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Genus: Strumigenys

Classification:

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2014)

Extant: 836 species

Fossil: 4 species

Strumigenys Smith, 1860c PDF: 72 . Type-species: Strumigenys mandibularis, by monotypy. AntCat AntWiki

Taxonomic history

Strumigenys in Myrmicidae: Smith, 1871b PDF: 334; Cresson, 1887 PDF: 262.
Strumigenys in Myrmicinae: Mayr, 1865: 26 [Myrmicidae]; Emery & Forel, 1879a: 464 [Myrmicidae]; Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF}: 145.
Genus Strumigenys references
Roger, 1863b: 40 (catalogue); Mayr, 1863a PDF: 424, 453, 455 (catalogue); Mayr, 1865: 26 (diagnosis); André, 1883b: 398, 402 (Europe & Algeria Strumigenys (Trichoscapa), Epitritus species); Forel, 1886a PDF: 216 (all species key); Mayr, 1887 PDF: 568 (all species key); Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF}: 145, 148 (Strumigenys, Epitritus catalogues); Emery, 1895d PDF: 325 (North America species key); Emery, 1897c PDF: 574 (New Guinea species key); Forel, 1903a PDF: 707 (India & Sri Lanka species key); Bingham, 1903 PDF: 147 (India, Sri Lanka & Burma species key); Wheeler, 1908a: 146 (New World species key); Santschi, 1913b PDF: 257 (Afrotropical species key); Emery, 1916a PDF: 205 (Italy species key); Arnold, 1917 PDF: 373 (diagnosis, South Africa species key); Mann, 1921 PDF: 467 (Fiji Is species key); Wheeler, 1922: 917, 918, 920 (Afrotropical Strumigenys, Strumigenys (Cephaloxys), Epitritus catalogues); Wheeler, 1922: 1034 (Malagasy catalogue); Emery, 1924f: 319, 323, 325, 326 (diagnosis, Strumigenys, Strumigenys (Cephaloxys), Strumigenys (Codiomyrmex), Glamyromyrmex, Pentastruma, Epitritus diagnoses, catalogues); Smith, 1931c PDF: 691 (North America Strumigenys (Cephaloxys) species key); Buren, 1944a PDF: 290 (U.S.A., Iowa species key); Brown, 1948e}: 108, 112-124 (diagnosis, review of genus, minor genera reviews); Brown, 1949b}: 43 (Epitritus diagnosis, review); Brown, 1949d}: 8, 21 (Weberistruma species review, Japan, China & Taiwan species key); Creighton, 1950a PDF: 301 (North America species key); Brown, 1950a}: 27 (Glamyromyrmex review); Chapman & Capco, 1951 PDF: 104-107 (Asia Eneria, Epitritus, Kyidris, Pentastruma, Smithistruma, Strumigenys (Cephaloxys), Strumigenys (Strumigenys) checklists); Brown, 1952e PDF}: 86 (Serrastruma diagnosis, species revision, key); Brown, 1953g PDF}: 20, 24; 31, 46, 92, 114, 125, 130 (Codiomyrmex, Weberistruma reviews; Smithistruma diagnosis, Nearctic, Neotropical, Malesian, Afrotropical, Palaearctic species revisions, keys); Brown, 1954k PDF}: 10 (Afrotropical Strumigenys revision, key); Wilson & Brown, 1956b: 439 (Kyidris species review); Brown, 1958h PDF}: 38 (New Zealand species); Brown, 1959b PDF}: 1 (Neostruma species review); Kempf, 1959f PDF: 339 (Gymnomyrmex species key); Brown, 1960b PDF}: 37 (Strumigenys gundlachi group revision, key); Kempf, 1960f: 447 (Neotropical Glamyromyrmex species key); Kempf, 1960f: 451 (Gymnomyrmex species key); Brown, 1962b PDF}: 79 (Epitritus species key); Brown, 1962c PDF}: 238 (Neotropical Strumigenys synopsis, key); Brown, 1964a PDF}: 183 (supplement to 1953g Smithistruma revision); Bernard, 1967a PDF: 243, 245 (Smithistruma, Epitritus diagnoses); Kempf, 1972b PDF: 37, 77, 98, 110, 116, 163, 226, 230, 243, 250, 255 (Neotropical Borgmeierita, Chelystruma, Codiomyrmex, Codioxenus, Dorisidris, Glamyromyrmex, Gymnomyrmex, Neostruma, Quadristruma, Smithistruma, Strumigenys, Tingimyrmex, Trichoscapa catalogues); Bolton, 1972 PDF: 208 (Epitritus species key); Alayo, 1974: 19 (Cuba species key); Kempf, 1976c PDF: 43 (additions to Brown, 1962c key); Smith, 1979: 1403, 1405, 1408, 1409 (North America Strumigenys, Smithistruma, Trichoscapa, Quadristruma catalogues); Brown & Boisvert, 1979 PDF}: 201 (Pentastruma species review); Bolton, 1983 PDF: 274, 319, 320, 335, 353, 354, 358, 400 (Afrotropical Smithistruma, Trichoscapa, Glamyromyrmex, Serrastruma, Cladarogenys, Epitritus, Strumigenys, Quadristruma species revisions, keys); Taylor & Brown, 1985: 64, 85, 87 (Australia Glamyromyrmex, Quadristruma, Strumigenys catalogues); Perrault, 1986a PDF: 3 (Gymnomyrmex species key); Taylor, 1987a PDF: 28, 66, 76 (Australia, New Caledonia & New Zealand checklists); Ward, 1988 PDF: 122 (Western Nearctic Smithistruma species key); Terayama & Kubota, 1989 PDF: 780, 787 (Taiwan Strumigenys, Smithistruma species keys); Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 15 (synoptic classification); Brandão, 1991 PDF: 344, 346, 360, 378, 380 (Neotropical catalogue); Arakelian & Dlussky, 1991: 150 (former U.S.S.R. species key); Morisita, Kubota, et al. 1992: 63, 68, 76 (Japan Strumigenys, Smithistruma, Epitritus species keys); Dlussky, 1993b PDF: 53 (Fiji Is, Tonga and Samoa Strumigenys species key); Bolton, 1994: 105 (synoptic classification); Bolton, 1995a PDF: 1048 - 1053 (census); Bolton, 1995b: 75, 145, 146, 177, 183, 188, 207, 211, 219, 292, 316, 377, 382, 383, 395, 420, 421 (catalogue); Gronenberg, 1996: 2021 (mandible morphology); Terayama, Lin & Wu, 1996 PDF}: 328 (Taiwan Smithistruma species key); Lin & Wu, 1996 PDF}: 139 (Taiwan Strumigenys species key); Lattke & Goitía, 1997 PDF: 370 (Venezuela species key); Ogata & Onoyama, 1998: 277 (Japan Smithistruma species key); Shattuck, 1999: 136, 160, 167, 170 (Australia Glamyromyrmex, Quadristruma, Strumigenys, Trichoscapa synopses); Bolton, 1999 PDF: 1667, 1673 (morphology, diagnosis, review of Pyramica, Strumigenys); Xu, 2000e: 297 (China Epitritus species key); Bolton, 2000: 95, 137, 272, 285, 342, 372, 472 (Nearctic, Neotropical, Afrotropical, West Palaearctic, Malagasy, Malesian-Oriental-East Palaearctic, Austral Pyramica species revisions, keys); Bolton, 2000: 496, 583, 716, 942 (Neotropical-Nearctic, Afrotropical, Malesian-Oriental-East Palaearctic, Austral Strumigenys species revisions, keys); Fisher, 2000: 614 (Malagasy Strumigenys species revision, key); Zhou, 2001A PDF: 78 (China, Guangxi Strumigenys species key); Lin & Wu, 2001 PDF}: 166 (Taiwan Strumigenys species key); Zhou & Xu, 2003 PDF: 737 (China Strumigenys species key); Xu & Zhou, 2004 PDF: 441 (China Pyramica species, key); Longino, 2006B PDF: 139 (Costa Rica species, additions to Pyramica key); Yoshimura & Onoyama, 2007 PDF: 676 (Japan Strumigenys species key); Terayama, 2009 PDF: 138, 142 (Taiwan Pyramica, Strumigenys species keys); Heterick, 2009 PDF: 176 (south-western Australia Strumigenys species key).
Genus Strumigenys references
Roger, 1863b: 40 (catalogue); Mayr, 1863a PDF: 424, 453, 455 (catalogue); Mayr, 1865: 26 (diagnosis); André, 1883b: 398, 402 (Europe & Algeria Strumigenys (Trichoscapa), Epitritus species); Forel, 1886a PDF: 216 (all species key); Mayr, 1887 PDF: 568 (all species key); Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF: 145, 148 (Strumigenys, Epitritus catalogues); Emery, 1895d PDF: 325 (North America species key); Emery, 1897c PDF: 574 (New Guinea species key); Forel, 1903a PDF: 707 (India & Sri Lanka species key); Bingham, 1903 PDF: 147 (India, Sri Lanka & Burma species key); Wheeler, 1908a: 146 (New World species key); Santschi, 1913b PDF: 257 (Afrotropical species key); Emery, 1916a PDF: 205 (Italy species key); Arnold, 1917 PDF: 373 (diagnosis, South Africa species key); Mann, 1921 PDF: 467 (Fiji Is species key); Wheeler, 1922: 917, 918, 920 (Afrotropical Strumigenys, Strumigenys (Cephaloxys), Epitritus catalogues); Wheeler, 1922: 1034 (Malagasy catalogue); Emery, 1924f: 319, 323, 325, 326 (diagnosis, Strumigenys, Strumigenys (Cephaloxys), Strumigenys (Codiomyrmex), Glamyromyrmex, Pentastruma, Epitritus diagnoses, catalogues); Smith, 1931c PDF: 691 (North America Strumigenys (Cephaloxys) species key); Buren, 1944a PDF: 290 (U.S.A., Iowa species key); Brown, 1948e: 108, 112-124 (diagnosis, review of genus, minor genera reviews); Brown, 1949b: 43 (Epitritus diagnosis, review); Brown, 1949d: 8, 21 (Weberistruma species review, Japan, China & Taiwan species key); Creighton, 1950a PDF: 301 (North America species key); Brown, 1950a: 27 (Glamyromyrmex review); Chapman & Capco, 1951 PDF: 104-107 (Asia Eneria, Epitritus, Kyidris, Pentastruma, Smithistruma, Strumigenys (Cephaloxys), Strumigenys (Strumigenys) checklists); Brown, 1952e PDF: 86 (Serrastruma diagnosis, species revision, key); Brown, 1953g PDF: 20, 24; 31, 46, 92, 114, 125, 130 (Codiomyrmex, Weberistruma reviews; Smithistruma diagnosis, Nearctic, Neotropical, Malesian, Afrotropical, Palaearctic species revisions, keys); Brown, 1954k PDF: 10 (Afrotropical Strumigenys revision, key); Wilson & Brown, 1956b: 439 (Kyidris species review); Brown, 1958h PDF: 38 (New Zealand species); Brown, 1959b PDF: 1 (Neostruma species review); Kempf, 1959f PDF: 339 (Gymnomyrmex species key); Brown, 1960b PDF: 37 (Strumigenys gundlachi group revision, key); Kempf, 1960f: 447 (Neotropical Glamyromyrmex species key); Kempf, 1960f: 451 (Gymnomyrmex species key); Brown, 1962b PDF: 79 (Epitritus species key); Brown, 1962c PDF: 238 (Neotropical Strumigenys synopsis, key); Brown, 1964a PDF: 183 (supplement to 1953g Smithistruma revision); Bernard, 1967a PDF: 243, 245 (Smithistruma, Epitritus diagnoses); Kempf, 1972b PDF: 37, 77, 98, 110, 116, 163, 226, 230, 243, 250, 255 (Neotropical Borgmeierita, Chelystruma, Codiomyrmex, Codioxenus, Dorisidris, Glamyromyrmex, Gymnomyrmex, Neostruma, Quadristruma, Smithistruma, Strumigenys, Tingimyrmex, Trichoscapa catalogues); Bolton, 1972 PDF: 208 (Epitritus species key); Alayo, 1974: 19 (Cuba species key); Kempf, 1976c PDF: 43 (additions to Brown, 1962c key); Smith, 1979: 1403, 1405, 1408, 1409 (North America Strumigenys, Smithistruma, Trichoscapa, Quadristruma catalogues); Brown & Boisvert, 1979 PDF: 201 (Pentastruma species review); Bolton, 1983 PDF: 274, 319, 320, 335, 353, 354, 358, 400 (Afrotropical Smithistruma, Trichoscapa, Glamyromyrmex, Serrastruma, Cladarogenys, Epitritus, Strumigenys, Quadristruma species revisions, keys); Taylor & Brown, 1985: 64, 85, 87 (Australia Glamyromyrmex, Quadristruma, Strumigenys catalogues); Perrault, 1986a PDF: 3 (Gymnomyrmex species key); Taylor, 1987a PDF: 28, 66, 76 (Australia, New Caledonia & New Zealand checklists); Ward, 1988 PDF: 122 (Western Nearctic Smithistruma species key); Terayama & Kubota, 1989 PDF: 780, 787 (Taiwan Strumigenys, Smithistruma species keys); Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 15 (synoptic classification); Brandão, 1991 PDF: 344, 346, 360, 378, 380 (Neotropical catalogue); Arakelian & Dlussky, 1991: 150 (former U.S.S.R. species key); Morisita, Kubota, et al. 1992: 63, 68, 76 (Japan Strumigenys, Smithistruma, Epitritus species keys); Dlussky, 1993b PDF: 53 (Fiji Is, Tonga and Samoa Strumigenys species key); Bolton, 1994: 105 (synoptic classification); Bolton, 1995a PDF: 1048 - 1053 (census); Bolton, 1995b: 75, 145, 146, 177, 183, 188, 207, 211, 219, 292, 316, 377, 382, 383, 395, 420, 421 (catalogue); Gronenberg, 1996: 2021 (mandible morphology); Terayama, Lin & Wu, 1996 PDF: 328 (Taiwan Smithistruma species key); Lin & Wu, 1996 PDF: 139 (Taiwan Strumigenys species key); Lattke & Goitía, 1997 PDF: 370 (Venezuela species key); Ogata & Onoyama, 1998: 277 (Japan Smithistruma species key); Shattuck, 1999: 136, 160, 167, 170 (Australia Glamyromyrmex, Quadristruma, Strumigenys, Trichoscapa synopses); Bolton, 1999 PDF: 1667, 1673 (morphology, diagnosis, review of Pyramica, Strumigenys); Xu, 2000e: 297 (China Epitritus species key); Bolton, 2000: 95, 137, 272, 285, 342, 372, 472 (Nearctic, Neotropical, Afrotropical, West Palaearctic, Malagasy, Malesian-Oriental-East Palaearctic, Austral Pyramica species revisions, keys); Bolton, 2000: 496, 583, 716, 942 (Neotropical-Nearctic, Afrotropical, Malesian-Oriental-East Palaearctic, Austral Strumigenys species revisions, keys); Fisher, 2000: 614 (Malagasy Strumigenys species revision, key); Zhou, 2001A PDF: 78 (China, Guangxi Strumigenys species key); Lin & Wu, 2001 PDF: 166 (Taiwan Strumigenys species key); Zhou & Xu, 2003 PDF: 737 (China Strumigenys species key); Xu & Zhou, 2004 PDF: 441 (China Pyramica species, key); Longino, 2006B PDF: 139 (Costa Rica species, additions to Pyramica key); Yoshimura & Onoyama, 2007 PDF: 676 (Japan Strumigenys species key); Terayama, 2009 PDF: 138, 142 (Taiwan Pyramica, Strumigenys species keys); Heterick, 2009 PDF: 176 (south-western Australia Strumigenys species key); Sarnat & Economo, 2012 PDF: 117, 124 (Fiji Pyramica, Strumigenys species key); Bharti & Akbar, 2013 PDF: 391 (India species key)

Taxon Page Images:



Strumigenys emmae workers are scarcely larger than the sand grains in the soil they inhabit. Archibold Biological Station, Florida, USA.
Image © Alex Wild.

Taxonomic Notes:

Includes the >200 species previously placed in Pyramica.

Taxon Page Author History

On 2013-08-20 08:44:52 Zach Lieberman modified Images
On 2013-08-20 08:43:19 Zach Lieberman modified Images
On 2013-08-20 08:40:53 Zach Lieberman modified Taxonomic Notes

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