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Genus: Pheidole   Westwood, 1839 

Classification:

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2017)

Extant: 1,004 species, 134 subspecies

Fossil: 5 species

Pheidole Westwood, 1839a: 219. Type-species: Atta providens, by monotypy. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

Pheidole in Poneridae, Attidae: Smith, 1858a PDF: 172.
Pheidole in Attidae: Smith, 1860a: 74; Smith, 1862a PDF: 49.
Pheidole in Myrmicidae: Smith, 1871b PDF: 331; Cresson, 1887 PDF: 262.
Pheidole in Myrmicidae, Pheidolidae: Emery, 1877b PDF: 81.
Pheidole in Myrmicinae: Mayr, 1861 PDF: 69 [Myrmicidae]; Mayr, 1865 PDF: 22 [Myrmicidae]; Emery & Forel, 1879a: 463 [Myrmicidae]; Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF: 88.
Pheidole in Myrmicinae, Pheidolini: Forel, 1893b PDF: 165; Emery, 1914e: 40; Forel, 1917 PDF: 241; Arnold, 1920a PDF: 414; Emery, 1921c: 77; Wheeler, 1922: 661; all subsequent authors except Kempf, 1972b PDF: 183.
Genus Pheidole references
Smith, 1858a PDF: 172 (diagnosis); Mayr, 1861 PDF: 70 (Europe species key); Roger, 1863b: 27, 30 (catalogue); Mayr, 1863a PDF: 424, 440 (Ischnomyrmex, Pheidole catalogues); Mayr, 1865 PDF: 18, 22 (Ischnomyrmex, Pheidole diagnoses); Mayr, 1867a PDF: 92, 96 (Ischnomyrmex, Pheidole diagnoses); Mayr, 1870b PDF: 977, 979 (Australia & New World species keys); Mayr, 1876 PDF: 102 (Australia species key); André, 1883b: 382 (Europe & Algeria species key); Mayr, 1879 PDF: 674 (Asia species key); Mayr, 1887 PDF: 582 (New World species key); Cresson, 1887 PDF: 262 (U.S.A., catalogue); Nasonov, 1889: 75 (Russia species key); Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF: 88, 98 (Pheidole, Pheidolacanthinus catalogues); Emery, 1895d PDF: 288 (North America species key); Mayr, 1896 PDF: 241 (Africa species, partial key); Emery, 1896g PDF: 80 (Pheidole flavens group, key); Forel, 1902c PDF: 165 (India species key); Forel, 1902g PDF: 523 (India & Sri Lanka species key); Bingham, 1903 PDF: 223 (India, Sri Lanka & Burma species key); Wheeler, 1908a: 133 (Puerto Rico species key); Arnold, 1920a PDF: 414 (diagnosis, South Africa species key); Emery, 1921c: 78 (diagnosis, subgenera key, catalogue); Emery, 1921c: 81 (Pheidole (Macropheidole) & Pheidole (Pheidolacanthinus) diagnoses, catalogues); Emery, 1921c: 83 (Pheidole (Stegopheidole) diagnosis, catalogue); Mann, 1921 PDF: 442 (Fiji Is species key); Emery, 1922c PDF: 110 (Pheidole (Elasmopheidole) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1922c PDF: 111 (Pheidole (Trachypheidole) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1922c PDF: 112 (Pheidole (Scrobopheidole), Pheidole (Decapheidole) & Pheidole (Ceratopheidole) diagnoses, catalogues); Emery, 1922c PDF: 113 (Ischnomyrmex diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1922c PDF: 114 (Epipheidole diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1922c PDF: 115 (Sympheidole, Parapheidole diagnoses, catalogues); Emery, 1922c PDF: 116 (Anergatides diagnosis, catalogue); Wheeler, 1922: 126, 672 (diagnosis, subgenera key); Wheeler, 1922: 806, 879 (Afrotropical Pheidole, Anergatides catalogues); Wheeler, 1922: 1017, 1021 (Malagasy Pheidole, Parapheidole catalogues); Gallardo, 1932d PDF: 179 (Argentina Elasmopheidole species key); Finzi, 1936 PDF: 165 (Egypt species key); Menozzi, 1939a PDF: 298 (Himalaya species key); Cole, 1942 PDF: 362 (U.S.A., Utah species key); Buren, 1944a PDF: 285 (U.S.A., Iowa species key); Creighton, 1950a PDF: 163 (North America species key); Creighton, 1950a PDF: 192, 194 (North America Epipheidole, Sympheidole species); Chapman & Capco, 1951 PDF: 135, 137 (Asia Ceratopheidole, Conothorax, Ischnomyrmex, Pheidole checklists); Kusnezov, 1952d PDF: 61 (Argentina species key); Smith, 1955d PDF: 302 (Pheidole (Hendecapheidole) species key); Gregg, 1959 PDF: 9 (U.S.A. species key); Gregg, 1963: 407 (U.S.A., Colorado species key); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1963: 126 (U.S.A., North Dakota species key); Bernard, 1967a PDF: 149 (diagnosis, Western Europe species key); Gregg, 1969b PDF: 95 (addition to Gregg, 1959 U.S.A. key); Kempf, 1972b PDF: 183 (Neotropical catalogue); Alayo, 1974: 11 (Cuba species key); Smith, 1979: 1365 (North America catalogue); Allred, 1982: 441 (U.S.A., Utah species key); Ogata, 1982 PDF: 191 (Japan species key); Collingwood, 1985 PDF: 253 (Saudi Arabia species key); Naves, 1985 PDF: 54 (U.S.A., Florida species key); Taylor & Brown, 1985: 74 (Australia catalogue); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1986g PDF: 41 (U.S.A., Nevada species key); Taylor, 1987a PDF: 53 (Australia, New Caledonia & New Zealand checklists); Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b PDF: 271 (Balkans species key); Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 15 (synoptic classification); Kupyanskaya, 1990a: 123 (Far Eastern Russia species key); Brandão, 1991 PDF: 368 (Neotropical catalogue); Morisita, Kubota, et al. 1992: 22 (Japan species key); Bolton, 1994: 106 (synoptic classification); Kupyanskaya, 1995: 345 (Far Eastern Russia species key); Bolton, 1995a PDF: 1051 (census); Bolton, 1995b: 316 (catalogue); Wu & Wang, 1995a: 99 (China species key); Collingwood & Agosti, 1996 PDF: 322 (Saudi Arabia species key); Park & Kim, 2000: 109 (Korea species key); Shattuck, 1999: 152 (Australia synopsis); Eguchi, 1999: 103 (Borneo Pheidole longipes group, key); Ward, 2000A PDF: 96 (U.S.A. Pheidole hyatti complex, key); Zhou, 2001A PDF: 121 (China, Guangxi species key); Eguchi, 2001B PDF: 10 (Borneo species key); ; Mackay & MacKay, 2002 PDF: 149 (U.S.A., New Mexico species key)Wilson, 2003A: 27 (New World, all species revision, keys); Sarnat, 2008 PDF: 8 (Fiji Is Pheidole roosevelti group, key); Eguchi, 2008 PDF: 8 (North Vietnam species key); Terayama, 2009 PDF: 171 (Taiwan species key); Heterick, 2009 PDF: 169 (south-western Australia species key); Sarnat & Moreau, 2011 PDF: 114 (Pheidole roosevelti group phylogeny and radiation); Fischer, et al. 2012: 9 (Afrotropical Pheidole pulchella group key); Sarnat & Economo, 2012 PDF: 93 (Fiji species key); Economo, Klimov, Sarnat, Guénard, Weiser, Lecroq & Knowles, 2015 PDF: 1 (global phylogeny);Sarnat, Fischer, Guénard & Economo, 2015 10.3897/zookeys.543.6050 PDF: 14 (Introduced species); Sarnat, Fischer & Economo, 2016 10.1371/journal.pone.0156709 PDF: 1 (cervicornis species group); Fischer, Sarnat & Economo, 2016 10.1371/journal.pone.0158544 PDF: 1 (knowlesi species group)

Taxon Page Images:

Pheidole morrisi (Orlando, Florida, USA).
Image copyright Alex Wild.

Distribution:

   Genus is native to: Afrotropical, Australasia, Indomalaya, Malagasy, Nearctic, Neotropical, Oceania, Palearctic bioregions.

Afrotropical Region: Angola, Anseba, Ashanti, Benin, Botswana, Bundibugyo, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cape, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Coast, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Eastern Cape, Eritrea, Erongo, Estuaire, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Gauteng, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kabarole, Kenya, KigomaÂ, KwaZulu-Natal, Leribe, Lesotho, Liberia, Limpopo, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Northern Cape, Nyanza, Ogooue-Maritime, Oume+A1:K360, Prefecture Sangha-Mbaéré, Rwanda, Saint Helena, Sangha-Mbaere, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sofala, Somalia, South Africa, Southern, Sud, Sud-Ouest, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Wakiso, Woleu-Ntem, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Australasia Region: Auckland, Barrow Island, Bismarck Is., Central, Chimbu, East New Britain, East Sepik, Guadalcanal, Gulf, Madang, Makira-Ulawa, Morobe, New Britain, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, New Zealand, Norfolk Island, North, Northern, Northern Territories, Northern Territory, Papua New Guinea, Queensland, Rennell Is., San Cristobal, Solomon Islands, South, South Australia, Southern Highlands, Tafea, Vanuatu, Victoria, West New Britain, West Sepik, Western, Western Australia
Indomalaya Region: Aceh, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bangkok, Bangladesh, Borneo, Brunei, Camarines sur., Cambodia, Chaiyaphum, Chanthaburi, Chiang Mai, Guangxi, Himachal Pradesh, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Irian Jaya, Java, Kalimantan, Kanchanabari, Kedah, Kerala, Krakatau Islands, Laguna, Lampung, Loei, Malacca, Malaysia, Maluku, Maluku Utara, Meghalaya, Myanmar, Nakhon, Nakhon Ratchasima, Narathiwat, Nepal, Nicobar Island, North Sumatra, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Okinawa, Orissa, Pahang, Palawan, Papua, Perak, Phetchabun, Philippines, Pulau Pinang, Pursal, Sabah, Sakon Nakhon, Sarawak, Selangor, Shan, Singapore, Songkhla, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatra, Taiwan, Tamil Nadu, Temburong, Thailand, Trang, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Vietnam, Vinh-Phuc, West Bengal, West Java, West Papua, West Sumatra, Yunnan
Malagasy Region: Anjouan, Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Comoros, Diego-Suarez, Fianarantsoa, Grande Comore, Juan de Nova Island, La Digue, Madagascar, Mahajanga, Majunga, Mauritius, Mayotte, Mohéli, Reunion, Rodrigues, Saint-Denis, Savanne, Seychelles, Toamasina, Toliara, Tulear
Nearctic Region: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Baja California, British Columbia, California, Chihuahua, Colorado, District of Columbia, Durango, Florida, Georgia, Hidalgo, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Office of Insular Affairs, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Sonora, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, Washington DC
Neotropical Region: Ahuachapán, Alajuela, Alta Verapaz, Amambay, Amazonas, Antigua and Barbuda, Antioquia, Aragua, Arequipa, Argentina, Aruba, Atlántico, Atlántida, Bahamas, Baja California Norte, Baja California Sur, Baja Verapaz, Barahona, Barbados, Basse Terre, Basse-Terre, Belize, Beni, Bermuda, Boaco, Bolivia, Brazil, Buenos Aires, Caldas, Campeche, Canal Zone, Canindeyú, Carabobo, Cartago, Catamarca, Cauca, Cayenne, Cayo, Chaco, Chiapas, Chile, Chimaltenango, Chiquimula, Chocó, Chontales, Chubut, Coahuila, Colombia, Comayagua, Cordillera, Corrientes, Costa Rica, Cotopaxi, Cuba, Cundinamarca, Cusco, Cuyuni-Mazaruni, Demerara, Dept. of Madre de Dios, Distrito Nacional, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Duarte, Ecuador, El Paraíso, El Progreso, El Salvador, Escuintla, Espírito Santo, Estelí, Formosa, Fort-de-France, Francisco Morazán, French Guiana, Galapagos Islands, Gracias a Dios, Granada, Grand Terre, Grande-Terre, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guajira, Guanacaste, Guantanamo, Guatemala, Guayas, Guerrero, Guyana, Haiti, Heredia, Holguin, Honduras, Huehuetenango, Huila, Huánuco, Islas de la Bahía, Itapúa, Izabal, Jalisco, Jamaica, Jinotega, Jujuy, Jutiapa, Kuna Yala, La Altagracia, La Guajira, La Habana, La Libertad, La Paz, La Unión, La Vega, Lara, Lempira, Lima, Limón, Los Rios, Madre de Dios, Madriz, Magdalena, Managua, Maria Trinidad Sanchez, Martinique, Masaya, Matagalpa, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Meta, Mexico D.F., Michoacan, Minas Gerais, Misiones, Monseñor Nouel, Montevideo, Morelos, Morona Santiago, Napo, Nayarit, Neembucú, New Providence, Nicaragua, Nueva Segovia, Oaxaca, Ocotepeque, Olancho, Orellana, Oxapampa, Panama, Panamá, Paraguay, Paramaribo, Pastaza, Pedernales, Peru, Petén, Pichincha, Pte. Hayes, Puerto Plata, Puerto Rico, Puntarenas, Quetzaltenango, Región Autónoma del Atlántico Norte, Región Autónoma del Atlántico Sur, Retalhuleu, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Rupununi, Sacatepéquez, Saint Andrew, Saint Ann, Saint Elizabeth, Saint George, Saint James, Saint Lucia, Saint Martin, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Salta, San Blas, San José, San Luis, San Marcos, San Salvador, Santa Barbara, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santa Rosa, Santiago, Santiago de Cuba, Sao Paulo, Suchitepéquez, Sucre, Suriname, Tabasco, Tachira, Tamaulipas, Totonicapan, Trelawny, Trinidad and Tobago, Trujillo, Tucumán, United States Virgin Islands, Uruguay, Usulután, Valle de Cauca, Valle del Cauca, Vargas, Venezuela, Veracruz, Veraguas, West Demerara, Zacapa
Oceania Region: Aimeliik, Airai, American Samoa, Angaur, Ba, Bua, Cakaudrove, Chuuk I., Cook Islands, Enewetak, Fiji, French Polynesia, Gaga'ifomauga, Guam, Hatobohei, Hawaii, Kadavu, Kayangel, Kiribati, Koror, Lau, Lomaiviti, Macuata, Majuro, Marquesas Islands, Marshall Islands, Melekeok, Micronesia, Naitaisri, Naitasiri, Namosi, Ngarchelong, Ngatpang, Ngeremlengui, Niue, Niue Is., Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Palau Islands, Peleliu, Pitcairn, Pohnpei, Pohnpei I., Ra, Rewa, Samoa, Sera, Serua, Sonsorol, South Cook, Tailevu, Tinian, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuamasaga, Tuvalu, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu, Vuda, Vunda, Wainikeli, Wallis and Futuna, Wallis and Futuna Islands, Yap Group, Yap I., Yasawa
Palearctic Region: Aegean Islands, Afghanistan, Al Bahah, Albania, Algeria, Alicante, Andalusia, Andorra, Ar Riyad, Armenia, Attica, Austria, Balearic Islands, Barcelona, Blagoevgrad province, Bulgaria, Campania, Canary Islands, Catalonia, China, Crete, Croatia, Denmark, Dodecanese, Egypt, Estremadura, France, Fujairah, Gibraltar, Greece, Hokkaido, Huelva, Hyogo, Ionian Islands, Iran, Iraq, Isfahan, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kairouan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, La Spezia, Languedoc-Roussillon, Lazio, Liguria, Macaronesia, Macedonia, Malta, Mazandaran, Monaco, Montenegro, Morocco, Murcia, Netherlands, North Korea, Oman, Peloponnese, Portugal, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Slovenia, South Aegean, Spain, Switzerland, Thessaly, Toscana, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Umbria, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Vidin, Wakayama, Yemen, Zanjan

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Pheidole   Forel, A., 1891, Histoire naturelle des Hymenopteres. Deuxieme partie: Les Formicides., Histoire Physique, Naturelle et Politique de Madagascar., Paris: L'Imprimerie Nationale, pp. 1-231: 169-170, (download) 169-170 6734
Pheidole   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 35, (download) 35 21367
Pheidole   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 35, (download) 35 21367
Pheidole   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 35, (download) 35 21367
Pheidole   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 35, (download) 35 21367
Pheidole   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 35, (download) 35 21367
Pheidole   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 35, (download) 35 21367
Pheidole   Wheeler, W. M., 1922, The ants collected by the American Museum Congo Expedition., Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 45, pp. 39-269: 126-127, (download) 126-127 20597
Pheidole   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 35, (download) 35 21367
Pheidole   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 35, (download) 35 21367
Pheidole   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 35, (download) 35 21367
Pheidole   Collingwood, C. A., 1979, The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark., Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 8, pp. 1-174: 61-62, (download) 61-62 6175
Pheidole   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 35, (download) 35 21367
Pheidole   Smith, F., 1858, Catalogue of the hymenopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. Formicidae., London: British Museum: 172-173, (download) 172-173 8127
Pheidole   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 35, (download) 35 21367
Pheidole   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 35, (download) 35 21367
Pheidole   Sarnat, E. M., 2008, A taxonomic revision of the Pheidole roosevelti-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Fiji., Zootaxa 1767, pp. 1-36: 7-11, (download) 7-11 21683
Pheidole   Ward, P. S., 2005, A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 936, pp. 1-68: 35, (download) 35 21008
Pheidole   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 35, (download) 35 21367
Pheidole   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 35, (download) 35 21367
Pheidole   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 35, (download) 35 21367
Pheidole   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 35, (download) 35 21367
Pheidole   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 35, (download) 35 21367
Pheidole   Eguchi, K., Viet, B. T. & Yamane, S., 2011, Generic synopsis of the Formicidae of Vietnam (Insecta: Hymenoptera), Part I - Myrmicinae and Pseudomyrmicinae., Zootaxa 2878, pp. 1-61: 23-24, (download) 23-24 23462
Pheidole   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 35, (download) 35 21367


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