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Genus: Pheidole   Westwood, 1839 

Classification:

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2014)

Extant: 1,004 species, 139 subspecies

Fossil: 5 species

Pheidole Westwood, 1839a: 219. Type-species: Atta providens, by monotypy. AntCat AntWiki

Taxonomic history

Pheidole in Poneridae, Attidae: Smith, 1858a PDF: 172.
Pheidole in Attidae: Smith, 1860a: 74; Smith, 1862a PDF: 49.
Pheidole in Myrmicidae: Smith, 1871b PDF: 331; Cresson, 1887 PDF: 262.
Pheidole in Myrmicidae, Pheidolidae: Emery, 1877b PDF: 81.
Pheidole in Myrmicinae: Mayr, 1861 PDF: 69 [Myrmicidae]; Mayr, 1865: 22 [Myrmicidae]; Emery & Forel, 1879a: 463 [Myrmicidae]; Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF}: 88.
Pheidole in Myrmicinae, Pheidolini: Forel, 1893b PDF: 165; Emery, 1914e: 40; Forel, 1917 PDF: 241; Arnold, 1920a PDF: 414; Emery, 1921c: 77; Wheeler, 1922: 661; all subsequent authors except Kempf, 1972b PDF: 183.
Genus Pheidole references
Smith, 1858a PDF: 172 (diagnosis); Mayr, 1861 PDF: 70 (Europe species key); Roger, 1863b: 27, 30 (catalogue); Mayr, 1863a PDF: 424, 440 (Ischnomyrmex, Pheidole catalogues); Mayr, 1865: 18, 22 (Ischnomyrmex, Pheidole diagnoses); Mayr, 1867a PDF: 92, 96 (Ischnomyrmex, Pheidole diagnoses); Mayr, 1870b PDF: 977, 979 (Australia & New World species keys); Mayr, 1876 PDF: 102 (Australia species key); André, 1883b: 382 (Europe & Algeria species key); Mayr, 1879 PDF: 674 (Asia species key); Mayr, 1887 PDF: 582 (New World species key); Cresson, 1887 PDF: 262 (U.S.A., catalogue); Nasonov, 1889: 75 (Russia species key); Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF}: 88, 98 (Pheidole, Pheidolacanthinus catalogues); Emery, 1895d PDF: 288 (North America species key); Mayr, 1896 PDF: 241 (Africa species, partial key); Emery, 1896g PDF: 80 (Pheidole flavens group, key); Forel, 1902c PDF: 165 (India species key); Forel, 1902g PDF: 523 (India & Sri Lanka species key); Bingham, 1903 PDF: 223 (India, Sri Lanka & Burma species key); Wheeler, 1908a: 133 (Puerto Rico species key); Arnold, 1920a PDF: 414 (diagnosis, South Africa species key); Emery, 1921c: 78 (diagnosis, subgenera key, catalogue); Emery, 1921c: 81 (Pheidole (Macropheidole) & Pheidole (Pheidolacanthinus) diagnoses, catalogues); Emery, 1921c: 83 (Pheidole (Stegopheidole) diagnosis, catalogue); Mann, 1921 PDF: 442 (Fiji Is species key); Emery, 1922c PDF: 110 (Pheidole (Elasmopheidole) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1922c PDF: 111 (Pheidole (Trachypheidole) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1922c PDF: 112 (Pheidole (Scrobopheidole), Pheidole (Decapheidole) & Pheidole (Ceratopheidole) diagnoses, catalogues); Emery, 1922c PDF: 113 (Ischnomyrmex diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1922c PDF: 114 (Epipheidole diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1922c PDF: 115 (Sympheidole, Parapheidole diagnoses, catalogues); Emery, 1922c PDF: 116 (Anergatides diagnosis, catalogue); Wheeler, 1922: 126, 672 (diagnosis, subgenera key); Wheeler, 1922: 806, 879 (Afrotropical Pheidole, Anergatides catalogues); Wheeler, 1922: 1017, 1021 (Malagasy Pheidole, Parapheidole catalogues); Gallardo, 1932d PDF: 179 (Argentina Elasmopheidole species key); Finzi, 1936 PDF: 165 (Egypt species key); Menozzi, 1939a PDF: 298 (Himalaya species key); Cole, 1942 PDF}: 362 (U.S.A., Utah species key); Buren, 1944a PDF: 285 (U.S.A., Iowa species key); Creighton, 1950a PDF: 163 (North America species key); Creighton, 1950a PDF: 192, 194 (North America Epipheidole, Sympheidole species); Chapman & Capco, 1951 PDF: 135, 137 (Asia Ceratopheidole, Conothorax, Ischnomyrmex, Pheidole checklists); Kusnezov, 1952d PDF: 61 (Argentina species key); Smith, 1955d PDF: 302 (Pheidole (Hendecapheidole) species key); Gregg, 1959 PDF: 9 (U.S.A. species key); Gregg, 1963: 407 (U.S.A., Colorado species key); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1963: 126 (U.S.A., North Dakota species key); Bernard, 1967a PDF: 149 (diagnosis, Western Europe species key); Gregg, 1969b PDF: 95 (addition to Gregg, 1959 U.S.A. key); Kempf, 1972b PDF: 183 (Neotropical catalogue); Alayo, 1974: 11 (Cuba species key); Smith, 1979: 1365 (North America catalogue); Allred, 1982: 441 (U.S.A., Utah species key); Ogata, 1982 PDF: 191 (Japan species key); Collingwood, 1985 PDF: 253 (Saudi Arabia species key); Naves, 1985 PDF: 54 (U.S.A., Florida species key); Taylor & Brown, 1985: 74 (Australia catalogue); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1986g PDF: 41 (U.S.A., Nevada species key); Taylor, 1987a PDF: 53 (Australia, New Caledonia & New Zealand checklists); Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b PDF: 271 (Balkans species key); Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 15 (synoptic classification); Kupyanskaya, 1990a: 123 (Far Eastern Russia species key); Brandão, 1991 PDF: 368 (Neotropical catalogue); Morisita, Kubota, et al. 1992: 22 (Japan species key); Bolton, 1994: 106 (synoptic classification); Kupyanskaya, 1995: 345 (Far Eastern Russia species key); Bolton, 1995a PDF: 1051 (census); Bolton, 1995b: 316 (catalogue); Wu & Wang, 1995a: 99 (China species key); Collingwood & Agosti, 1996 PDF: 322 (Saudi Arabia species key); Park & Kim, 2000: 109 (Korea species key); Shattuck, 1999: 152 (Australia synopsis); Eguchi, 1999: 103 (Borneo Pheidole longipes group, key); Ward, 2000A PDF: 96 (U.S.A. Pheidole hyatti complex, key); Zhou, 2001A PDF: 121 (China, Guangxi species key); Eguchi, 2001B PDF: 10 (Borneo species key); ; Mackay & MacKay, 2002 PDF: 149 (U.S.A., New Mexico species key)Wilson, 2003A: 27 (New World, all species revision, keys); Sarnat, 2008 PDF: 8 (Fiji Is Pheidole roosevelti group, key); Eguchi, 2008 PDF: 8 (North Vietnam species key); Terayama, 2009 PDF: 171 (Taiwan species key); Heterick, 2009 PDF: 169 (south-western Australia species key); Sarnat & Moreau, 2011 PDF: 114 (Pheidole roosevelti group phylogeny and radiation); Fischer, et al. 2012: 9 (Afrotropical Pheidole pulchella group key).
Genus Pheidole references
Smith, 1858a PDF: 172 (diagnosis); Mayr, 1861 PDF: 70 (Europe species key); Roger, 1863b: 27, 30 (catalogue); Mayr, 1863a PDF: 424, 440 (Ischnomyrmex, Pheidole catalogues); Mayr, 1865: 18, 22 (Ischnomyrmex, Pheidole diagnoses); Mayr, 1867a PDF: 92, 96 (Ischnomyrmex, Pheidole diagnoses); Mayr, 1870b PDF: 977, 979 (Australia & New World species keys); Mayr, 1876 PDF: 102 (Australia species key); André, 1883b: 382 (Europe & Algeria species key); Mayr, 1879 PDF: 674 (Asia species key); Mayr, 1887 PDF: 582 (New World species key); Cresson, 1887 PDF: 262 (U.S.A., catalogue); Nasonov, 1889: 75 (Russia species key); Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF}: 88, 98 (Pheidole, Pheidolacanthinus catalogues); Emery, 1895d PDF: 288 (North America species key); Mayr, 1896 PDF: 241 (Africa species, partial key); Emery, 1896g PDF: 80 (Pheidole flavens group, key); Forel, 1902c PDF: 165 (India species key); Forel, 1902g PDF: 523 (India & Sri Lanka species key); Bingham, 1903 PDF: 223 (India, Sri Lanka & Burma species key); Wheeler, 1908a: 133 (Puerto Rico species key); Arnold, 1920a PDF: 414 (diagnosis, South Africa species key); Emery, 1921c: 78 (diagnosis, subgenera key, catalogue); Emery, 1921c: 81 (Pheidole (Macropheidole) & Pheidole (Pheidolacanthinus) diagnoses, catalogues); Emery, 1921c: 83 (Pheidole (Stegopheidole) diagnosis, catalogue); Mann, 1921 PDF: 442 (Fiji Is species key); Emery, 1922c PDF: 110 (Pheidole (Elasmopheidole) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1922c PDF: 111 (Pheidole (Trachypheidole) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1922c PDF: 112 (Pheidole (Scrobopheidole), Pheidole (Decapheidole) & Pheidole (Ceratopheidole) diagnoses, catalogues); Emery, 1922c PDF: 113 (Ischnomyrmex diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1922c PDF: 114 (Epipheidole diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1922c PDF: 115 (Sympheidole, Parapheidole diagnoses, catalogues); Emery, 1922c PDF: 116 (Anergatides diagnosis, catalogue); Wheeler, 1922: 126, 672 (diagnosis, subgenera key); Wheeler, 1922: 806, 879 (Afrotropical Pheidole, Anergatides catalogues); Wheeler, 1922: 1017, 1021 (Malagasy Pheidole, Parapheidole catalogues); Gallardo, 1932d PDF: 179 (Argentina Elasmopheidole species key); Finzi, 1936 PDF: 165 (Egypt species key); Menozzi, 1939a PDF: 298 (Himalaya species key); Cole, 1942 PDF}: 362 (U.S.A., Utah species key); Buren, 1944a PDF: 285 (U.S.A., Iowa species key); Creighton, 1950a PDF: 163 (North America species key); Creighton, 1950a PDF: 192, 194 (North America Epipheidole, Sympheidole species); Chapman & Capco, 1951 PDF: 135, 137 (Asia Ceratopheidole, Conothorax, Ischnomyrmex, Pheidole checklists); Kusnezov, 1952d PDF: 61 (Argentina species key); Smith, 1955d PDF: 302 (Pheidole (Hendecapheidole) species key); Gregg, 1959 PDF: 9 (U.S.A. species key); Gregg, 1963: 407 (U.S.A., Colorado species key); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1963: 126 (U.S.A., North Dakota species key); Bernard, 1967a PDF: 149 (diagnosis, Western Europe species key); Gregg, 1969b PDF: 95 (addition to Gregg, 1959 U.S.A. key); Kempf, 1972b PDF: 183 (Neotropical catalogue); Alayo, 1974: 11 (Cuba species key); Smith, 1979: 1365 (North America catalogue); Allred, 1982: 441 (U.S.A., Utah species key); Ogata, 1982 PDF: 191 (Japan species key); Collingwood, 1985 PDF: 253 (Saudi Arabia species key); Naves, 1985 PDF: 54 (U.S.A., Florida species key); Taylor & Brown, 1985: 74 (Australia catalogue); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1986g PDF: 41 (U.S.A., Nevada species key); Taylor, 1987a PDF: 53 (Australia, New Caledonia & New Zealand checklists); Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b PDF: 271 (Balkans species key); Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 15 (synoptic classification); Kupyanskaya, 1990a: 123 (Far Eastern Russia species key); Brandão, 1991 PDF: 368 (Neotropical catalogue); Morisita, Kubota, et al. 1992: 22 (Japan species key); Bolton, 1994: 106 (synoptic classification); Kupyanskaya, 1995: 345 (Far Eastern Russia species key); Bolton, 1995a PDF: 1051 (census); Bolton, 1995b: 316 (catalogue); Wu & Wang, 1995a: 99 (China species key); Collingwood & Agosti, 1996 PDF: 322 (Saudi Arabia species key); Park & Kim, 2000: 109 (Korea species key); Shattuck, 1999: 152 (Australia synopsis); Eguchi, 1999: 103 (Borneo Pheidole longipes group, key); Ward, 2000A PDF: 96 (U.S.A. Pheidole hyatti complex, key); Zhou, 2001A PDF: 121 (China, Guangxi species key); Eguchi, 2001B PDF: 10 (Borneo species key); ; Mackay & MacKay, 2002 PDF: 149 (U.S.A., New Mexico species key)Wilson, 2003A: 27 (New World, all species revision, keys); Sarnat, 2008 PDF: 8 (Fiji Is Pheidole roosevelti group, key); Eguchi, 2008 PDF: 8 (North Vietnam species key); Terayama, 2009 PDF: 171 (Taiwan species key); Heterick, 2009 PDF: 169 (south-western Australia species key); Sarnat & Moreau, 2011 PDF: 114 (Pheidole roosevelti group phylogeny and radiation); Fischer, et al. 2012: 9 (Afrotropical Pheidole pulchella group key); Sarnat & Economo, 2012 PDF: 93 (Fiji species key).

Taxon Page Images:

Pheidole morrisi (Orlando, Florida, USA).
Image copyright Alex Wild.

Taxon Page Author History

On 2012-04-21 07:26:00 Alex Wild modified Images
On 2012-04-21 07:24:38 Alex Wild modified Images
On 2012-04-21 07:22:05 Alex Wild modified Images

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