To cite this page, please use the following:
· For print: . Accessed
· For web:
USA at least to Colombia, southern limit of species range not defined.
Crematogaster torosa has a biology very similar to crinosa and rochai. It occurs primarily in open, seasonally dry areas, highly disturbed areas, and pasture edges, although it can also be found in the canopy of mature wet forest. In Costa Rica it is a common species in urban areas such as the various city parks in the capital, San JosŽ.
Nests are large, polydomous, distributed in a wide variety of plant cavities. Dead branches and knots in living trees are most often used. In Guanacaste Province in Costa Rica they often occupy ant acacias, and may invade acacias already occupied by Pseudomyrmex. They often construct small carton baffles that restrict nest entrances and small carton pavilions that shelter Homoptera on surrounding vegetation. In some instances they may inhabit cavities in live stems. I found a large nest in the live stems of a Protium branch (Burseraceae) in Corcovado National Park, and I have found nests in live stems of myrmecophytic Acacia and Triplaris. Nest chambers are sometimes filled with alate queens and males. Based on a sample size of two, colony founding is monogynous. In one case I dissected a small colony in south Texas and found a single physogastric queen in the center. In another case I found a lone foundress queen in a dead branch of a Triplaris tree in Costa Rica.
Foraging is primarily diurnal but occasional nocturnal foragers are seen. Workers are generalized scavengers and they frequently visit extrafloral nectaries. Often columns of workers move between nests.
Specimens of torosa from the northern end of the range, in southeast Texas and in Arizona, are somewhat smaller and less polymorphic than Costa Rican material, but this seems to gradually change as one moves northward in Mexico. Specimens from Baja California are bicolored, with reddish head and mesosoma, and black gaster. However, the abundant material from Arizona and Costa Rica shows continuous variation in the degree of infuscation of the head and mesosoma, and some material may be clearly bicolored like the Baja material. Specimens from Baja nearly always have a long, acute anteroventral petiolar tooth. Specimens from the state of Arizona in the USA and Sonora and Sinaloa states in Mexico (former arizonensis) usually have a short but sharply acute tooth as an average condition, but the tooth form varies from long and spine-like to short and right angled. Specimens from southeastern Texas and Costa Rica show a great deal of variability, but usually have a right-angle tooth and less often a short, sharply acute tooth. They never have a long spine-like tooth. For the time being I interpret all this material as torosa, differing from crinosa and rochai by the somewhat flatter promesonotum and the usually shorter petiolar tooth, and with a gastral setal pattern intermediate between crinosa, which has a uniform covering of flattened setae, and rochai, which has no erect setae.
|Crematogaster torosa||Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 32, (download)||32||21367|
|Crematogaster (Orthocrema) peristericus||Longino, J. T., 2003, The Crematogaster (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae) of Costa Rica., Zootaxa 151, pp. 1-150: 130, (download)||130||20256|
|Crematogaster torosa||Longino, J. T., 2003, The Crematogaster (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae) of Costa Rica., Zootaxa 151, pp. 1-150: 120-122, (download)||120-122||20256|
|Crematogaster goeldii||REVISED STATUS||Longino, J. T., 2003, The Crematogaster (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae) of Costa Rica., Zootaxa 151, pp. 1-150: 130, (download)||130||20256|
|Crematogaster uruguayensis||Longino, J. T., 2003, The Crematogaster (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae) of Costa Rica., Zootaxa 151, pp. 1-150: 130, (download)||130||20256|
Found most commonly in these habitats: 11 times found in CCL 840M, 7 times found in CCL820M, 8 times found in CCL 400, 9 times found in CCL 700m., 23 times found in Roadside vegetation, 11 times found in montane wet forest, 8 times found in tropical dry forest, 7 times found in rainforest, 2 times found in lowland rainforest, 1 times found in pasture, ...
Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 7 times at bait, 6 times strays, 4 times on low vegetation, 2 times in fresh treefall, nesting in cavities inside live branch, 1 times Nest in 10mm dia dead branch of roadside legume tree, 1 times unshaded tree, 3 times on living fencepost, 1 times on efn Passiflora, 1 times foragers on oak, 1 times 43, 3 times nest in dead branch, ...
Collected most commonly using these methods: 46 times Fogging, 21 times search, 15 times Malaise, 4 times bait, 4 times Baiting, 1 times hand collecting, 3 times Beating, 1 times canopy fogging, 1 times tuna bait, 2 times Dead branch, 2 times Winkler, ...
Elevations: collected from 5 - 1615 meters, 247 meters average
Type specimens: syntype of Crematogaster brevispinosa tumulifera: casent0908405; syntype of Crematogaster torosa: casent0902161, casent0919709; syntype of Crematogster brevispinosa tumulifera: casent0902169; syntype torosa: jtl056082; syntypes scurra: jtl056067; syntypes tumulifera: jtl056093, jtl056094; Type of unavailable quadrinomial: Crematogaster brevispinosa tumulifera convicta: casent0908406; Type of unavailable quadrinomial: Crematogaster brevispinosa tumulifera fautrix: casent0908407; Type of unavailable quadrinomial: Crematogaster brevispinosa tumulifera scurra: casent0908408; Type of unavailable quadrinomial: Crematogaster brevispinosa tumulifera tumulicula: casent0908409