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Costa Rica: Cordillera de Tilaran and Cordillera de Guanacaste.
I know this species from Monteverde and Cerro Cacao, both montane sites. In Monteverde C. albicoxis very commonly inhabits houses. John Campbell used to refer to them as "cranny ants." They can be found nesting opportunistically in cupboards, in cardboard boxes, or behind books on shelves. At Estacion Cacao in Guanacaste Conservation Area I found them in the station building, nesting under an old mattress. Like some other species of Tanaemyrmex they seem capable of very quickly occupying a nest site and just as quickly abandoning it.
I have occasionally observed them outside of houses. In the Monteverde community a pasture relict tree fell. It was medium size Ficus tree with a dense mat of epiphytes, including Clusia and other epiphytic shrubs. I found a populous C. albicoxis colony under the mat, in a well-insolated area. This nest contained a developmental abnormality - an ergatogyne - that was like a major worker but with enlarged trunk and very short, malformed wings. Elsewhere under the same epiphyte mat I found an isolated foundress queen.
In a patch of dry scrub vegetation just below Monteverde (about 1300m elevation, just below Stuckys' farm) I found a small nest in a dead knot, about 2m high.
As is typical of mmost species of "Tanaemyrmex" Camponotus, workers appear to be strictly nocturnal in their foraging behavior.
Forel, A. 1899. Biologia Centrali-Americana; or, contributions to the knowledge of the fauna and flora of Mexico and Central America. Insecta. Hymenoptera. 3 (Formicidae). London. 169 pp.
Found most commonly in these habitats: 7 times found in ridgetop cloud forest, 3 times found in mesophyll forest, 2 times found in montane rainforest clearing, 2 times found in cloud forest, 1 times found in forest edge, 1 times found in treefall at Carlos and Liddys' house, strangler Ficus with attached Clusia, 1 times found in hardwood forest, 1 times found in lowland rainforest, 1 times found in moist forest edge, 1 times found in montane rainforest, ...
Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 10 times Malaise trap, 4 times beating vegetation, 2 times treefall at Carlos and Liddys' house, strangler Ficus with attached Clusia, othe, 3 times at bait, 1 times Fogden house in Monteverde, aggregation in corner of room., 2 times ex sifted leaf litter, 1 times Under mattresses in station building., camponotus albicoxis, times road to San Luis below Stuckys'. Patch of dry scrub. 1340, 1 times on low vegetation, 1 times ex Malaise trap, 1 times camponotus albicoxis, stray in Carlos and Liddys' house., ...
Collected most commonly using these methods: 9 times Malaise, 4 times Beating, 2 times search, 3 times Baiting, 2 times Malaise trap, 2 times MiniWinkler, 1 times blacklight.
Elevations: collected from 420 - 1810 meters, 1244 meters average
Type specimens: Lectotype of Camponotus albicoxis: casent0910028