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Species: Eciton mexicanum   Roger, 1863 


Classification:
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See Also:

Eciton mexicanum argentinum, Eciton mexicanum azteca, Eciton mexicanum goianum, Eciton mexicanum latidens, Eciton mexicanum moralum, Eciton mexicanum morulum, Eciton mexicanum panamense, Eciton mexicanum rosebergi

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2017)

5 subspecies

Eciton mexicana Roger, 1863a PDF: 205 (w.) MEXICO. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

Distribution:


Neotropical Region: Alajuela, Aragua, Argentina, Atlántida, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Cayo, Chiapas, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guanacaste, Guatemala, Heredia, Honduras, Jalisco, Jinotega, Mato Grosso do Sul, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Pichincha, Puntarenas, Región Autónoma del Atlántico Sur, Venezuela, Veracruz

Distribution Notes:

Mexico (type locality) to northern Argentina. Costa Rica: throughout.

Biology:

Natural History:

This species can be found in dry forest or wet forest, from sea level to montane areas.

Raiding is always in columns, never in a carpet like E. burchellii. Many of the raiding columns I have observed have been at night, showing a tendency to be nocturnal, but I also encounter columns during the day. The few times I have encountered prey they have been large ponerines in the genera Ectatomma and Pachycondyla.

Notes:

Borgmeier (1955) described a subspecies panamense from central Panama, based on workers and queen. He differentiated panamense from mexicanum s. str. as follows (my translation): "The soldier differs from mexicanum s. str. by the shorter scapes (1.84mm), shorter funiculus, shorter mandible (3mm) and smaller postpetiole (0.56mm broad posteriorly), and by a well developed anteroventral petiolar tooth (also present on the available minor workers, while it is missing or very short on the workers of mexicanum s. str.)." His key to the queens differentiated the forms as follows:

Petiolar horns with approximately parallel sides, dorsal longitudinal sulcus broad and deep: mexicanum s. str.

Petiolar horns tapered posteriorly, dorsal longitudinal sulcus narrow and shallow: panamense

The degree of development of the anteroventral petiolar tooth is highly variable among the Costa Rica material I have examined, from nearly absent to well developed. I consider panamense a junior synonym of mexicanum until evidence to the contrary.

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Treatment Citation: Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55

mexicanum RogerHNS 1863a.

Central, “Paraguay” (s. loc.) (MCSN, MHNG, MZSP, NHMB, NHMW). Literature records: Cordillera, “Paraguay” (s. loc.) (Borgmeier 1939, Emery 1894a, Forel 1911a).

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 1 times found in lowland tropical rain forest, 5 times found in wet forest, 2 times found in moist forest, 2 times found in mature wet forest, 2 times found in montane wet forest, 1 times found in forest, 2 times found in cloud forest, 1 times found in road in montane wet forest, 1 times found in 2º lowland rainforest, 1 times found in 2nd growth forest, ...

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 1 times foraging column, 3 times column, 2 times column on trail at night, 2 times column on road, 3 times column on ground, 2 times nocturnal column, 2 times ex sifted leaf litter, Eciton, column crossing sidewalk near comedor, carrying adult teneral wor times 3476, 1 times on road to Reserve., 1 times column at night, eciton thin column crossing trail. times 1400, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods: 26 times search, 1 times hand collecting, 6 times Red de golpeo, 1 times miniWinkler, 2 times Ex raiding column, 1 times blacklight, 1 times MaxiWinkler, carrion baited times PF, 1 times Winkler.

Elevations: collected from 5 - 1780 meters, 622 meters average

Type specimens:



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