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Genus: Pogonomyrmex   Mayr, 1868 

Classification:

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2016)

Extant: 71 species, 6 subspecies

Fossil: 1 species

Pogonomyrmex Mayr, 1868b PDF: 169 . Type-species: Formica badia, by subsequent designation of Wheeler, 1911g PDF: 170. AntCat AntWiki

Taxonomic history

Genus Pogonomyrmex references
Mayr, 1870bMayr, G. 1870b. Neue Formiciden. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 20:939-996. [1870] PDF 127229: 970 (all species key); Mayr, 1887Mayr, G. 1887. Südamerikanische Formiciden. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 37:511-632. [1887-09] PDF 127201: 608 (all species key); Cresson, 1887Cresson, E. T. 1887. Synopsis of the families and genera of the Hymenoptera of America, north of Mexico, together with a catalogue of the described species, and bibliography. Transactions of the American Entomological Society, Suppl. Vol. 1887:1-351. [1887] PDF 123936: 260 (U.S.A. catalogue); Dalla Torre, 1893Dalla Torre, K. W. 1893. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. [1893] PDF 124002: 118 (catalogue); Wheeler, 1902aWheeler, W. M. 1902a. A new agricultural ant from Texas, with remarks on the known North American species. American Naturalist 36:85-100. [1902-02-13] PDF 129967: 97 (North America species key); Emery, 1921cEmery, C. 1921c. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [part]. Genera Insectorum 174A:1-94 + 7 plates. [1921-06-01] 124749: 44 (diagnosis, subgenera key, catalogue); Emery, 1921cEmery, C. 1921c. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [part]. Genera Insectorum 174A:1-94 + 7 plates. [1921-06-01] 124749: 48 (Pogonomyrmex (Ephebomyrmex) & Pogonomyrmex (Forelomyrmex) diagnoses, catalogues); Gallardo, 1932cGallardo, A. 1932c. Las hormigas de la República Argentina. Subfamilia Mirmicinas, segunda sección Eumyrmicinae, tribu Myrmicini (F. Smith), género Pogonomyrmex Mayr. Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires 37:89-170. [1932-10-30] PDF 125432: 95 (Argentina species key); Cole, 1942Cole, A. C., Jr. 1942. The ants of Utah. American Midland Naturalist 28:358-388. [1942-10-13] PDF 123672: 364 (U.S.A., Utah species key); Kusnezov, 1949cKusnezov, N. 1949c. Pogonomyrmex del grupo Ephebomyrmex en la fauna de la Patagonia (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Acta Zoologica Lilloana 8:291-307. [1949-12-31] PDF 126616: 301 (Argentina Pogonomyrmex (Ephebomyrmex) species key); Creighton, 1950aCreighton, W. S. 1950a. The ants of North America. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 104:1-585. [1950-04] PDF 123910: 113 (North America species key); Kusnezov, 1951eKusnezov, N. 1951e. El género Pogonomyrmex Mayr (Hym., Formicidae). Acta Zoologica Lilloana 11:227-333. [1951-11-13] PDF 126623: 254 (Argentina species key); Kusnezov, 1954eKusnezov, N. 1954e. Descripción de Pogonomyrmex marcusi Kusnezov. Folia Universitaria. Cochabamba 7:82-86. [1954] PDF 126648: 85 (Bolivia species key); Creighton, 1957aCreighton, W. S. 1957a ("1956"). Studies on the North American representatives of Ephebomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Psyche (Cambridge) 63:54-66. [1957-01-23] PDF 123920: 54 (North America Ephebomyrmex); Gregg, 1963Gregg, R. E. 1963. The ants of Colorado, with reference to their ecology, taxonomy, and geographic distribution. Boulder: University of Colorado Press, xvi + 792 pp. [1963] 125667: 317 (U.S.A., Colorado species key); Cole, 1968Cole, A. C., Jr. 1968. Pogonomyrmex harvester ants. A study of the genus in North America. Knoxville, Tenn.: University of Tennessee Press, x + 222 pp. [1968] 123675: 21, 38, 155 (North America Pogonomyrmex & Pogonomyrmex (Ephebomyrmex) diagnoses, species revision, keys); Kempf, 1972bKempf, W. W. 1972b. Catálogo abreviado das formigas da região Neotropical. Studia Entomologica 15:3-344. [1972-08-25] PDF 126357: 106, 206 (Neotropical Ephebomyrmex, Pogonomyrmex catalogues); Snelling & Hunt, 1975Snelling, R. R.; Hunt, J. H. 1975. The ants of Chile (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Revista Chilena de Entomología 9:63-129. [1976-05] PDF 128906: 72 (Chile species key); Smith, 1979Smith, D. R. 1979. Superfamily Formicoidea. Pp. 1323-1467 in: Krombein, K. V.; Hurd, P. D.; Smith, D. R.; Burks, B. D. (eds.) 1979. Catalog of Hymenoptera in America north of Mexico. Volume 2. Apocrita (Aculeata). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, pp. i-xvi, 1199-2209. [1979] 128659: 1353 (North America catalogue); Allred, 1982Allred, D. M. 1982. Ants of Utah. Great Basin Naturalist 42:415-511. [1982-12-31] 122181: 442 (U.S.A., Utah species key); Snelling, 1982aSnelling, R. R. 1982a ("1981"). The taxonomy and distribution of some North American Pogonomyrmex and descriptions of two new species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 80:97-112. [1982-08-16] PDF 128897: 104 (supplement to Cole, 1968 key); Snelling, 1982aSnelling, R. R. 1982a ("1981"). The taxonomy and distribution of some North American Pogonomyrmex and descriptions of two new species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 80:97-112. [1982-08-16] PDF 128897: 108 (North America Pogonomyrmex (Ephebomyrmex) species key); Mackay, Mackay, Dominguez, et al. 1985: 42 (Mexico species key); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1986gWheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1986g. The ants of Nevada. Los Angeles: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, vii + 138 pp. [1986] PDF 129925: 26 (U.S.A., Nevada species key); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1986gWheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1986g. The ants of Nevada. Los Angeles: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, vii + 138 pp. [1986] PDF 129925: 33 (U.S.A., Nevada Ephebomyrmex species key); Shattuck, 1987Shattuck, S. O. 1987. An analysis of geographic variation in the Pogonomyrmex occidentalis complex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Psyche (Cambridge) 94:159-179. [1987-10-06] PDF 128598: 175 (Pogonomyrmex occidentalis complex, key); Taber, 1990Taber, S. W. 1990. Cladistic phylogeny of the North American species complexes of Pogonomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 83:307-316. [1990-05] PDF 129117: 307 (U.S.A. species complexes, phylogeny); Brandão, 1991Brandão, C. R. F. 1991. Adendos ao catálogo abreviado das formigas da região Neotropical (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 35:319-412. [1991-08-31] PDF 122994: 342, 372 (Neotropical catalogue); Bolton, 1994Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. [1994-07-25] 122834: 106 (synoptic classification); Bolton, 1995aBolton, B. 1995a. A taxonomic and zoogeographical census of the extant ant taxa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Natural History 29:1037-1056. [1995-08] PDF 122859: 1052 (census); Bolton, 1995bBolton, B. 1995b. A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 504 pp. [1995-10] 122860: 339 (catalogue); Taber, 1998Taber, S. W. 1998. The world of harvester ants. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press, xvii + 213 pp. 132420: 146, 147 (Ephebomyrmex, Pogonomyrmex species key); Fernández & Palacio, 1998Fernández, F.; Palacio, E. E. 1998 ("1997"). Clave para las Pogonomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) del Norte de Suramérica, con la descripción de una nueva especie. Revista de Biología Tropical 45:1649-1661. [1998-02] PDF 131273: 1657 (northern South America species key); Mackay & MacKay, 2002Mackay, W.; MacKay, E. 2002. The ants of New Mexico (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 400 pp. [2002-12] PDF 131795: 180 (U.S.A., New Mexico species key); Lattke, 2006Lattke, J. E. 2006. A new species of Pogonomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from gallery forests of the Orinoco Watershed, Venezuela. Myrmecologische Nachrichten 8:53-57. [2006-09] PDF 131687: 56 (northern South America species key); Johnson & Overson, 2009Johnson, R. A.; Overson, R. P. 2009. A new North American species of Pogonomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from the Mohave desert of eastern California and western Nevada. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 18:305-314. [2009-10-02] PDF 131560: 313 (Pogonomyrmex californicus group key); Cuezzo & Claver, 2009Cuezzo, F.; Claver, S. 2009. Two new species of the ant genus Pogonomyrmex (Hmyenoptera: Formicidae) from Argentina. Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica Argentina 68:97-106. [2009-06] PDF 130969: 99 (Argentina species key); Johnson, Overson & Moreau, 2013Johnson, R. A.; Overson, R. P.; Moreau, C. S. 2013. A new species of seed-harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex hoelldobleri (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), from the Mohave and Sonoran Deserts of North America. Zootaxa 3646:201-227. [2013-05-03] PDF 142353 (Central and western North American Pogonomyrmex californicus species group key); Johnson & Cover, 2015Johnson, R. A.; Cover, S. P. 2015. A taxonomic revision of the seed-harvester ant genus Pogonomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on Hispaniola. Zootaxa 3972(2):231-249. [2015-06-11] PDF 142768 (Hispaniola Island species revision, workers and queens species key); Johnson, 2015Johnson, R. A. 2015. A taxonomic revision of South American species of the seed-harvester ant genus Pogonomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Part I. Zootaxa 4029(1):1-142. 10.11646/zootaxa.4029.1.1 PDF 142843:1 (South America species revision, species and species-group key, natural history).

Taxon Page Images:



Pogonomyrmex rastratus carrying a seed, Amaicha del Valle, Tucumán, Argentina.
Image © Alex Wild.

Overview:

These are the conspicuous seed-harvesting ants of the New World. Often dominant in arid environments, many form huge societies with large nests that are a recognizable feature of the landscapes they inhabit. Many are renowned for the potency of their sting.
Some lineages of Pogonomyrmex have complicated, genetic caste determination and hybrid lineages are known, e.g. Helms Cahan et al. 2002, 2006.

Distribution:


Nearctic Region: Alabama, Alberta, Arizona, Arkansas, Baja California, British Columbia, California, Canada, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Nevada, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Carolina, Texas, Utah, Washington, Wyoming
Neotropical Region: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela

Taxon Page Author History

On 2013-08-20 08:27:14 Zach Lieberman modified Images
On 2013-08-20 08:26:30 Zach Lieberman modified Images
On 2013-08-20 08:17:52 Zach Lieberman modified Overview
...

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Treatment Citation: Ward, P. S., 2005, A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 936, pp. 1-68

Genus Pogonomyrmex MayrHNS

The species in this genus are seed-harvesting ants, whose nest mounds are often conspicuously decorated with pebbles. The workers are diurnal and have a potent sting.

Several of the taxa belong to difficult complexes, and species boundaries remain unclear. In neighboring Arizona a series of stabilized hybrid lineages has been documented in the P. barbatus-complexHNS (Helms Cahan et al. 2002).

Species identification: keys in Cole (1966), Wheeler and Wheeler (1986g) and Mackay and Mackay (2002). Additional references: Davidson (1977a), De Vita (1979), Gordon (1999), Groark (2001), Helms Cahan et al. (2002), Hölldobler (1976a, 1976c), Johnson (2000a, 2001), Knudtson (1978), Kusnezov (1951e), Lei (2000), MacKay (1980, 1981, 1982), MacKay and MacKay (1989), O’Dowd and Hay (1980), Olsen (1934), Parker and Rissing (2002), Ryti and Case (1988), Schmidt (1998), Shattuck (1987), Snelling(1982a), Taber (1990, 1998), Taber et al. (1987, 1988), Wheeler (1902a, 1914e).

(-1 examples)



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