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Costa Rica, Colombia (type locality), Brazil (Sao Paulo). Costa Rica: scattered localities in seasonally moist habitats.
My records of this species are from the Osa Peninsula, the "bosque humedo" of Santa Rosa National Park, La Selva Biological Station, and CATIE near Turrialba. I've also collected it in Colombia. Relative to its close relative urichi, and admittedly based on very few records, it appears to prefer slightly drier or more seasonal habitats. Most records are from Winkler samples of sifted litter from the forest floor. Nichole Barger and Dana Roth made collections of brevipilosa in separate baiting studies at La Selva Biological Station.
I used to identify this species as Oligomyrmex eidmanni. Fern‡ndez (2004) synonymized Oligomyrmex under Carebara and the species eidmanni under urichi.
Fern‡ndez C., F. 2004. The American species of the myrmicine ant genus Carebara Westwood (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Caldasia 26:191-238.
Found most commonly in these habitats: 54 times found in mature wet forest, 7 times found in tropical rainforest, 7 times found in tropical rainforest, with big trees, probably primary, 5 times found in wet forest, 5 times found in lowland rainforest, 5 times found in montane wet forest, 4 times found in tropical rainforest, with some big trees, probably a mix of primary and secondary forest, 1 times found in wet forest fragment, 3 times found in mature moist forest, 2 times found in garden, ...
Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 84 times ex sifted leaf litter, 4 times ex sifted litter, 2 times Wet forest. Ex sifted leaf litter., 4 times Hojarasca, 3 times at bait, 3 times sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood), 1 times sifted litter, 1 times Primary forest, 1 times mercury vapor lamp.
Collected most commonly using these methods: 66 times miniWinkler, 14 times Winkler, 12 times MaxiWinkler, 7 times Baited pitfall, 6 times Mini Winkler, 2 times baiting, 1 times search, 1 times 6L sifted litter, extracted in Winkler sack over ~18 hours, 1 times Search & Berles, 1 times bait, 1 times Search & Berlese, ...
Elevations: collected from 10 - 1070 meters, 292 meters average