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Genus: Pachycondyla   Smith, 1858 

Classification:

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2016)

Extant: 17 species

Fossil: 19 species

Pachycondyla Smith, 1858a PDF: 105 . Type-species: Formica crassinoda, by subsequent designation of Emery, 1901b PDF: 42. AntCat AntWiki

Taxonomic history

Pachycondyla in Poneridae: Smith, 1858a PDF: 105; Smith, 1871b PDF: 324.
Pachycondyla in Ponerinae: Mayr, 1862 PDF: 713 [Poneridae]; Mayr, 1865 PDF: 13 [Poneridae]; Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF}: 32.
Pachycondyla in Ponerinae, Ponerini: Emery, 1895l PDF: 767; Forel, 1895b PDF: 114; Forel, 1899B: 10; Wheeler, 1910a: 135; Emery, 1911e PDF: 73 [subtribe Pachycondylini]; Arnold, 1915: 53; Forel, 1917 PDF: 237; Wheeler, 1922: 648; all subsequent authors.
Genus Pachycondyla references
Mayr, 1862Mayr, G. 1862. Myrmecologische Studien. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 12:649-776. [1862] PDF 127190: 719 (diagnosis); Roger, 1863bRoger, J. 1863b. Verzeichniss der Formiciden-Gattungen und Arten. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 7(Beilage):1-65. [1863-06] 128094: 16, 17, 18 (catalogue); Mayr, 1863aMayr, G. 1863a. Formicidarum index synonymicus. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 13:385-460. [1863] PDF 127213: 397, 428, 439, 440 (catalogue); Mayr, 1865Mayr, G. 1865. Formicidae. In: Novara Expedition 1865. Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte "Novara" um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859. Zoologischer Theil. Bd. II. Abt. 1. Wien: K. Gerold's Sohn, 119 pp. [1865-12-14] PDF 127193: 13, 15 (Bothroponera, Pachycondyla, Megaponera, Paltothyreus diagnoses); Mayr, 1867aMayr, G. 1867a. Adnotationes in monographiam formicidarum Indo-Neerlandicarum. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 10:33-117. [1867] PDF 127217: 82 (Bothroponera diagnosis); Mayr, 1870aMayr, G. 1870a. Formicidae novogranadenses. Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. Abteilung I 61:370-417. [1870-04] PDF 127228: 396 (Colombia + Panama (? = New Grenada) species key); Emery, 1887fEmery, C. 1887f. Catalogo delle formiche esistenti nelle collezioni del Museo Civico di Genova. Parte terza. Formiche della regione Indo-Malese e dell'Australia (continuazione e fine). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale 25[=(2)5]:433-448. PDF 132998: 18 (footnote) (Asia & Australia Bothroponera species key); Emery, 1890bEmery, C. 1890b. Voyage de M. E. Simon au Venezuela (Décembre 1887 - Avril 1888). Formicides. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (6)10:55-76. [1890-08-08] 124550: 71 (Neotropical species key); Dalla Torre, 1893Dalla Torre, K. W. 1893. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. [1893] PDF 124002: 30, 31, 32, 35 (Ectomomyrmex, Megaponera, Ophthalmopone, Paltothyreus, Pachycondyla, Bothroponera catalogues); Forel, 1900fForel, A. 1900f. Les Formicides de l'Empire des Indes et de Ceylan. Part VII. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 13:303-332. [1900-07-29] PDF 125101: 321 (India & Sri Lanka Ectomomyrmex species key); Bingham, 1903Bingham, C. T. 1903. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera, Vol. II. Ants and Cuckoo-wasps. London: Taylor and Francis, 506 pp. [1903] PDF 122766: 86, 91, 96, 101 (India, Sri Lanka & Burma Ectomomyrmex, Pseudoponera, Bothroponera, Brachyponera species keys); Emery, 1911eEmery, C. 1911e. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118:1-125. [1911-09-09] PDF 124702: 62 (Paltothyreus diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1911eEmery, C. 1911e. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118:1-125. [1911-09-09] PDF 124702: 67 (Megaponera diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1911eEmery, C. 1911e. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118:1-125. [1911-09-09] PDF 124702: 69 (Megaponera (Hagensia) and Ophthalmopone diagnoses, catalogues); Emery, 1911eEmery, C. 1911e. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118:1-125. [1911-09-09] PDF 124702: 70 (Neoponera diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1911eEmery, C. 1911e. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118:1-125. [1911-09-09] PDF 124702: 73 (diagnosis, subgenera key, catalogue); Emery, 1911eEmery, C. 1911e. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118:1-125. [1911-09-09] PDF 124702: 75 (Pachycondyla (Bothroponera) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1911eEmery, C. 1911e. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118:1-125. [1911-09-09] PDF 124702: 78 (Pachycondyla (Ectomomyrmex) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1911eEmery, C. 1911e. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118:1-125. [1911-09-09] PDF 124702: 80 (Euponera diagnosis, subgenera key, catalogue); Emery, 1911eEmery, C. 1911e. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118:1-125. [1911-09-09] PDF 124702: 80 (Euponera (Mesoponera) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1911eEmery, C. 1911e. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118:1-125. [1911-09-09] PDF 124702: 83 (Euponera (Brachyponera) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1911eEmery, C. 1911e. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118:1-125. [1911-09-09] PDF 124702: 84 (Euponera (Trachymesopus) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1911eEmery, C. 1911e. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118:1-125. [1911-09-09] PDF 124702: 86 (Pseudoponera diagnosis, catalogue); Arnold, 1915Arnold, G. 1915. A monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. Part I. Ponerinae, Dorylinae. Annals of the South African Museum 14:1-159. [1915-02-11] 122309: 43, 46, 49, 53, 63 (Paltothyreus, Megaponera, Ophthalmopone, Pachycondyla, Euponera diagnoses); Arnold, 1915Arnold, G. 1915. A monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. Part I. Ponerinae, Dorylinae. Annals of the South African Museum 14:1-159. [1915-02-11] 122309: 50, 55, 64 (South Africa Ophthalmopone, Bothroponera, Euponera (Mesoponera) species keys); Gallardo, 1918cGallardo, A. 1918c. Las hormigas de la República Argentina. Subfamilia Ponerinas. Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires 30:1-112. [1918-12-15] PDF 125422: 56, 66 (Argentina Neoponera, Mesoponera, keys); Wheeler, 1922Wheeler, W. M. 1922. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. New York: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 1139. 133015: 72 (Afrotropical Bothroponera species key); Wheeler, 1922Wheeler, W. M. 1922. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. New York: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 1139. 133015: 60, 63, 69, 81 (Paltothyreus, Megaponera, Bothroponera, Euponera diagnoses); Wheeler, 1922Wheeler, W. M. 1922. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. New York: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 1139. 133015: 763, 766, 768, 769, 774, 780 (Afrotropical Paltothyreus, Megaponera, Ophthalmopone, Bothroponera, Ectomomyrmex, Euponera, Pseudoponera, Cryptopone catalogues); Wheeler, 1922Wheeler, W. M. 1922. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. New York: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 1139. 133015: 1007, 1008 (Malagasy Bothroponera, Euponera catalogues); Arnold, 1926Arnold, G. 1926. A monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. Appendix. Annals of the South African Museum 23:191-295. [1926-02] PDF 122314: 203 (South Africa Hagensia species key); Santschi, 1935bSantschi, F. 1935b. Hymenoptera. I. Formicidae. Mission Scientifique de l'Omo 2:255-277. [1935] 128424: 259 (Africa Mesoponera, key); Creighton, 1950aCreighton, W. S. 1950a. The ants of North America. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 104:1-585. [1950-04] PDF 123910: 45 (North America Euponera species key); Arnold, 1951Arnold, G. 1951. The genus Hagensia Forel (Formicidae). Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 14:53-56. [1951-05-31] PDF 122320: 53 (Hagensia species key); Chapman & Capco, 1951Chapman, J. W.; Capco, S. R. 1951. Check list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Asia. Monographs of the Institute of Science and Technology. Manila 1:1-327. [1951] PDF 123583: 49, 60, 63, 74 (Asia Bothroponera, Ectmomomyrmex, Euponera, Pseudoponera checklists); Arnold, 1952aArnold, G. 1952a. New species of African Hymenoptera. No. 10. Occasional Papers of the National Museum of Southern Rhodesia 2:460-493. [1952-07-02] PDF 122331: 461 (South Africa Bothroponera, key); Bernard, 1953bBernard, F. 1953b ("1952"). La réserve naturelle intégrale du Mt Nimba. XI. Hyménoptères Formicidae. Mémoires de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire 19:165-270. [1953-03] PDF 122637: 191 (Guinea Euponera (Xiphopelta) species key); Brown, 1958hBrown, W. L., Jr. 1958h. A review of the ants of New Zealand. Acta Hymenopterologica 1:1-50. [1958-07-30] PDF 123147: 20 (New Zealand species); Wilson, 1958gWilson, E. O. 1958g. Studies on the ant fauna of Melanesia III. Rhytidoponera in western Melanesia and the Moluccas. IV. The tribe Ponerini. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 119:303-371. [1958-08] PDF 130355: 346, 362 (Melanesia Brachyponera, Ectomomyrmex species keys); Kempf, 1961bKempf, W. W. 1961b. A survey of the ants of the soil fauna in Surinam (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Studia Entomologica 4:481-524. [1961-10-10] PDF 126326: 192 (Brazil species key); Brown, 1963: 6, 9 (reviews of Trachymesopus & Ectomomyrmex); Kempf, 1964eKempf, W. W. 1964e. Miscellaneous studies on Neotropical ants. III. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Studia Entomologica 7:45-71. [1964-12-10] PDF 126341: 51 (Neotropical Pachycondyla species key); Kusnezov, 1969Kusnezov, N. 1969. Nuevas especies de hormigas. Acta Zoologica Lilloana 24:33-38. [1969-07] PDF 126612: 36 (Argentina Neoponera species key); Kempf, 1972bKempf, W. W. 1972b. Catálogo abreviado das formigas da região Neotropical. Studia Entomologica 15:3-344. [1972-08-25] PDF 126357: 141, 160, 174, 248, 251, 257 (Neotropical Mesoponera, Neoponera, Pachycondyla, Termitopone, Trachymesopus, Wadeura catalogues); Alayo, 1974Alayo, P. 1974. Introducción al estudio de los Himenópteros de Cuba. Superfamilia Formicoidea. Serie Biológica. Academia de Ciencias de Cuba 53:1-58. [1974] 122161: 7 (Cuba species key); Smith, 1979Smith, D. R. 1979. Superfamily Formicoidea. Pp. 1323-1467 in: Krombein, K. V.; Hurd, P. D.; Smith, D. R.; Burks, B. D. (eds.) 1979. Catalog of Hymenoptera in America north of Mexico. Volume 2. Apocrita (Aculeata). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, pp. i-xvi, 1199-2209. [1979] 128659: 1339, 1341 (North America, Pachycondyla, Brachyponera catalogues); Taylor & Brown, 1985Taylor, R. W.; Brown, D. R. 1985. Formicoidea. Zoological Catalogue of Australia 2:1-149, 306-348. [1985] 129218: 21, 23, 28, 29, 34, 34, 52 (Australia, catalogue); Taylor, 1987aTaylor, R. W. 1987a. A checklist of the ants of Australia, New Caledonia and New Zealand (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization) Division of Entomology Report 41:1-92. [1987-06] PDF 129202: 9, 23, 26, 39, 80 (Australia, New Caledonia & New Zealand checklists); Morisita, Kubota, et al. 1989: 18 (Japan Ectomomyrmex, Brachyponera, Trachymesopus species key); Brandão, 1991Brandão, C. R. F. 1991. Adendos ao catálogo abreviado das formigas da região Neotropical (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 35:319-412. [1991-08-31] PDF 122994: 354, 360, 365, 381, 382 (Neotropical catalogue); Xu, 1994bXu, Z. 1994b. A taxonomic study of the ant genus Brachyponera Emery in southwestern China (Hymenoptera Formicidae Ponerinae). [In Chinese.]. Journal of Southwest Forestry College 14:181-185. [1994-09] PDF 130499: 182 (China Brachyponera species key); Bolton, 1994Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. [1994-07-25] 122834: 164 (synoptic classification); Bolton, 1995aBolton, B. 1995a. A taxonomic and zoogeographical census of the extant ant taxa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Natural History 29:1037-1056. [1995-08] PDF 122859: 1051 (census); Bolton, 1995bBolton, B. 1995b. A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 504 pp. [1995-10] 122860: 166, 302 (Cryptopone, Pachycondyla catalogues); Wu & Wang, 1995aWu, J.; Wang, C. 1995a. The ants of China. [In Chinese.]. Beijing: China Forestry Publishing House, x + 214 pp. [1995-06] 130487: 45 (China species key); Xu, 1995bXu, Z. 1995b ("1994"). A taxonomic study of the genus Pachycondyla Smith in China (Hyminoptera [sic]: Formicidae: Ponerinae). Pp. 103-112 in: Xi, G.; Liu, Z.; Xu, S. (eds.) 1995. Entomological research. First issue. A collection of research papers commemorating 40 years of teaching by Professor Zheng Zhemin. [In Chinese.]. Xi'an: Shaanxi Normal University Press, 239 pp. [1995-04-01] 130503: 104 (China species key); Collingwood & Agosti, 1996Collingwood, C. A.; Agosti, D. 1996. Formicidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) of Saudi Arabia (part 2). Fauna of Saudi Arabia 15:300-385. [1996-04-15] PDF 130931: 310 (Pachycondyla Saudi Arabia species key); Kim, Kim & Kim K, 1998Kim, B.-J.; Kim, J.-H.; Kim K 1998. Systematic study of Ponerinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Korea. Korean Journal of Entomology 28:145-154. [1998-06] 131603: 147 (Korea species key); Shattuck, 1999Shattuck, S. O. 1999. Australian ants. Their biology and identification. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing, xi + 226 pp. [1999-01] 132308: 196 (Australia fauna synopsis); Zhou, 2001AZhou, S. 2001A. Ants of Guangxi. [In Chinese.]. Guilin, China: Guangxi Normal University Press, 255 pp. [2001-09-01] PDF 132709: 35 (China, Guangxi species key); Dlussky & Rasnitsyn, 2003Dlussky, G. M.; Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2003 ("2002"). Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Formation Green River and some other Middle Eocene deposits of North America. Russian Entomological Journal 11:411-436. [2003-06] PDF 131135: 424 (wingless female fossils, diagnosis); Wild, 2003Wild, A. L. 2003 ("2002"). The genus Pachycondyla (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Paraguay. Boletín del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural del Paraguay 14:1-18. [2003-02] PDF 132620: 4 (Paraguay species key); Bolton, 2003Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and classification of Formicidae. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 71:1-370. [2003-11-10] PDF 130789: 165 (synopsis); Wild, 2005Wild, A. L. 2005. Taxonomic revision of the Pachycondyla apicalis species complex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 834:1-25. [2005-01-24] PDF 132618: 5 (Neoponera apicalis complex key); Yamane, 2007Yamane, S. 2007. Pachycondyla nigrita and related species in Southeast Asia. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 80:650-663. [2007-09] 132675: 652 (Brachyponera nigrita species group key); Mackay & Mackay & Fernández & Arias-Penna, in Fernández, 2008AFernández, F. 2008A. Subfamilia Ponerinae s.str. Pp. 123-218 in: Jiménez, E.; Fernández, F.; Arias, T.M.; Lozano-Zambrano, F. H. (eds.) 2008. Sistemática, biogeografía y conservación de las hormigas cazadoras de Colombia. Bogotá: Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, xiv + 609 pp. [2008-12-26] [2008-12-26] PDF 131261: 172 (Neotropical species key); Terayama, 2009Terayama, M. 2009. A synopsis of the family Formicidae of Taiwan (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Research Bulletin of Kanto Gakuen University. Liberal Arts 17:81-266. [2009] PDF 132431: 108 (Taiwan species keys); Heterick, 2009Heterick, B. E. 2009. A guide to the ants of south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 76:1-206. PDF 131481: 134 (south-western Australia species key); MacKay & MacKay, 2010MacKay, W. P.; MacKay, E. 2010. The systematics and biology of the New World ants of the genus Pachycondyla (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press, xii+642 pp. [2010-09-29] PDF 131785: 26, 107 (New World Pachycondyla species revision, species complexes key and species key); Dlussky & Wedmann, 2012Dlussky, G. M.; Wedmann, S. 2012. The poneromorph ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae: Amblyoponinae, Ectatomminae, Ponerinae) of Grube Messel, Germany: high biodiversity in the Eocene. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 10:725-753. PDF 142258: 746 (Germany Eocene fossils key); Rakotonirina & Fisher, 2013Rakotonirina, J. C.; Fisher, B. L. 2013. Revision of the Pachycondyla sikorae species-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Madagascar. Zootaxa 3683:447-485. [2013-07-05] PDF 142379 (sikorae-group diagnosis, revision, species key): 104; Rakotonirina & Fisher, 2013Rakotonirina, J. C.; Fisher, B. L. 2013. Revision of the Pachycondyla wasmannii-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from the Malagasy region. Zootaxa 3609:101-141. [2013-01-29] PDF 142319 (Madagascar wasmannii-group diagnosis, revision, species key): 449; Fernandes, Oliveira & Delabie, 2014Fernandes, I. O.; Oliveira, M. L. de; Delabie, J. H. C. 2014. Description of two new species in the Neotropical Pachycondyla foetida complex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae) and taxonomic notes on the genus. Myrmecological News 19:133-163. [2014-01] PDF 142549 (foetida-group diagnosis, revision, species key): 134; Schmidt & Shattuck, 2014Schmidt, C. A.; Shattuck, S. O. 2014. The higher classification of the ant subfamily Ponerinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with a review of ponerine ecology and behavior. Zootaxa 3817(1):1-242. PDF 142616: 152 (diagnosis, synoptic description, distribution, ecology and behavior, phylogenetic and taxonomic considerations); Dlussky, Rasnitsyn & Perfilieva, 2015Dlussky, G. M.; Rasnitsyn, A. P.; Perfilieva, K. S. 2015. The ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Bol’shaya Svetlovodnaya (Late Eocene of Sikhote-Alin, Russian Far East). Caucasian Entomological Bulletin 11(1):131-152. [2015-08-31] PDF 142813: 141 (diagnosis for impression fossils).

Distribution:


African Region: Kenya
Australian Region: Australia
Eurasian Region: China
Malagasy Region: Madagascar
Nearctic Region: Louisiana, Texas
Neotropical Region: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Jamaica, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela
Pacific Islands Region: French Polynesia, Indonesia, Malaysia
South East Asia Region: Borneo

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Pachycondyla   Clark, J., 1930, New Formicidae, with notes on some little-known species., Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 43, pp. 2-25: 11, (download) 11 6104
Pachycondyla   Smith, F., 1858, Catalogue of the hymenopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. Formicidae., London: British Museum, pp. -1--1: 105, (download) 105 8127
Pachycondyla   Yoshimura, M. & Fisher, B. L., 2007, A revision of male ants of the Malagasy region (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Key to subfamilies and treatment of the genera of Ponerinae., Zootaxa 1654, pp. 21-40: 34-38, (download) 34-38 21365
Pachycondyla   Mayr, G., 1862, Myrmecologische Studien., Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 12, pp. 649-776: 719, (download) 719 4445

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