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Genus: Pseudomyrmex

Classification:

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2014)

Extant: 134 species, 17 subspecies

Fossil: 12 species

Pseudomyrmex Lund, 1831b: 106. Type-species: Formica gracilis, by subsequent designation of Smith, 1952a PDF: 98. AntCat AntWiki

Taxonomic history

Pseudomyrmex in Pseudomyrmecinae: Smith, 1952a PDF: 98; all subsequent authors.
Genus Pseudomyrmex references
Smith, 1858a PDF: 153 (diagnosis); Roger, 1863b: 24 (catalogue); Mayr, 1863a PDF: 426, 451 (Leptalea, Pseudomyrma catalogues); Mayr, 1865: 24 (diagnosis); Mayr, 1870a PDF: 407 (Colombia + Panama ({? = New Grenada}) species key); Smith, 1877b PDF: 58 (checklist); Cresson, 1887 PDF: 262 (U.S.A. catalogue); Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF}: 55 (catalogue); Emery, 1921c: 28 (diagnosis, catalogue); Gallardo, 1932a PDF: 44 (Argentina species key); Enzmann, 1944 PDF: 62 (all species keys); Creighton, 1950a PDF: 79 (North America species key); Kempf, 1961a PDF: 373 (P. gracilis group, partial key); Kempf, 1972b PDF: 215 (Neotropical catalogue); Alayo, 1974: 9 (Cuba species key); Smith, 1979: 1345 (North America catalogue); Ward, 1985b PDF: 215 (Nearctic species key); Billen, 1986b: 173 (Dufour's gland); Ward, 1989a PDF: 407 (Pseudomyrmex oculatus group, key); Ward, 1989a PDF: 430 (Pseudomyrmex subtilissimus group, key); Ward, 1990 PDF: 469 (diagnosis, review of genus); Brandão, 1991 PDF: 373 (catalogue); Ward, 1992 PDF: 76 (Dominican Amber species key); Ward, 1993 PDF: 130 (swollen-thorn Acacia-associated species key); Bolton, 1994: 184 (synoptic classification); Bolton, 1995a PDF: 1052 (census); Bolton, 1995b: 370 (catalogue); Ward, 1999B PDF: 473 (Pseudomyrmex viduus group, and other Tachigali- and Triplaris-associated species key); Mackay & MacKay, 2002 PDF: 38 (U.S.A., New Mexico species key).

Taxon Page Images:



Pseudomyrmex peperi is an obligate Acacia inhabitant. Here, a worker gathers a lipid-rich Beltian body from a leaf tip. The plant feeds the ants in exchange for protection from herbivores and competing plants. Armenia, Belize.

Not all of the thorns on a swollen-thorn Acacia house the ants' larvae, but those that do are heavily guarded. Here, Pseudomyrmex spinicola patrol a nest entrance, ready to use their stings if the photographer approaches too close. Chiriqui, Panama.
Images © Alex Wild.

Biology:

Most species of Pseudomyrmex nest in dead twigs or stems of woody plants. Some have become specialized inhabitants of live plant domatia, such as the acacia-ants that occupy swollen-thorn acacias.

Identification:

Worker: antennae 12-segmented; mandibles with proximal tooth on basal margin; eyes large and elongate, more than 1.5 times as long as wide. Other characters as in subfamily.

Notes:

The genus is predominantly Neotropical, with only two species occurring in California.

References:

Kempf (1958f, 1960a, 1961a, 1967c); Ward (1985b, 1989a, 1992, 1993, 1999).

Taxon Page Author History

On 2013-08-23 10:58:42 Zach Lieberman modified Images
On 2013-08-23 10:54:33 Zach Lieberman modified Images
On 2013-08-23 10:53:51 Zach Lieberman modified Images
On 2013-08-23 10:53:19 Zach Lieberman modified Images
On 2013-08-23 10:52:53 Zach Lieberman modified Images

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