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Genus: Proceratium   Roger, 1863 


Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2016)

Extant: 83 species

Fossil: 6 species

Proceratium Roger, 1863a PDF: 171 . Type-species: Proceratium silaceum, by monotypy. AntCat AntWiki

Taxonomic history

Genus Proceratium references
Roger, 1863bRoger, J. 1863b. Verzeichniss der Formiciden-Gattungen und Arten. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 7(Beilage):1-65. [1863-06] 128094: 16, 21 (catalogue); Mayr, 1863aMayr, G. 1863a. Formicidarum index synonymicus. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 13:385-460. [1863] PDF 127213: 451, 455 (catalogue); Mayr, 1865Mayr, G. 1865. Formicidae. In: Novara Expedition 1865. Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte "Novara" um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859. Zoologischer Theil. Bd. II. Abt. 1. Wien: K. Gerold's Sohn, 119 pp. [1865-12-14] PDF 127193: 12 (Sysphingta, Proceratium diagnoses); Cresson, 1887Cresson, E. T. 1887. Synopsis of the families and genera of the Hymenoptera of America, north of Mexico, together with a catalogue of the described species, and bibliography. Transactions of the American Entomological Society, Suppl. Vol. 1887:1-351. [1887] PDF 123936: 258 (U.S.A. catalogue); Dalla Torre, 1893Dalla Torre, K. W. 1893. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. [1893] PDF 124002: 18 (catalogue); Emery, 1911eEmery, C. 1911e. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118:1-125. [1911-09-09] PDF 124702: 50 (diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1911eEmery, C. 1911e. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118:1-125. [1911-09-09] PDF 124702: 50 (Sysphingta diagnosis, catalogue); Arnold, 1915Arnold, G. 1915. A monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. Part I. Ponerinae, Dorylinae. Annals of the South African Museum 14:1-159. [1915-02-11] 122309: 34 (Sysphingta diagnosis); Emery, 1916aEmery, C. 1916a ("1915"). Fauna entomologica italiana. I. Hymenoptera.-Formicidae. Bullettino della Società Entomologica Italiana 47:79-275. [1916-11-30] PDF 124734: 103 (Italy species key); Wheeler, 1922Wheeler, W. M. 1922. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. New York: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 1139. 133015: 761 (Afrotropical catalogue); Kratochvíl, Novák & Snoflák, 1944Kratochvíl, J.; Novák, V.; Snoflák, J. 1944. Mohelno. Soubor práci venoványch studiu vyznamne památky prírodní. 5. Hymenoptera - Aculeata. Formicidae - Apidae - Vespidae. Archiv Svazu na Ochranu Prírody a Domoviny na Moravé 6:1-155. PDF 126504: 58, 88 (West Palaearctic species key); Creighton, 1950aCreighton, W. S. 1950a. The ants of North America. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 104:1-585. [1950-04] PDF 123910: 39, 41 (North America Proceratium, Sysphingta species keys); Chapman & Capco, 1951Chapman, J. W.; Capco, S. R. 1951. Check list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Asia. Monographs of the Institute of Science and Technology. Manila 1:1-327. [1951] PDF 123583: 77 (Asia Proceratium, Sysphingta checklists); Brown, 1958gBrown, W. L., Jr. 1958g. Contributions toward a reclassification of the Formicidae. II. Tribe Ectatommini (Hymenoptera). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 118:173-362. [1958-06] PDF 123146: 241 (review of genus); Bernard, 1967aBernard, F. 1967a ("1968"). Faune de l'Europe et du Bassin Méditerranéen. 3. Les fourmis (Hymenoptera Formicidae) d'Europe occidentale et septentrionale. Paris: Masson, 411 pp. [1967-11] PDF 122660: 81 (diagnosis); Snelling, 1967Snelling, R. R. 1967. Studies on California ants. 3. The taxonomic status of Proceratium californicum Cook (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Contributions in Science (Los Angeles) 124:1-10. [1967-05-31] PDF 128871: 8 (New World species key); Kempf, 1972bKempf, W. W. 1972b. Catálogo abreviado das formigas da região Neotropical. Studia Entomologica 15:3-344. [1972-08-25] PDF 126357: 211 (Neotropical catalogue); Brown, 1974aBrown, W. L., Jr. 1974a. A remarkable new island isolate in the genus Proceratium (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Psyche (Cambridge) 81:70-83. [1974-05-21] PDF 123218: 81 (species notes); Baroni Urbani, 1977dBaroni Urbani, C. 1977d. Les espèces européennes du genre Proceratium Roger (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 50:91-93. [1977-03-31] PDF 122493: 91 (European species, synopsis); Smith, 1979Smith, D. R. 1979. Superfamily Formicoidea. Pp. 1323-1467 in: Krombein, K. V.; Hurd, P. D.; Smith, D. R.; Burks, B. D. (eds.) 1979. Catalog of Hymenoptera in America north of Mexico. Volume 2. Apocrita (Aculeata). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, pp. i-xvi, 1199-2209. [1979] 128659: 1338 (North America catalogue); Brown, 1980cBrown, W. L., Jr. 1980c ("1979"). A remarkable new species of Proceratium, with dietary and other notes on the genus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Psyche (Cambridge) 86:337-346. [1980-12-19] PDF 123234: 342 (New World species key); Terron, 1981Terron, G. 1981. Deux nouvelles espèces éthiopiennes pour le genre Proceratium (Hym.: Formicidae). Annales de la Faculté des Sciences de Yaoundé 28:95-103. [1981-04] PDF 129319: 102 (Afrotropical species notes); Taylor & Brown, 1985Taylor, R. W.; Brown, D. R. 1985. Formicoidea. Zoological Catalogue of Australia 2:1-149, 306-348. [1985] 129218: 39 (Australia catalogue); Taylor, 1987aTaylor, R. W. 1987a. A checklist of the ants of Australia, New Caledonia and New Zealand (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization) Division of Entomology Report 41:1-92. [1987-06] PDF 129202: 65 (Australia checklist); Agosti & Collingwood, 1987bAgosti, D.; Collingwood, C. A. 1987b. A provisional list of the Balkan ants (Hym. Formicidae) with a key to the worker caste. II. Key to the worker caste, including the European species without the Iberian. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 60:261-293. [1987-12-15] PDF 122149: 264 (Balkans species key); Ward, 1988Ward, P. S. 1988. Mesic elements in the western Nearctic ant fauna: taxonomic and biological notes on Amblyopone, Proceratium, and Smithistruma (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 61:102-124. [1988-03-04] PDF 129604: 116 (New World species key); Morisita, Kubota, et al. 1989: 14 (Japan species key); Brandão, 1991Brandão, C. R. F. 1991. Adendos ao catálogo abreviado das formigas da região Neotropical (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 35:319-412. [1991-08-31] PDF 122994: 373 (Neotropical catalogue); Lattke, 1994Lattke, J. E. 1994. Phylogenetic relationships and classification of ectatommine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Entomologica Scandinavica 25:105-119. [1994-03] PDF 126814: 113 (phylogeny); Bolton, 1995aBolton, B. 1995a. A taxonomic and zoogeographical census of the extant ant taxa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Natural History 29:1037-1056. [1995-08] PDF 122859: 1052 (census); Bolton, 1995bBolton, B. 1995b. A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 504 pp. [1995-10] 122860: 366 (catalogue); Shattuck, 1999Shattuck, S. O. 1999. Australian ants. Their biology and identification. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing, xi + 226 pp. [1999-01] 132308: 203 (Australia synopsis); a: 434 (China species key); Onoyama & Yoshimura, 2002Onoyama, K.; Yoshimura, M. 2002. The ants of the genus Proceratium (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Japan. Entomological Science 5:29-49. [2002-03-25] PDF 131962: 31 (Japan species key); Bolton, 2003Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and classification of Formicidae. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 71:1-370. [2003-11-10] PDF 130789: 179 (synopsis); Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 2003ABaroni Urbani, C.; De Andrade, M. L. 2003A. The ant genus Proceratium in the extant and fossil record (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali Monografie (Turin) 36:1-492. [2003-06] 130720: 40 (diagnosis, all species revision, keys; Palaearctic species key: 445; Indomalayan species key: 447; Oceanean species key: 449; Afrotropical species key: 451; Nearctic and Neotropical species key: 452; world species key: 456); Xu, 2006Xu, Z. 2006. Three new species of the ant genera Amblyopone Erichson, 1842 and Proceratium Roger, 1863 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Yunnan, China. Myrmecologische Nachrichten 8:151-155. [2006-09] PDF 132635: 153 (China species key); Sosa-Calvo & Longino, 2008Sosa-Calvo, J.; Longino, J. T. 2008. Subfamilia Proceratiinae. Pp. 219-237 in: Jiménez, E.; Fernández, F.; Arias, T.M.; Lozano-Zambrano, F. H. (eds.) 2008. Sistemática, biogeografía y conservación de las hormigas cazadoras de Colombia. Bogotá: Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, xiv + 609 pp. [2008-12-26] [2008-12-26] PDF 132386: 228 (Neotropical species key); Yoshimura & Fisher, 2009Yoshimura, M.; Fisher, B. L. 2009. A revision of male ants of the Malagasy region (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Key to genera of the subfamily Proceratiinae. Zootaxa 2216:1-21. [2009-09-01] PDF 132689: 13 (Malagasy males diagnosis); Terayama, 2009Terayama, M. 2009. A synopsis of the family Formicidae of Taiwan (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Research Bulletin of Kanto Gakuen University. Liberal Arts 17:81-266. [2009] PDF 132431: 97 (Taiwan species key); Sarnat & Economo, 2012Sarnat, E. M.; Economo, E. P. 2012. The ants of Fiji. University of California Publications in Entomology 132:1-384. [2012-09-01] PDF 142254: 166 (Fiji species key); Hita Garcia, Hawkes & Alpert, 2014Hita Garcia, F.; Hawkes, P. G.; Alpert, G. D. 2014. Taxonomy of the ant genus Proceratium Roger (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in the Afrotropical region with a revision of the P. arnoldi clade and description of four new species. ZooKeys 447:47–86. [2014-10-16] PDF 142669 (Afrotropical clade key: 53; Proceratium arnoldi clade revision, Afrotropical species key: 55); Hita Garcia, Sarnat & Economo, 2015Hita Garcia, F.; Sarnat, E. M.; Economo, E. P. 2015. Revision of the ant genus Proceratium Roger (Hymenoptera, Proceratiinae) in Fiji. ZooKeys 475:97-112. PDF 142695: 101 (Fiji revision, species key); Dlussky, Rasnitsyn & Perfilieva, 2015Dlussky, G. M.; Rasnitsyn, A. P.; Perfilieva, K. S. 2015. The ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Bol’shaya Svetlovodnaya (Late Eocene of Sikhote-Alin, Russian Far East). Caucasian Entomological Bulletin 11(1):131-152. [2015-08-31] PDF 142813: 143 (diagnosis for impression fossils); Liu, Fischer & Economo, 2015Liu, C.; Fischer, G.; Economo, E. P. 2015. A rare ant on Samoa: first record of the cryptic subfamily Proceratiinae (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) and description of a new Proceratium Roger species. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 46:35-44. 10.3897/JHR.46.5849 PDF 142858: 35 (Somoa revision, Oceanic island species key).

Taxon Page Images:

Proceratium californicum Jasper Ridge, California, USA.
Image © Alex Wild.


African Region: Burundi, Cameroon, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zimbabwe
Australian Region: Australia, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Queensland, Solomon Islands
Eurasian Region: Albania, Algeria, Austria, Bulgaria, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, France, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Japan, Macedonia, Malta, Montenegro, Morocco, North Korea, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine
Malagasy Region: Madagascar, Mauritius
Nearctic Region: Alabama, Arkansas, California, Canada, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia
Neotropical Region: Belize, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Venezuela
Pacific Islands Region: Fiji, Indonesia, Malaysia, Micronesia, Singapore
South East Asia Region: Bhutan, Borneo, India, Pakistan, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Xishuangbanna


Proceratium species are mostly hypogeic (subterranean) ants, apparently specialized as predators on eggs of spiders and other arthropods.


Worker: eyes very small or absent; mandible multidentate and not overhung by clypeus; antennal sockets largely exposed in full-face (frontal) view of head; pronotum fused to mesonotum; abdominal tergite 4 strongly arched and recurved ventrally, the corresponding sternite very reduced in size.


A single species of Proceratium has been recorded from California.


Baroni Urbani (1977d); Brown (1958g, 1958j, 1974a, 1980c); Lattke (1991b); Onoyama & Yoshimura (2002); Snelling (1967); Snelling & Cover (1992); Ward (1988); Xu (2000c).

Taxon Page Author History

On 2013-08-23 09:31:51 Zach Lieberman modified Images
On 2013-08-23 09:31:26 Zach Lieberman modified Images

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Proceratium   Yoshimura, M. & Fisher, B. L., 2009, A revision of male ants of the Malagasy region (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Key to genera of the subfamily Proceratiinae., Zootaxa 2216, pp. 1-21: 13, (download) 13 22827
Proceratium   Ward, P. S., 2005, A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 936, pp. 1-68: 38, (download) 38 21008
Proceratium nov. gen  Roger, J., 1863, Die neu aufgeführten Gattungen und Arten meines Formiciden-Verzeichnisses, nebst Ergänzung einiger früher gegeben Beschreibungen., Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 7, pp. 131-214: 171, (download) 171 4101

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