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Genus: Tetraponera   Smith, 1852 

Classification:

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2016)

Extant: 96 species, 18 subspecies

Fossil: 7 species

Tetraponera Smith, 1852: 44 . Type-species: Tetraponera atrata (junior synonym of Eciton nigrum), by subsequent designation of Wheeler, 1911g PDF: 173. AntCat AntWiki

Taxonomic history

Tetraponera in Myrmicidae: Smith, 1877b PDF: 68.
Tetraponera in Myrmicinae, Pseudomyrmini: Forel, 1917 PDF: 240; Emery, 1921c: 24.
Tetraponera in Pseudomyrminae: Wheeler, 1922: 654; subsequent authors to the following.
Tetraponera in Pseudomyrmecinae: Taylor & Brown, 1985: 17; all subsequent authors.
Tetraponera as junior synonym of Pseudomyrma: Roger, 1863b: 24; Mayr, 1863a PDF: 451.
Tetraponera as junior synonym of Sima: Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF}: 53; Bingham, 1903 PDF: 107; Emery, 1917a PDF: 95.
Genus Tetraponera references
Mayr, 1863aMayr, G. 1863a. Formicidarum index synonymicus. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 13:385-460. [1863] PDF 127213: 453 (catalogue); Mayr, 1865Mayr, G. 1865. Formicidae. In: Novara Expedition 1865. Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte "Novara" um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859. Zoologischer Theil. Bd. II. Abt. 1. Wien: K. Gerold's Sohn, 119 pp. [1865-12-14] PDF 127193: 25 (Sima diagnosis); Mayr, 1867aMayr, G. 1867a. Adnotationes in monographiam formicidarum Indo-Neerlandicarum. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 10:33-117. [1867] PDF 127217: 82 (Sima diagnosis); Mayr, 1868cMayr, G. 1868c. Die Ameisen des baltischen Bernsteins. Beiträge zur Naturkunde Preussens 1:1-102. [1868] PDF 127226: 101 (*Baltic Amber species key); Smith, 1877bSmith, F. 1877b. Descriptions of new species of the genera Pseudomyrma and Tetraponera, belonging to the family Myrmicidae. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1877:57-72. [1877-07-02] PDF 128720: 68 (checklist); Dalla Torre, 1893Dalla Torre, K. W. 1893. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. [1893] PDF 124002: 53 (catalogue); Emery, 1900Emery, C. 1900. Formiche raccolte da Elio Modigliani in Sumatra, Engano e Mentawei. Dummy reference. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale 40[=(2)20]:661-722. 133004: 17 (Asia & Australia species key); Forel, 1903aForel, A. 1903a. Les Formicides de l'Empire des Indes et de Ceylan. Part X. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 14:679-715. [1903-02-10] PDF 125135: 708 (India & Sri Lanka species key); Bingham, 1903Bingham, C. T. 1903. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera, Vol. II. Ants and Cuckoo-wasps. London: Taylor and Francis, 506 pp. [1903] PDF 122766: 107 (India, Sri Lanka & Burma species key); Arnold, 1916Arnold, G. 1916. A monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. Part II. Ponerinae, Dorylinae. Annals of the South African Museum 14:159-270. [1916-05-20] PDF 122310: 173 (Sima diagnosis, South Africa species key); Emery, 1921cEmery, C. 1921c. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [part]. Genera Insectorum 174A:1-94 + 7 plates. [1921-06-01] 124749: 21 (Sima diagnosis, subgenera key, catalogue); Emery, 1921cEmery, C. 1921c. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [part]. Genera Insectorum 174A:1-94 + 7 plates. [1921-06-01] 124749: 22 (Tetraponera (Pachysima) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1921cEmery, C. 1921c. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [part]. Genera Insectorum 174A:1-94 + 7 plates. [1921-06-01] 124749: 24 (Tetraponera (Tetraponera) diagnosis, catalogue); Wheeler, 1922Wheeler, W. M. 1922. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. New York: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 1139. 133015: 112 (Pachysima species key); Wheeler, 1922Wheeler, W. M. 1922. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. New York: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 1139. 133015: 104, 107, 112 (Tetraponera, Viticicola, Pachysima diagnoses); Wheeler, 1922Wheeler, W. M. 1922. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. New York: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 1139. 133015: 795, 801 (Afrotropical Tetraponera, Viticicola, Pachysima catalogues); Wheeler, 1922Wheeler, W. M. 1922. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. New York: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 1139. 133015: 1014 (Malagasy catalogue); Taylor & Brown, 1985Taylor, R. W.; Brown, D. R. 1985. Formicoidea. Zoological Catalogue of Australia 2:1-149, 306-348. [1985] 129218: 17 (Australia catalogue); Taylor, 1987aTaylor, R. W. 1987a. A checklist of the ants of Australia, New Caledonia and New Zealand (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization) Division of Entomology Report 41:1-92. [1987-06] PDF 129202: 79 (Australia checklist); Wu & Wang, 1990Wu, J.; Wang, C. 1990. A taxonomic study on the genus Tetraponera Smith in China (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). [In Chinese.]. Scientia Silvae Sinicae 26:515-518. [1990-11] PDF 130479: 516 (China species key); Dlussky & Radchenko, 1990Dlussky, G. M.; Radchenko, A. G. 1990. The ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Vietnam. Subfamily Pseudomyrmicinae. Subfamily Myrmicinae (tribes Calyptomyrmecini, Meranoplini, Cataulacini). [In Russian.]. Pp. 119-125 in: Akimov, I. A.; Emelianov, I. G.; Zerova, M. D. et al. (eds.) 1990. News of faunistics and systematics. [In Russian.]. Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 184 pp. [1990-11-06>] 124169: 120 (Vietnam species key); Ward, 1990Ward, P. S. 1990. The ant subfamily Pseudomyrmecinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): generic revision and relationship to other formicids. Systematic Entomology 15:449-489. [1990-11] PDF 129605: 470 (diagnosis, review of genus, phylogeny); Bolton, 1994Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. [1994-07-25] 122834: 184 (synoptic classification); Bolton, 1995aBolton, B. 1995a. A taxonomic and zoogeographical census of the extant ant taxa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Natural History 29:1037-1056. [1995-08] PDF 122859: 1053 (census); Bolton, 1995bBolton, B. 1995b. A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 504 pp. [1995-10] 122860: 416 (catalogue); Wu & Wang, 1995aWu, J.; Wang, C. 1995a. The ants of China. [In Chinese.]. Beijing: China Forestry Publishing House, x + 214 pp. [1995-06] 130487: 55 (China species key); Collingwood & Agosti, 1996Collingwood, C. A.; Agosti, D. 1996. Formicidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) of Saudi Arabia (part 2). Fauna of Saudi Arabia 15:300-385. [1996-04-15] PDF 130931: 312 (Saudi Arabia species key); Shattuck, 1999Shattuck, S. O. 1999. Australian ants. Their biology and identification. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing, xi + 226 pp. [1999-01] 132308: 208 (Australia synopsis); Zhou, 2001AZhou, S. 2001A. Ants of Guangxi. [In Chinese.]. Guilin, China: Guangxi Normal University Press, 255 pp. [2001-09-01] PDF 132709: 64 (China, Guangxi species key); Ward, 2001Ward, P. S. 2001. Taxonomy, phylogeny and biogeography of the ant genus Tetraponera (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Oriental and Australian regions. Invertebrate Taxonomy 15:589-665. [2001-10-25] PDF 132560: 596 (Oriental & Australian, all species, revision, key); Xu & Chai, 2004Xu, Z.-H.; Chai, Z.-Q. 2004. Systematic study on the ant genus Tetraponera F. Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of China. Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 29:63-76. [2004-01] PDF 132664: 64 (China species key); Ward, 2006Ward, P. S. 2006. The ant genus Tetraponera in the Afrotropical region: synopsis of species groups and revision of the T. ambigua-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecologische Nachrichten 8:119-130. [2006-09] PDF 132563: 120 (Afrotropical species groups key); Ward, 2006Ward, P. S. 2006. The ant genus Tetraponera in the Afrotropical region: synopsis of species groups and revision of the T. ambigua-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecologische Nachrichten 8:119-130. [2006-09] PDF 132563: 123 (Tetraponera ambigua group, key); Ward, 2009AWard, P. S. 2009A. The ant genus Tetraponera in the Afrotropical region: the T. grandidieri group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 18:285-304. [2009-10-02] PDF 132564: 288 (Tetraponera grandidieri group, key); Dlussky, 2009Dlussky, G. M. 2009. The ant subfamilies Ponerinae, Cerapachyinae, and Pseudomyrmecinae (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the Late Eocene Ambers of Europe. Paleontological Journal 43:1043-1086. [2009-12] PDF 131105: 1084 (Eocene amber species key); Terayama, 2009Terayama, M. 2009. A synopsis of the family Formicidae of Taiwan (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Research Bulletin of Kanto Gakuen University. Liberal Arts 17:81-266. [2009] PDF 132431: 128 (Taiwan species key); Bharti & Akbar, 2014Bharti, H.; Akbar, S. A. 2014. Tetraponera periyarensis, a new pseudomyrmecine ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from India. Asian Myrmecology 6:43-48. PDF 142619: 46 (India species key)

Taxon Page Images:



Tetraponera clypeata nest inside the hollow thorn of an Acacia tree. The elongate form of these ants allows them to maneuver in such cramped quarters. St. Lucia, KZN, South Africa.
Image © Alex Wild.

Distribution:


African Region: Angola, Botswana, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Australian Region: Australia, Barrow Island, New Guinea, Queensland, Solomon Islands, Western Australia
Eurasian Region: Algeria, Belgium, China, Egypt, Ethiopia, Israel, Japan, Libya, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates
Malagasy Region: Comoros, Madagascar, Mayotte, Seychelles
Pacific Islands Region: Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore
South East Asia Region: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Borneo, Cambodia, India, Krakatau Islands, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Island, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Xishuangbanna

Taxon Page Author History

On 2013-08-26 07:20:09 Zach Lieberman modified Images
On 2013-08-26 07:19:45 Zach Lieberman modified Images

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Tetraponera   Dlussky, G. M. & Radchenko, A. G., 1990, [The ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Vietnam. Subfamily Pseudomyrmicinae. Subfamily Myrmicinae (tribes Calyptomyrmecini, Meranoplini, Cataulacini).], [News of faunistics and systematics.], Kiev: Naukova Dumka, pp. 119-125: 121-122, (download) 121-122 21374
Tetraponera   Dlussky, G. M. & Radchenko, A. G., 1990, [The ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Vietnam. Subfamily Pseudomyrmicinae. Subfamily Myrmicinae (tribes Calyptomyrmecini, Meranoplini, Cataulacini).], [News of faunistics and systematics.], Kiev: Naukova Dumka, pp. 119-125: 122, (download) 122 21374
Tetraponera   Wheeler, W. M., 1922, The ants collected by the American Museum Congo Expedition., Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 45, pp. 39-269: 104-106, (download) 104-106 20597
Tetraponera   Dlussky, G. M. & Radchenko, A. G., 1990, [The ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Vietnam. Subfamily Pseudomyrmicinae. Subfamily Myrmicinae (tribes Calyptomyrmecini, Meranoplini, Cataulacini).], [News of faunistics and systematics.], Kiev: Naukova Dumka, pp. 119-125: 122, (download) 122 21374

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