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|Forel, 1908 PDF: 395 (m.); Newell, 1908: 28 (q.); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1951 PDF: 186 (l.); Crozier, 1969a PDF: 250 (k.).|
|Combination in Linepithema (Iridomyrmex): Mayr, 1870b PDF: 959; in Iridomyrmex: Emery, 1888d PDF: 386; in Linepithema: Shattuck, 1992a PDF: 16.|
Linepithema humile. 1. Worker; 2. Workers with drone; 3. Queen. Welgemoed, Cape Town, South Africa; 19 April 2016. Photos and collection by Philip Herbst.
Global tramp species native to South America and introduced across continental systems and island systems.
Flanders: only indoors [needs reference].
Diagnosis among workers of introduced and commonly intercepted ants in the United States. Antenna 12-segmented. Antennal scape length less than 1.5x head length. Eyes medium to large (greater than 5 facets); do not break outline of head; placed distinctly below midline of face. Antennal sockets and posterior clypeal margin separated by a distance less than the minimum width of antennal scape. Anterior clypeal margin variously produced, but never with one median and two lateral rounded projections. Mandible lacking distinct basal angle. Profile of mesosomal dorsum with two distinct convexities. Dorsum of mesosoma lacking a deep and broad concavity; lacking erect hairs. Promesonotum separated from propodeum by metanotal groove. Propodeum with dorsal surface not distinctly shorter than posterior face; angular, with flat to weakly convex dorsal and posterior faces. Propodeum and petiolar node both lacking a pair of short teeth. Mesopleura and metapleural bulla covered with dense pubescence. Propodeal spiracle bordering posterior margin of propodeal profile. Waist 1-segmented. Petiole upright and not appearing flattened. Gaster armed with ventral slit. Erect hairs lacking from cephalic dorsum (above eye level), pronotum, and gastral tergites 1 and 2. Dull, not shining, and color uniformly light to dark brown. Measurements: head length (HL) 0.56–0.93 mm, head width (HW) 0.53–0.71 mm.
Christian, C. (2001) Consequences of a biological invasion reveal the importance of mutualism for plant communities. Nature, 413, 635-639.
Cole, F.R., Medeiros, A.C., Loope, L.L. & Zuehlke, W.W. (1992) Effects of the Argentine ant on arthropod fauna of Hawaiian high-elevation shrubland. Ecology, 73, 1313-1322.
Haney, P.B., Luck, R.F. & Moreno, D.S. (1987) Increases in densities of the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri [Acarina: Tetranychidae], in association with the argentine ant, Iridomyrmex humilis [Hymenoptera: Formicidae], in southern California citrus. Entomophaga, 32, 49-57.
Human, K.G., Weiss, S., Weiss, A., Sandler, B. & Gordon, D.M. (1998) Effects of abiotic factors on the distribution and activity of the invasive Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Environ. Entomol., 27, 822-833.
Ives, C.D., Hose, G.C., Nipperess, D.A. & Taylor, M.P. (2011) The influence of riparian corridor width on ant and plant assemblages in northern Sydney, Australia. Urban Ecosystems, ??, ??
Klotz, J., Hansen, L., Pospischil, R. & Rust, M. (2008) Urban ants of North America and Europe. Cornell University Press, 196 pp.
Klotz, J.H., Rust, M.K., Field, H.C., Greenberg, L. & Kupfer, K. (2008) Controlling argentine ants in residential settings (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology, 51, 579-588.
Lach, L. (2005) Interference and exploitation competition of three nectar-thieving invasive ant species. Insect. Soc., 52, 257-262.
Phillips, P.A. & Sherk, C.J. (1991) To control mealybugs, stop honeydew-seeking ants. Calif. Agric., 45(2), 26-28.
Rowles, A.D. & O'Dowd, D.J. (2009) Impacts of the invasive Argentine ant on native ants and other invertebrates in coastal scrub in south-eastern Australia. Austral Ecol., 34, 239-248.
Rowles, A.D. & O'Dowd, D.J. (2009) New mutualism for old: indirect disruption and direct facilitation of seed dispersal following Argentine ant invasion. Oecologia, 158, 709-716.
Suarez, A.V. & Case, T.J. (2002) Bottom-up effects on persistence of a specialist predator: Ant invasions and horned lizards. Ecol. Appl., 12, 291-298.
Suarez, A.V., Holway, D.A. & Case, T.J. (2001) Patterns of spread in biological invasions dominated by long-distance jump dispersal: insights from Argentine ants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 98, 1095-1100.
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Wetterer, J.K., Wild, A.L., Suarez, A.V., Roura-Pascual, N. & Espadaler, X. (2009) Worldwide spread of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecol. News, 12, 187-194.
Wild, A.L. (2004) Taxonomy and distribution of the argentine ant (Linepithema humile) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am., 97, 1204-1215.
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|Linepithema humile||Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 25, (download)||25||21367|
|Linepithema humile||Wild, A. L., 2004, Taxonomy and distribution of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Annals of the Entomological Society of America 97, pp. 1204-1215: 1207-1229, (download)||1207-1229||20351|
|Linepithema humile||Ward, P. S., 2005, A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 936, pp. 1-68: -1, (download)||-1||21008|
|Linepithema humile||Wild, A. L., 2007, Taxonomic revision of the ant genus Linepithema (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., University of California Publications in Entomology 126, pp. 1-159: 61-65, (download)||61-65||21156||GoogleMaps|
|Linepithema humile||Espadaler, X., 2007, The ants of El Hierro (Canary Islands)., Advances in ant systematics (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Homage to E. O. Wilson - 50 years of contributions., Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute, 80, pp. 113-127: 117, (download)||117||21278|
Found most commonly in these habitats: 65 times found in private residence, 18 times found in backyard, 13 times found in house, 4 times found in grassland, 8 times found in residence, 6 times found in front yard, 0 times found in Unknown, 4 times found in coastal scrub, 3 times found in Urban, 2 times found in on damp exposed soil, ...
Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 12 times sidewalk, 6 times ground nest, 7 times kitchen, 6 times under stone, 4 times found foraging, 3 times under rotting log, 6 times on sidewalk, 5 times kitchen counter, 1 times ex ?Atriplex spinosa, 3 times on tree, 3 times school yard, ...
Collected most commonly using these methods: 523 times Bay Area Ant Survey (BAAS), 7 times search, 7 times Hand, 4 times hand collecting, 0 times Pool ants, 0 times Manual catch, 3 times malaise trap, 0 times under rock, 2 times Ground forager, 2 times Winkler, 0 times on silphium perfoliatum tending membracids, ...
Elevations: collected from 4 - 2732 meters, 245 meters average