MALAGASY, Borneo, Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Japan,
Forel, A., 1912:
[[queen]] [[worker]] Takao.:
Emery, C., 1893:
Les exemplaires de Ceylan et de l'Inde continentale sont constamment plus fonces que le type de Borneo; le corps est brun, avec les antennes et les pattes testacees: Il m'a semble que cette variete meritait d'etre nommee.
Heterick, B. E., 2006:
Figs. 16, 44-45.
Monomorium latinode Mayr 1872:152. Syntype [[worker]] (lectotype here designated), Malaysia: Sarawak, Borneo (bmnh) [material examined].
Monomorium latinode var. bruneum Emery 1893:243. Syntype [[worker]]"s (lectotype here designated), Sri Lanka: Kandy (mcsn) [material examined]. Syn. under Monomorium latinode Mayr : Bolton 1987:429.
Monomorium voeltzkowi Forel 1907b:78. Syntype [[worker]]"s (lectotype here designated), Tanzania: Chake-Chake, Pemba (mhng) [material examined]. Syn. under Monomorium latinode Mayr : Bolton 1987:429.
Material examined.- M. latinode : Lectotype: [[worker]], Borneo Sarawak (Malaysia), g. Doria (bmnh). a single carded worker labeled syntype is here designated lectotype to fix the name for populations of M. latinode , which has a more convex outline to the vertex than M. latinode bruneum or M. voeltzkowi . Other syntype specimens may still exist (seen by Bolton in 1987), and these should be treated as paralectotypes. M. latinode bruneum : Lectotype: [[worker]], Ceylon, Kandy, [e.] Simon (mcsn). Label data reads " brunneum ", but published name is bruneum . a lectotype has been chosen to fix the name for the taxon, which is darker than typical M. latinode . The specimen, originally on a pin holding four carded specimens, has been transferred to a single pin and the original labels and a lectotype label have been appended to that pin.
Paralectotypes: Three workers, data the same as for the lectotype, photocopies of original labels attached (MCSN). M. voeltzkowi : Lectotype: [[worker]], Chake-Chake, Pemba, "East Africa" [Tanzania] (MHNG). A lectotype has also been chosen to fix the name voeltzkowi , whose proportions were thought by Forel to differ from those of M. latinode . The lectotype has been repinned as above. Paralectotypes: (i) One worker, data the same as for the lectotype, photocopies of original labels attached (MHNG). (ii) Three workers, data as for the lectotype (MHNG).
Other material examined: Comoros Islands: Mayotte, Majimbini, 21.vii.1998 R. Jocque (2 [[worker]]). Madagascar: Prov. Antsiranana: Nosy Be, 2 km ENE Andoany (= Hellville), 1.v.1989 P.S. Ward (6 [[worker]]) (MCZ). Prov. Fianarantsoa: 3km S Namakia, 5.iv.1993 P. Rabeson (96 [[worker]]) (MCZ).
Worker description.- Head: Head oval; vertex weakly convex; frons shining and smooth except for piliferous pits; pilosity of frons a mixture of well-spaced, distinctly longer erect and semi-erect setae interspersed with shorter decumbent setae or setulae. Eye moderate, eye width 1-1.5x greatest width of antennal scape; (in full-face view) eyes set below midpoint of head capsule; (viewed in profile) eyes set posteriad of midline of head capsule; eye elliptical, curvature of inner eye margin may be more pronounced than that of its outer margin. Antennal segments 12; antennal club three-segmented. Clypeal carinae weakly to strongly defined; anteromedian clypeal margin straight, or, emarginate, clypeal carinae terminating in blunt angles; paraclypeal setae moderately long and fine, curved; posteromedian clypeal margin extending slightly beyond level of posterior margin of antennal fossae. Anterior tentorial pits situated nearer antennal fossae than mandibular insertions. Frontal lobes straight, parallel. Psammophore absent. Palp formula 3,3. Mandibular teeth five; mandibles triangular and smooth (except for piliferous pits); masticatory margin of mandibles approximately vertical or weakly oblique; basal tooth smaller than t4 (five teeth present).
Mesosoma: Promesonotum shining and smooth on dorsum, entire lower mesopleuron distinctly striolate; (viewed in profile) anterior promesonotum smoothly rounded, thereafter more-or-less flattened, promesonotum on same plane as propodeum; promesonotal setae greater than twelve; standing promesonotal setae consisting of well-spaced, incurved, erect and semi-erect setae only; appressed promesonotal setulae very sparse or absent. Metanotal groove vestigial. Propodeum uniformly finely striolate; propodeal dorsum flat throughout most of its length; propodeum smoothly rounded or with indistinct angle; standing propodeal setae numerous, wholly or mainly erect or suberect, without conspicuous paired setae evident; appressed propodeal setulae very sparse or absent; propodeal spiracle equidistant from metanotal groove and declivitous face of propodeum. Vestibule of propodeal spiracle distinct in some specimens. Propodeal lobes present as blunt-angled flanges.
Petiole and postpetiole: Petiolar spiracle lateral and situated within anterior sector of petiolar node; node (viewed in profile) conical, vertex rounded; appearance of node shining and smooth throughout; ratio of greatest node breadth (viewed from front) to greatest node width (viewed in profile) between 4:3 and1:1; anteroventral petiolar process absent or vestigial; ventral petiolar lobe absent; height ratio of petiole to postpetiole between 4:3 and 1:1; height-length ratio of postpetiole between 4:3 and 1:1; postpetiole shining and smooth; postpetiolar sternite depressed near its junction with gaster, and sloping anteriad at angle of 45-60 to form large conspicuous lip at its anteri- or end.
Gaster: Pilosity of first gastral tergite consisting of well-spaced, erect and semi-erect setae interspersed with a few appressed setulae.
General characters: Color head, mesosoma and appendages brownish-yellow, gaster brown. Worker caste monophasically allometric, i.e., with variable size, but not morphology among workers from same nest.
Lectotype measurements ( M. latinode ): HML 2.02 HL 0.72 HW 0.59 CeI 81 SL 0.60 SI 103 PW 0.42.
Lectotype measurements ( M. latinode bruneum ): HML 2.03 HL 0.73 HW 0.59 CeI 81 SL 0.56 SI 95 PW 0.46.
Lectotype measurements ( M. voeltzkowi ): HML 1.66 HL 0.60 HW 0.46 CeI 77 SL 0.46 SI 100 PW 0.36.
Other worker measurements (non-types): HML 1.83-2.29 HL 0.65-0.83 HW 0.52-0.73 CeI 79-88 SL 0.50-0.62 SI 85-98 PW 0.38-0.49 (n=20).
Remarks.- This species, currently the sole member of the M. latinode group, has an appearance somewhat suggestive of taxa from the Australasian M. rubriceps species group. However, none of the latter has a PF of 3,3, and this count may represent an ancestral plesiomorphy, if indeed the ant is a member of that group. Certainly, the species has no close connections with the remaining African and Malagasy Monomorium fauna. The type specimens for the nominal taxa currently associated with M. latinode (i.e., " M. latinode ", " M. latinode bruneum " and " M. voeltzkowi ") show variation in color and size, and the lectotype of M. latinode also exhibits some differences in the appearance of the head capsule. Apart from an excellent series from the Province Fianarantsoa and a small number from Province Antsiranana (MCZ) from tropical and lowland rainforest, I have seen no other Malagasy material pertaining to this tramp species. Malagasy specimens have been collected on low vegetation and on the ground.