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Genus: Hypoponera   Santschi, 1938 


Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2015)

Extant: 148 species, 29 subspecies

Fossil: 1 species

Hypoponera Santschi, 1938b PDF: 79 [as subgenus of Ponera]. Type-species: Ponera abeillei, by original designation. AntCat AntWiki

Taxonomic history

Hypoponera in Ponerinae, Ponerini: Donisthorpe, 1943g: 652; all subsequent authors.
Hypoponera as subgenus of Ponera: Santschi, 1938b PDF: 79.
Hypoponera as genus: Taylor, 1967a PDF: 9; all subsequent authors.
Genus Hypoponera references
[References prior to 1967, see under PONERA.]
Taylor, 1967a PDF: 9 (Hypoponera diagnosis, discussion); Kempf, 1972b PDF: 121 (Neotropical catalogue); Alayo, 1974: 7 (Cuba species key); Kutter, 1977c: 24 (Switzerland species key); Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978: 524 (former European U.S.S.R. species key); Smith, 1979: 1342 (North America catalogue); Taylor & Brown, 1985: 31 (Australia catalogue); Taylor, 1987a PDF: 29 (Australia, New Caledonia & New Zealand checklists); Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b PDF: 265 (Balkans species key); Morisita, Kubota, et al. 1989: 25 (Japan species key); Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990 PDF: 176 (Turkmenistan species key); Brandão, 1991 PDF: 347 (Neotropical catalogue); Atanasov & Dlussky, 1992: 69 (Bulgaria species key); Bolton, 1994: 164 (synoptic classification); Bolton, 1995a PDF: 1050 (census); Bolton, 1995b: 213 (catalogue); Wu & Wang, 1995a: 40 (China species key); Collingwood & Agosti, 1996 PDF: 311 (Saudi Arabia species key); Kim, Kim & Kim K, 1998: 148 (Korea species key); Shattuck, 1999: 187 (Australia synopsis); Bolton, 2003 PDF: 162 (synopsis); Terayama, 2009 PDF: 113 (Taiwan species key); Heterick, 2009 PDF: 133 (south-western Australia species key); Bolton & Fisher, 2011 PDF: 17, 23 (Afrotropical and West Palaearctic, all species revision, keys); Sarnat & Economo, 2012 PDF: 148 (Fiji species key); Schmidt & Shattuck, 2014 PDF: 57 (diagnosis, synoptic description, distribution, ecology and behavior, phylogenetic and taxonomic considerations)

Taxon Page Images:

Hypoponera opacior, worker and ergatoid male. Most ant males are wasp-like and winged, adapted for dispersing away from their home nest to mate with queens from other colonies. But some Hypoponera males are inbreeding specialists. These pale creatures are worker-like in appearance and mate with their sisters in the nest. Archbold Biological Station, Florida, USA.
Image © Alex Wild.


These are small, cryptic ants, nesting in soil or wood. The workers are predators on small arthropods, but they are seldom seen foraging above ground.


Worker: frontal lobes contiguous, not separated by a conspicuous posterior extension of the clypeus; eyes reduced or absent; hind tibia with a single spur; petiole attached near lower margin of abdominal segment 3; subpetiolar process a simple lobe, lacking sharp posteroventral teeth or angles.


This cosmopolitan genus is most common and diverse in the tropics. Four species are known from California, of which two are apparently introduced.


Onoyama (1989b); Taylor (1967a); Yamauchi et al. (1996).

Taxon Page Author History

On 2013-08-22 06:43:11 Zach Lieberman modified Images
On 2013-08-22 06:42:48 Zach Lieberman modified Images

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