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Species: Azteca xanthochroa   (Roger, 1863) 


Classification:
Download Data

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2017)

Liometopum xanthochroum Roger, 1863a PDF: 167 (q.) MEXICO. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

Mayr, 1866a PDF: 497 (w.); Emery, 1896b PDF: 2 (w.); Wheeler, 1942 PDF: 247 (l.); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1951 PDF: 193 (l.).
Combination in Azteca: Forel, 1878c PDF: 384.
Junior synonym of Azteca instabilis: Mayr, 1878 PDF: 870.
Revived from synonymy as subspecies of Azteca instabilis: Emery, 1893l: 137.
Revived status as species: Emery, 1896b PDF: 2.
Senior synonym of Azteca costaricensis: Longino, 1991a PDF: 1594.
See also: Longino, 2007 PDF: 52.

Distribution:


Nearctic Region: Puebla
Neotropical Region: Alajuela, Americas, Atlántida, Belize, Caribbean, Cartago, Central America, Chiapas, Costa Caribe Sur, Costa Rica, Gracias a Dios, Guanacaste, Guatemala, Heredia, Honduras, Izabal, Jinotega, Limón, Mexico, Nicaragua, Nueva Segovia, Oaxaca, Olancho, Puntarenas, San José, Trinidad and Tobago, Veracruz, Zacapa

Distribution Notes:

Mexico to Costa Rica. Costa Rica: widespread in wet to moist habitats.

Biology:

Natural History:

The taxonomy and biology of A. xanthochroa is reviewed in Longino (1989b, 1991a, b). See also general treatment of the Cecropia-Azteca association in Costa Rica.

In Costa Rica, A. xanthochroa is one of the most common Cecropia ants in wet forested areas. In the Atlantic lowlands, colonies are most frequently found in C. obtusifolia, a common tree of disturbed areas. Cecropia insignis, a tree more often in primary forest, is dominated by A. ovaticeps. As one moves up-slope, both C. obtusifolia and A. ovaticeps drop out, and A. xanthochroa is then frequently found in C. insignis throughout the rest of its elevational range (up to 1100m in the Penas Blancas Valley east of Monteverde). Above this limit, C. insignis is replaced by the non-myrmecophytic C. angustifolia. Founding queens may be found in C. angustifolia saplings, well above the elevational limit of C. insignis, but never in mature trees. These queens are presumably doomed dispersants from lower elevations. On the Pacific slopes of northwestern Costa Rica, a narrow band of C. obtusifolia separates cloud forest C. angustifolia from the common C. peltata which is throughout the seasonally dry lowlands. Azteca xanthochroa is common in this narrow band, but does not occur at lower elevations where C. peltata dominates (Longino, 1989).

In C. obtusifolia, colonies maintain a longitudinal fissure near the base of the tree, from which very large workers emerge when the tree is disturbed. These large workers bite only infrequently, perhaps because they have difficulty maneuvering their large heads or obtaining a grip with their large mandibles (Perlman, pers. com.). Many smaller workers emerge from branch tips, however, and these are very aggressive and readily bite. All reproduction is concentrated in a single carton nest in the bole, and there are no entrance holes near this central nest. Internal communication is maintained with all branch tips, which contain only workers, coccoid homoptera, and cached muellerian bodies.

Nest structure appears quite different in C. insignis, perhaps due to the much thicker wood of the bole, or to the fact that it is inhabited mainly at higher elevations where it is much cooler and wetter. For example, in the Penas Blancas Valley (800-900m), colonies are smaller and less aggressive. They occur high in the tree, sometimes in only a portion of the crown, and they do not maintain a basal fissure.

Literature Cited

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Azteca   Longino, J. T., 2007, A taxonomic review of the genus Azteca (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Costa Rica and a global revision of the aurita group., Zootaxa 1491, pp. 1-63: 8-10, (download) 8-10 21311
Azteca xanthochroa   Forel, A., 1899, Biologia Centrali-Americana; or, contributions to the knowledge of the fauna and flora of Mexico and Central America. Insecta. Hymenoptera. 3 (Formicidae)., London: Unknown Publisher: 115, (download) 115 8170
Azteca xanthochroa   Longino, J. T., 2007, A taxonomic review of the genus Azteca (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Costa Rica and a global revision of the aurita group., Zootaxa 1491, pp. 1-63: 52-54, (download) 52-54 21311

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 9 times found in La Selva, 14 times found in montane wet forest, 6 times found in roadside vegetation, 1 times found in 2° mesophil forest, 1 times found in pasture/cloud forest edge, 3 times found in 2nd growth vegetation, 2 times found in Ecotone between pastures and low vegetation, mature wet forest, 3 times found in Pasture edge/primary forest, 2 times found in tropical rainforest, 3 times found in wet forest, ...

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 12 times ex Cecropia sapling, 7 times Malaise trap, 7 times in Cecropia sapling, 4 times ex Cecropia, 1 times on ground/ vegetation, 1 times on Cecropia tree, 1 times Wet forest. Ex Cecropia insignis saplings. Pseudomyrmex colony in two internodes, 1 times In Cecropia obtusifolia sapling; along river edge, Rio Pto. Viejo at Horquetas;, 3 times In Cecropia obtusifolia sapling, 2 times in Cecropia insignis sapling, 1 times Wet forest. Two Azteca xanthochroa queens from Cecropia insignis sapling., ...

Collected most commonly using these methods: 27 times search, 30 times Malaise, 1 times hand collecting, 4 times Malaise trap, 4 times Fogging, 3 times flight intercept trap, 1 times Baiting, 1 times beating, 1 times Blacklight.

Elevations: collected from 5 - 1550 meters, 460 meters average

Type specimens: Lectotype of Azteca xanthochroa costaricensis: casent0915574; paralectotype of Azteca xanthochroa costaricensis: casent0905099



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