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Genus: Proceratium   Roger, 1863 


Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2016)

Extant: 83 species

Fossil: 6 species

Proceratium Roger, 1863a PDF: 171 . Type-species: Proceratium silaceum, by monotypy. AntCat AntWiki

Taxonomic history

Genus Proceratium references
Roger, 1863b: 16, 21 (catalogue); Mayr, 1863a PDF: 451, 455 (catalogue); Mayr, 1865 PDF: 12 (Sysphingta, Proceratium diagnoses); Cresson, 1887 PDF: 258 (U.S.A. catalogue); Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF: 18 (catalogue); Emery, 1911e PDF: 50 (diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1911e PDF: 50 (Sysphingta diagnosis, catalogue); Arnold, 1915: 34 (Sysphingta diagnosis); Emery, 1916a PDF: 103 (Italy species key); Wheeler, 1922: 761 (Afrotropical catalogue); Kratochvíl, Novák & Snoflák, 1944 PDF: 58, 88 (West Palaearctic species key); Creighton, 1950a PDF: 39, 41 (North America Proceratium, Sysphingta species keys); Chapman & Capco, 1951 PDF: 77 (Asia Proceratium, Sysphingta checklists); Brown, 1958g PDF: 241 (review of genus); Bernard, 1967a PDF: 81 (diagnosis); Snelling, 1967 PDF: 8 (New World species key); Kempf, 1972b PDF: 211 (Neotropical catalogue); Brown, 1974a PDF: 81 (species notes); Baroni Urbani, 1977d PDF: 91 (European species, synopsis); Smith, 1979: 1338 (North America catalogue); Brown, 1980c PDF: 342 (New World species key); Terron, 1981 PDF: 102 (Afrotropical species notes); Taylor & Brown, 1985: 39 (Australia catalogue); Taylor, 1987a PDF: 65 (Australia checklist); Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b PDF: 264 (Balkans species key); Ward, 1988 PDF: 116 (New World species key); Morisita, Kubota, et al. 1989: 14 (Japan species key); Brandão, 1991 PDF: 373 (Neotropical catalogue); Lattke, 1994 PDF: 113 (phylogeny); Bolton, 1995a PDF: 1052 (census); Bolton, 1995b: 366 (catalogue); Shattuck, 1999: 203 (Australia synopsis); a: 434 (China species key); Onoyama & Yoshimura, 2002 PDF: 31 (Japan species key); Bolton, 2003 PDF: 179 (synopsis); Baroni Urbani & De Andrade, 2003A: 40 (diagnosis, all species revision, keys; Palaearctic species key: 445; Indomalayan species key: 447; Oceanean species key: 449; Afrotropical species key: 451; Nearctic and Neotropical species key: 452; world species key: 456); Xu, 2006 PDF: 153 (China species key); Sosa-Calvo & Longino, 2008 PDF: 228 (Neotropical species key); Yoshimura & Fisher, 2009 PDF: 13 (Malagasy males diagnosis); Terayama, 2009 PDF: 97 (Taiwan species key); Sarnat & Economo, 2012 PDF: 166 (Fiji species key); Hita Garcia, Hawkes & Alpert, 2014 PDF (Afrotropical clade key: 53; Proceratium arnoldi clade revision, Afrotropical species key: 55); Hita Garcia, Sarnat & Economo, 2015 PDF: 101 (Fiji revision, species key); Dlussky, Rasnitsyn & Perfilieva, 2015 PDF: 143 (diagnosis for impression fossils); Liu, Fischer & Economo, 2015 10.3897/JHR.46.5849 PDF: 35 (Somoa revision, Oceanic island species key).

Taxon Page Images:

Proceratium californicum Jasper Ridge, California, USA.
Image © Alex Wild.


Region: Burundi, Cameroon, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zimbabwe
Region: Australia, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Queensland, Solomon Islands
Region: Albania, Algeria, Austria, Bulgaria, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, France, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Japan, Macedonia, Malta, Montenegro, Morocco, North Korea, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine
Region: Madagascar, Mauritius
Region: Alabama, Arkansas, California, Canada, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, United States, Virginia
Region: Belize, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Venezuela
Region: Fiji, Micronesia
Region: California Bay Area, Port of Entry, Tree of Life
Region: Bhutan, Borneo, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Xishuangbanna


Proceratium species are mostly hypogeic (subterranean) ants, apparently specialized as predators on eggs of spiders and other arthropods.


Worker: eyes very small or absent; mandible multidentate and not overhung by clypeus; antennal sockets largely exposed in full-face (frontal) view of head; pronotum fused to mesonotum; abdominal tergite 4 strongly arched and recurved ventrally, the corresponding sternite very reduced in size.


A single species of Proceratium has been recorded from California.


Baroni Urbani (1977d); Brown (1958g, 1958j, 1974a, 1980c); Lattke (1991b); Onoyama & Yoshimura (2002); Snelling (1967); Snelling & Cover (1992); Ward (1988); Xu (2000c).

Taxon Page Author History

On 2013-08-23 09:31:51 Zach Lieberman modified Images
On 2013-08-23 09:31:26 Zach Lieberman modified Images

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Proceratium   Yoshimura, M. & Fisher, B. L., 2009, A revision of male ants of the Malagasy region (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Key to genera of the subfamily Proceratiinae., Zootaxa 2216, pp. 1-21: 13, (download) 13 22827
Proceratium   Ward, P. S., 2005, A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 936, pp. 1-68: 38, (download) 38 21008
Proceratium nov. gen  Roger, J., 1863, Die neu aufgeführten Gattungen und Arten meines Formiciden-Verzeichnisses, nebst Ergänzung einiger früher gegeben Beschreibungen., Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 7, pp. 131-214: 171, (download) 171 4101

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