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Genus: Proceratium   Roger, 1863 


Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2017)

Extant: 83 species

Fossil: 6 species

Proceratium Roger, 1863a PDF: 171 . Type-species: Proceratium silaceum, by monotypy. AntCat AntWiki

Taxonomic history

Genus Proceratium references
Roger, 1863b: 16, 21 (catalogue); Mayr, 1863a PDF: 451, 455 (catalogue); Mayr, 1865 PDF: 12 (Sysphingta, Proceratium diagnoses); Cresson, 1887 PDF: 258 (U.S.A. catalogue); Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF: 18 (catalogue); Emery, 1911e PDF: 50 (diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1911e PDF: 50 (Sysphingta diagnosis, catalogue); Arnold, 1915: 34 (Sysphingta diagnosis); Emery, 1916a PDF: 103 (Italy species key); Wheeler, 1922: 761 (Afrotropical catalogue); Kratochvíl, Novák & Snoflák, 1944 PDF: 58, 88 (West Palaearctic species key); Creighton, 1950a PDF: 39, 41 (North America Proceratium, Sysphingta species keys); Chapman & Capco, 1951 PDF: 77 (Asia Proceratium, Sysphingta checklists); Brown, 1958g PDF: 241 (review of genus); Bernard, 1967a PDF: 81 (diagnosis); Snelling, 1967 PDF: 8 (New World species key); Kempf, 1972b PDF: 211 (Neotropical catalogue); Brown, 1974a PDF: 81 (species notes); Baroni Urbani, 1977d PDF: 91 (European species, synopsis); Smith, 1979: 1338 (North America catalogue); Brown, 1980c PDF: 342 (New World species key); Terron, 1981 PDF: 102 (Afrotropical species notes); Taylor & Brown, 1985: 39 (Australia catalogue); Taylor, 1987a PDF: 65 (Australia checklist); Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b PDF: 264 (Balkans species key); Ward, 1988 PDF: 116 (New World species key); Morisita, Kubota, <i>et al.</i> 1989: 14 (Japan species key); Brandão, 1991 PDF: 373 (Neotropical catalogue); Lattke, 1994 PDF: 113 (phylogeny); Bolton, 1995a PDF: 1052 (census); Bolton, 1995b: 366 (catalogue); Shattuck, 1999: 203 (Australia synopsis); a: 434 (China species key); Onoyama & Yoshimura, 2002 PDF: 31 (Japan species key); Bolton, 2003 PDF: 179 (synopsis); Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 2003A PDF: 40 (diagnosis, all species revision, keys; Palaearctic species key: 445; Indomalayan species key: 447; Oceanean species key: 449; Afrotropical species key: 451; Nearctic and Neotropical species key: 452; world species key: 456); Xu, 2006 PDF: 153 (China species key); Sosa-Calvo & Longino, 2008 PDF: 228 (Neotropical species key); Yoshimura & Fisher, 2009 PDF: 13 (Malagasy males diagnosis); Terayama, 2009 PDF: 97 (Taiwan species key); Sarnat & Economo, 2012 PDF: 166 (Fiji species key); Hita Garcia, Hawkes & Alpert, 2014 PDF (Afrotropical clade key: 53; Proceratium arnoldi clade revision, Afrotropical species key: 55); Hita Garcia, Sarnat & Economo, 2015 PDF: 101 (Fiji revision, species key); Dlussky, Rasnitsyn & Perfilieva, 2015 PDF: 143 (diagnosis for impression fossils); Liu, Fischer & Economo, 2015 10.3897/JHR.46.5849 PDF: 35 (Somoa revision, Oceanic island species key).

Taxon Page Images:

Proceratium californicum Jasper Ridge, California, USA.
Image © Alex Wild.


Afrotropical Region: Burundi, Cameroon, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zimbabwe
Australasia Region: New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Northern Territory, Papua New Guinea, Queensland, Solomon Islands
Indomalaya Region: Bhutan, Borneo, Indonesia, Malaysia, Meghalaya, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam
Malagasy Region: Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles
Nearctic Region: Alabama, Arkansas, California, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia
Neotropical Region: Belize, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mato Grosso do Sul, Nicaragua, Panama, Venezuela
Oceania Region: Fiji, Micronesia, Samoa
Palearctic Region: Albania, Algeria, Austria, Bulgaria, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, France, Georgia, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Japan, Macedonia, Malta, Montenegro, Morocco, North Korea, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine


Proceratium species are mostly hypogeic (subterranean) ants, apparently specialized as predators on eggs of spiders and other arthropods.


Worker: eyes very small or absent; mandible multidentate and not overhung by clypeus; antennal sockets largely exposed in full-face (frontal) view of head; pronotum fused to mesonotum; abdominal tergite 4 strongly arched and recurved ventrally, the corresponding sternite very reduced in size.


A single species of Proceratium has been recorded from California.


Baroni Urbani (1977d); Brown (1958g, 1958j, 1974a, 1980c); Lattke (1991b); Onoyama & Yoshimura (2002); Snelling (1967); Snelling & Cover (1992); Ward (1988); Xu (2000c).

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Proceratium   Yoshimura, M. & Fisher, B. L., 2009, A revision of male ants of the Malagasy region (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Key to genera of the subfamily Proceratiinae., Zootaxa 2216, pp. 1-21: 13, (download) 13 22827
Proceratium   Ward, P. S., 2005, A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 936, pp. 1-68: 38, (download) 38 21008
Proceratium nov. gen  Roger, J., 1863, Die neu aufgeführten Gattungen und Arten meines Formiciden-Verzeichnisses, nebst Ergänzung einiger früher gegeben Beschreibungen., Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 7, pp. 131-214: 171, (download) 171 4101

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