern Territory, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Oceania, Papua New Guinea, Queensland, Solomon Islands, Tasmania, Vanuatu, Victoria, Western Australia
Indomalaya Region: Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Asia, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Jawa Barat, Laguna, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Okinawa, Philippines, Rakhine, Sabah, Singapore, Songkhla, South-Eastern Asia, Southern Asia, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Yunnan
Malagasy Region: Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Madagascar, Mahajanga, Reunion, Seychelles, Toamasina, Toliara
Nearctic Region: Alabama, Alberta, Arizona, Arkansas, British Columbia, California, Canada, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Hidalgo, Illinois, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, New Mexico, New York, North America, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, United States, Virginia, Washington
Neotropical Region: Amazonas, Americas, Argentina, Bahamas, Bolivia, Brazil, Canindeyú, Caribbean, Central America, Chiapas, Chile, Colombia, Colón, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, French Guiana, Galapagos Islands, Galápagos, Guyana, Heredia, Madre de Dios, Mexico, Minas Gerais, Nayarit, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Puntarenas, Sinaloa, South America, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Veracruz
Oceania Region: Angaur, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Hawaii, Kayangel, Kiribati, Koror, Marshall Islands, Melanesia, Micronesia, Micronesia, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Pohnpei, Polynesia, Samoa, Sonsorol, Tokelau
Palearctic Region: Albania, Armenia, Austria, Balearic Islands, Belarus, Belgium, Brussels Capital, Bulgaria, Central Asia, China, Crete, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, East Flanders, Eastern Asia, Eastern Europe, Egypt, Estonia, Europe, Faroe Islands, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jersey, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macaronesia, Moldova, Montenegro, Netherlands, North Korea, Northern Africa, Northern Europe, Norway, Okayama, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Southern Europe, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, West Flanders, Western Asia, Western Europe

Distribution Notes:

Throughout SLO


Introduced, in heated premises, temporary outside


Introduced species


Caste of types: (w)


Williams, D. F., (ed.). 1994. Exotic ants. Biology, impact, and control of introduced species. Westview Press, Boulder.

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Monomorium pharaonis   Mayr, G., 1893, Formiciden von Herrn Dr. Fr. Stuhlmann in Ost-Afrika gesammelt., Jahrbuch der Hamburgischen Wissenschaftlichen Anstalten 10, pp. 193-201: 9, (download) 9 4386
Monomorium pharaonis   Mayr, G., 1895, Afrikanische Formiciden., Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien 10, pp. 124-154: 133, (download) 133 4387
Monomorium pharaonis   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 33, (download) 33 21367
Monomorium pharaonis   Forel, A., 1891, Histoire naturelle des Hymenopteres. Deuxieme partie: Les Formicides., Histoire Physique, Naturelle et Politique de Madagascar., Paris: L'Imprimerie Nationale, pp. 1-231: 163-164, (download) 163-164 6734
Monomorium pharaonis   Emery, C., 1877, Catalogo delle formiche esistenti nelle collezioni del Museo Civico di Genova. Parte prima. Formiche provenienti dall Viaggio dei signori Antinori, Beccari e Issel nel Mar Rosso e nel paese de, Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria (Genova) 9, pp. 363-381: -1, (download) -1 3735
Monomorium pharaonis   Ward, P. S., 2005, A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 936, pp. 1-68: -1, (download) -1 21008
Monomorium pharaonis   Wheeler, W. M., 1922, The ants collected by the American Museum Congo Expedition., Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 45, pp. 39-269: 162, (download) 162 20597
Monomorium pharaonis   Forel, A., 1908, Fourmis de Costa-Rica, récoltées par M. Paul Biolley., Bulletin de la Societe Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 44, pp. 35-72: 45, (download) 45 4014
Monomorium pharaonis   Paknia, O., Radchenko, A. & Alipanah, H., 2008, A preliminary checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Iran., Myrmecologische Nachrichten 11, pp. 151-159: 155, (download) 155 21820
Monomorium pharaonis   Mayr, G., 1862, Myrmecologische Studien., Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 12, pp. 649-776: 752-753, (download) 752-753 4445
Monomorium pharaonis   Forel, A., 1907, The Percy Sladen Trust Expedition to the Indian Ocean in 1905, under the leadership of Mr. J. Stanley Gardiner. No. VI. - Fourmis des Seychelles, Amirantes, Farquhar et Chagos., Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 12, pp. 91-94: -1, (download) -1 4010
Monomorium pharaonis   Collingwood, C. A., 1979, The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark., Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 8, pp. 1-174: 62-64, (download) 62-64 6175
Monomorium pharaonis   Heterick, B. E., 2006, A revision of the Malagasy ants belonging to genus Monomorium Mayr, 1855 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 57, pp. 69-202: 100-102, (download) 100-102 21061
Monomorium pharaonis   Fernández, F., 2007, Two new South American species of Monomorium Mayr with taxonomic notes on the genus., Advances in ant systematics (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Homage to E. O. Wilson - 50 years of contributions. (Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 80), pp. 128-145: 137, (download) 137 21280

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 9 times found in urban/garden, 0 times found in Unknown, 1 times found in Botanical garden rubber plantation, 0 times found in Anthropogenic, 3 times found in palm forest, 2 times found in wet forest, 7 times found in 2º wet forest, 7 times found in rainforest, 1 times found in forest, 5 times found in Port of entry, ...

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 7 times sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood), 11 times ex sifted leaf litter, 9 times ground forager(s), 4 times on low vegetation, 6 times litter, 3 times on granite, 0 times Pasture, 2 times Araucaria litter, 1 times house pests in hex house. monomorium pharaonis, 1 times attacking store insects, 1 times at sea level, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods: 4 times Random coll. Winkler sifting, 2 times 9 MaxiWinks, mixed samples, 0 times Manual catch, 5 times Winkler, 1 times 6 MaxiWinks, mixed samples, 2 times aspirated, 6 times MiniWinkler, 1 times in houses, 3 times search, 3 times aspirating; PB & maple syrup bait, 3 times Hand collection, ...

Elevations: collected from 2 - 2130 meters, 402 meters average

Type specimens: Holotype of Myrmica contigua: casent0102682; Lectotype of Monomorium vastator: casent0008625; Lectotype of Myrmica fragilis: casent0102330; unpublished name: Monomorium pharaonis atrigaster: rmcaent000017769

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