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Genus: Hypoponera   Santschi, 1938 

Classification:

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2016)

Extant: 153 species, 27 subspecies

Fossil: 1 species

Hypoponera Santschi, 1938b PDF: 79 [as subgenus of Ponera]. Type-species: Ponera abeillei, by original designation. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

Hypoponera in Ponerinae, Ponerini: Donisthorpe, 1943g: 652; all subsequent authors.
Hypoponera as subgenus of Ponera: Santschi, 1938b PDF: 79.
Hypoponera as genus: Taylor, 1967a PDF: 9; all subsequent authors.
Genus Hypoponera references:
[References prior to 1967, see under PONERA.]
Taylor, 1967aTaylor, R. W. 1967a. A monographic revision of the ant genus Ponera Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Pacific Insects Monograph 13:1-112. [1967-05-30] PDF 129181: 9 (Hypoponera diagnosis, discussion); Kempf, 1972bKempf, W. W. 1972b. Catálogo abreviado das formigas da região Neotropical. Studia Entomologica 15:3-344. [1972-08-25] PDF 126357: 121 (Neotropical catalogue); Alayo, 1974Alayo, P. 1974. Introducción al estudio de los Himenópteros de Cuba. Superfamilia Formicoidea. Serie Biológica. Academia de Ciencias de Cuba 53:1-58. [1974] 122161: 7 (Cuba species key); Kutter, 1977cKutter, H. 1977c. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Insecta Helvetica. Fauna 6:1-298. [1977] 126740: 24 (Switzerland species key); Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978Arnol'di, K. V.; Dlussky, G. M. 1978. Superfam. Formicoidea. 1. Fam. Formicidae - ants. [In Russian.]. Pp. 519-556 in: Medvedev, G. S. (ed.) 1978. Keys to the insects of the European part of the USSR. Vol. 3. Hymenoptera. Part 1. [In Russian.]. Opredeliteli Faune SSSR 119:3-584. [1978-11-02>] 122371: 524 (former European U.S.S.R. species key); Smith, 1979Smith, D. R. 1979. Superfamily Formicoidea. Pp. 1323-1467 in: Krombein, K. V.; Hurd, P. D.; Smith, D. R.; Burks, B. D. (eds.) 1979. Catalog of Hymenoptera in America north of Mexico. Volume 2. Apocrita (Aculeata). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, pp. i-xvi, 1199-2209. [1979] 128659: 1342 (North America catalogue); Taylor & Brown, 1985Taylor, R. W.; Brown, D. R. 1985. Formicoidea. Zoological Catalogue of Australia 2:1-149, 306-348. [1985] 129218: 31 (Australia catalogue); Taylor, 1987aTaylor, R. W. 1987a. A checklist of the ants of Australia, New Caledonia and New Zealand (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization) Division of Entomology Report 41:1-92. [1987-06] PDF 129202: 29 (Australia, New Caledonia & New Zealand checklists); Agosti & Collingwood, 1987bAgosti, D.; Collingwood, C. A. 1987b. A provisional list of the Balkan ants (Hym. Formicidae) with a key to the worker caste. II. Key to the worker caste, including the European species without the Iberian. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 60:261-293. [1987-12-15] PDF 122149: 265 (Balkans species key); Morisita, Kubota, et al. 1989: 25 (Japan species key); Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990Dlussky, G. M.; Soyunov, O. S.; Zabelin, S. I. 1990. Ants of Turkmenistan. [In Russian.]. Ashkabad: Ylym Press, 273 pp. PDF 124151: 176 (Turkmenistan species key); Brandão, 1991Brandão, C. R. F. 1991. Adendos ao catálogo abreviado das formigas da região Neotropical (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 35:319-412. [1991-08-31] PDF 122994: 347 (Neotropical catalogue); Atanasov & Dlussky, 1992: 69 (Bulgaria species key); Bolton, 1994Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. [1994-07-25] 122834: 164 (synoptic classification); Bolton, 1995aBolton, B. 1995a. A taxonomic and zoogeographical census of the extant ant taxa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Natural History 29:1037-1056. [1995-08] PDF 122859: 1050 (census); Bolton, 1995bBolton, B. 1995b. A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 504 pp. [1995-10] 122860: 213 (catalogue); Wu & Wang, 1995aWu, J.; Wang, C. 1995a. The ants of China. [In Chinese.]. Beijing: China Forestry Publishing House, x + 214 pp. [1995-06] 130487: 40 (China species key); Collingwood & Agosti, 1996Collingwood, C. A.; Agosti, D. 1996. Formicidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) of Saudi Arabia (part 2). Fauna of Saudi Arabia 15:300-385. [1996-04-15] PDF 130931: 311 (Saudi Arabia species key); Kim, Kim & Kim K, 1998Kim, B.-J.; Kim, J.-H.; Kim K 1998. Systematic study of Ponerinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Korea. Korean Journal of Entomology 28:145-154. [1998-06] 131603: 148 (Korea species key); Shattuck, 1999Shattuck, S. O. 1999. Australian ants. Their biology and identification. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing, xi + 226 pp. [1999-01] 132308: 187 (Australia synopsis); Bolton, 2003Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and classification of Formicidae. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 71:1-370. [2003-11-10] PDF 130789: 162 (synopsis); Terayama, 2009Terayama, M. 2009. A synopsis of the family Formicidae of Taiwan (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Research Bulletin of Kanto Gakuen University. Liberal Arts 17:81-266. [2009] PDF 132431: 113 (Taiwan species key); Heterick, 2009Heterick, B. E. 2009. A guide to the ants of south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 76:1-206. PDF 131481: 133 (south-western Australia species key); Bolton & Fisher, 2011Bolton, B.; Fisher, B. L. 2011. Taxonomy of Afrotropical and West Palaearctic ants of the ponerine genus Hypoponera Santschi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 2843:1-118. [2011-04-29] PDF 132822: 17, 23 (Afrotropical and West Palaearctic, all species revision, keys); Sarnat & Economo, 2012Sarnat, E. M.; Economo, E. P. 2012. The ants of Fiji. University of California Publications in Entomology 132:1-384. [2012-09-01] PDF 142254: 148 (Fiji species key); Schmidt & Shattuck, 2014Schmidt, C. A.; Shattuck, S. O. 2014. The higher classification of the ant subfamily Ponerinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with a review of ponerine ecology and behavior. Zootaxa 3817(1):1-242. PDF 142616: 57 (diagnosis, synoptic description, distribution, ecology and behavior, phylogenetic and taxonomic considerations); Bharti, Akbar, Wachkoo & Singh, 2015Bharti, H.; Akbar, S. A.; Wachkoo, A. A.; Singh, J. 2015. Taxonomic studies on ant genus Hypoponera (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae) from India. Asian Myrmecology 7:37-51. PDF 142802: 50 (India species key).

Taxon Page Images:



Hypoponera opacior, worker and ergatoid male. Most ant males are wasp-like and winged, adapted for dispersing away from their home nest to mate with queens from other colonies. But some Hypoponera males are inbreeding specialists. These pale creatures are worker-like in appearance and mate with their sisters in the nest. Archbold Biological Station, Florida, USA.
Image © Alex Wild.

Distribution:


African Region: Angola, Benin, Botswana, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Macaronesia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Saint Helena, Sao Tome and Principe, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Australian Region: Australia, Barrow Island, Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Zealand, Norfolk Island, Queensland, Solomon Islands, Western Australia
Eurasian Region: Algeria, Alicante, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Balearic Islands, Belgium, Bulgaria, China, Crete, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Montenegro, Morocco, Netherlands, North Korea, Norway, Oman, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom
Malagasy Region: Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mayotte, Reunion, Seychelles
Nearctic Region: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Baja California, California, Canada, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, iowa, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, New Mexico, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington
Neotropical Region: Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Galapagos Islands, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, United States Virgin Islands, Uruguay, Venezuela
Pacific Islands Region: American Samoa, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Hawaii, Indonesia, Malaysia, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Niue, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Samoa, Singapore, Tonga, Wallis and Futuna Islands
South East Asia Region: Bangladesh, Borneo, India, Krakatau Islands, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Vietnam, Xishuangbanna

Biology:

These are small, cryptic ants, nesting in soil or wood. The workers are predators on small arthropods, but they are seldom seen foraging above ground.

Identification:

Worker: frontal lobes contiguous, not separated by a conspicuous posterior extension of the clypeus; eyes reduced or absent; hind tibia with a single spur; petiole attached near lower margin of abdominal segment 3; subpetiolar process a simple lobe, lacking sharp posteroventral teeth or angles.

Notes:

This cosmopolitan genus is most common and diverse in the tropics. Four species are known from California, of which two are apparently introduced.

References:

Onoyama (1989b); Taylor (1967a); Yamauchi et al. (1996).

Taxon Page Author History

On 2013-08-22 06:43:11 Zach Lieberman modified Images
On 2013-08-22 06:42:48 Zach Lieberman modified Images

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Hypoponera   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 39, (download) 39 21367
Hypoponera   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 39, (download) 39 21367
Hypoponera   Ward, P. S., 2005, A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 936, pp. 1-68: 38, (download) 38 21008
Hypoponera   Yoshimura, M. & Fisher, B. L., 2007, A revision of male ants of the Malagasy region (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Key to subfamilies and treatment of the genera of Ponerinae., Zootaxa 1654, pp. 21-40: 31, (download) 31 21365
Hypoponera   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 39, (download) 39 21367
Hypoponera   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 39, (download) 39 21367
Hypoponera   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 39, (download) 39 21367
Hypoponera   Bolton, B. & Fisher, B. L., 2011, Taxonomy of Afrotropical and West Palaearctic ants of the ponerine genus Hypoponera Santschi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 2843, pp. 1-118: 7-12, (download) 7-12 23490
Hypoponera subgen. nov.  Santschi, F., 1938, Notes sur quelques Ponera Latr., Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 43, pp. 78-80: 79, (download) 79 3583
Hypoponera   Collingwood, C. A., 1979, The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark., Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 8, pp. 1-174: 30, (download) 30 6175
Hypoponera   Ward, P. S., 2005, A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 936, pp. 1-68: -1, (download) -1 21008
Hypoponera   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 39, (download) 39 21367
Hypoponera   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 39, (download) 39 21367
Hypoponera   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 39, (download) 39 21367
Hypoponera   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 39, (download) 39 21367
Hypoponera   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 39, (download) 39 21367
Hypoponera   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 39, (download) 39 21367
Hypoponera   Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 39, (download) 39 21367

(-1 examples)



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