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Subfamily: Formicinae   Latreille, 1809 

Classification:

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2019)

Extant: 11 valid tribes, 51 valid genera, 3,178 valid species

Fossil: 31 valid genera, 197 valid species

Formicariae Latreille, 1809 PDF: 124. Type-genus: Formica. AntCat AntWiki

Taxonomic history

Formicinae as group name: Latreille, 1809 PDF: 124 [Formicariae]; Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835 PDF: 197 [Formicites]; Nylander, 1846a PDF: 877 [Formicae].
Formicinae as formicomorph subfamily of Formicidae: Bolton, 2003 PDF: 20, 93.
Formicinae as formicoid subfamily of Formicidae: Brady et al., 2006 PDF: 18173; Moreau et al., 2006 PDF: 102.
Formicinae as formicoid formicomorph subfamily of Formicidae: Ward, 2007C PDF: 556.
Tribes of Formicinae: Camponotini, Formicini, Gesomyrmecini, Gigantiopini, Lasiini, Melophorini, Myrmelachistini, Myrmoteratini, Oecophyllini, Plagiolepidini, Santschiellini
Genera (extinct) incertae sedis in Formicinae: Attopsis, Camponotites, Drymomyrmex, Imhoffia, Kyromyrma, Protrechina
Hong (2002) Genera (extinct) incertae sedis in Formicinae: Curtipalpulus, Eoleptocerites, Eurytarsites, Fushuniformica, Huaxiaformica, Leptogasteritus, Liaoformica, Longiformica, Magnogasterites, Orbicapitia, Ovalicapito, Ovaligastrula, Sinoformica, Sinotenuicapito, Wilsonia
Subfamily Formicinae references, world
Mayr, 1862 PDF: 651 (genera key); Mayr, 1865 PDF: 6 (diagnosis); Handlirsch, 1907: 859 (*fossil taxa catalogue); Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF: 171 (catalogue); Emery, 1895l PDF: 772 (synoptic classification); Emery, 1896e PDF: 187 (genera key); Wheeler, 1910a PDF: 143 (diagnosis); Forel, 1912j PDF: 88 (tribes key); Forel, 1917 PDF: 248 (synoptic classification); Arnold, 1920a PDF: 551 (diagnosis); Forel, 1921c: 139 (diagnosis); Wheeler, 1922: 210, 691 (diagnosis, tribes key); Emery, 1925d PDF: 2 (diagnosis, tribe key, catalogue); Brown & Nutting, 1950 PDF: 127 (venation, phylogeny); Eisner, 1957 PDF: 465 (proventriculus morphology); Hung & Brown, 1966 PDF: 198 (gastric apex, structure); Bernard, 1967a PDF: 267 (diagnosis); Gotwald, 1969b PDF: 120 (mouthparts morphology); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1972a PDF: 41 (diagnosis); Brown, 1973b PDF: 169 (genera, distribution); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1976b PDF: 62 (larvae, review & synthesis); Snelling, 1981: 402 (synoptic classification); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1985b PDF: 258 (synoptic classification); Billen, 1986b: 173 (Dufour's gland); Dlussky & Fedoseeva, 1988: 77 (synoptic classification); Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 9 (synoptic classification, genera keys); Agosti, 1991 PDF: 295 (genus group diagnoses); Shattuck, 1992b PDF: 201 (phylogeny); Baroni Urbani et al., 1992 PDF: 317 (phylogeny); Bolton, 1994: 42 (diagnosis, synoptic classification, genera keys); Bolton, 1995a PDF: 1039 (census); Bolton, 1995b: 11 (catalogue); Wenseleers et al., 1998: 121 (cloacal gland); Dlussky & Rasnitsyn, 2003 PDF: 417 (diagnosis for impression fossils); Bolton, 2003 PDF: 20, 93 (diagnosis, synopsis); Brady et al., 2006 PDF: 18173 (phylogeny); Moreau et al., 2006 PDF: 102 (phylogeny); Keller, 2011 PDF: 1 (morphology, phylogeny); LaPolla & Fisher, 2014 PDF: (Prenolepis genus-group genera key); Boudinot, 2015 PDF: 51 (male diagnosis); Blaimer et al., 2015 10.1186/s12862-015-0552-5 PDF: 257 (phylogeny); Fisher & Bolton, 2016: 47 (worker diagnosis)
Regional and national faunas with keys
Mayr, 1855 PDF: 299 (Austria); Mayr, 1861 PDF: 25 (Europe); Mayr, 1868b PDF: 25 (*Baltic Amber); André, 1874: 167 (Europe); Forel, 1874 PDF: 22 (Switzerland); Saunders, E. 1880: 203 (Britain); André, 1882b PDF: 126 (Europe and Algeria); Provancher, 1887: 225 (Canada); Cresson, 1887 PDF: 94 (U.S.A. genera); Nasonov, 1889: 50 (Russia); Forel, 1891c PDF: 8 (Madagascar genera); Lameere, 1892: 62 (Belgium); Forel, 1892k PDF: 220 (India and Sri Lanka); Bingham, 1903 PDF: 308 (India, Sri Lanka and Burma); Ruzsky, 1905b: 100 (Russian Empire); Wasmann, 1906 PDF: 7 (Luxemburg); Bondroit, 1910 PDF: 481 (Belgium); Wheeler, 1910a PDF: 560 (North America genera); Stitz, 1914 PDF: 80 (Central Europe); Gallardo, 1915 PDF: 35 (Argentina genera); Forel, 1915d: 45 (Switzerland); Donisthorpe, 1915f: 184 (Britain); Emery, 1916a PDF: 216 (Italy); Wheeler, W.M. 1916m: 590 (U.S.A., Connecticut); Bondroit, 1918 PDF: 17 (France and Belgium); Arnold, 1920a PDF: 552 (South Africa); [missing reference] Kutter, 1920b: 134 (Switzerland); Soudek, 1922b PDF: 61 (Czechoslovakia); Lomnicki, 1925a PDF: 160 (Poland); Stärcke, 1926: 118, 146 (Netherlands); Karavaiev, 1927d: 273 (Ukraine); Donisthorpe, 1927c: 205 (Britain); Menozzi & Russo, 1930 PDF: 172 (Dominican Republic); Arnol'di, 1933b: 601 (Russia); Menozzi, 1933b PDF: 90 (Israel genera); Karavaiev, 1936: 173 (Ukraine); Smith, M.R. 1937: 865 (Puerto Rico); Stitz, 1939: 230 (Germany); Kratochvíl, 1941b PDF: 97 (Central Europe); Novák & Sadil, 1941 PDF: 97 (Central Europe); Cole, 1942 PDF: 373 (U.S.A., Utah); Smith, M.R. 1943f: 309 (U.S.A., males); Buren, 1944a PDF: 292 (U.S.A., Iowa);Holgersen, 1943b: 173 (Norway); Holgersen, 1944a PDF: 199 (Norway); Smith, M.R. 1947f: 599 (U.S.A. genera); van Boven, 1947: 181 (Belgium); Creighton, 1950a PDF: 355 (Nearctic); Kusnezov, 1956a PDF: 31 (Argentina); Brown, 1958h: 42 (New Zealand); van Boven, 1959: 11 (Netherlands); Gregg, 1963: 447 (U.S.A., Colorado); Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1963: 160 (U.S.A., North Dakota); Collingwood, 1964b PDF: 104 (Britain); Bernard, 1967a PDF: 268 (Western Europe); Wilson & Taylor, 1967b PDF: 17 (Polynesia); van Boven, 1970b: 26 (Netherlands); Kempf, 1972b PDF: 266 (Neotropical, synoptic classification); Bolton, 1973a PDF: 329 (West Africa genera); Bolton & Collingwood, 1975: 3 (Britain); Snelling & Hunt, 1975 PDF: 104 (Chile); Tarbinsky, 1976 PDF: 126 (Kyrghyzstan); van Boven, 1977: 126 (Belgium); Kutter, 1977c: 183 (Switzerland); Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978: 548 (former European U.S.S.R.); Collingwood, 1978 PDF: 88 (Iberian Peninsula); Collingwood, 1979 PDF: 85 (Fennoscandia and Denmark); Greenslade, 1979: 32 (South Australia genera); Schembri & Collingwood, 1981 PDF: 436 (Malta); Prins, 1983 PDF: 8 (Southern Africa genera); Allred, 1982: 444 (U.S.A., Utah); [missing reference] Verhaeghe, Deligne, et al., 1984: 106 (Belgium genera); Baroni Urbani, 1984 PDF: 81 (Neotropical genera); Gösswald, 1985: 263 (Germany); Collingwood, 1985 PDF: 273 (Saudi Arabia); Wheeler, G.C. & Wheeler, J. 1986g: 58 (U.S.A., Nevada); Nilsson & Douwes, 1987: 68 (Norway); Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b: 279 (Balkans); Dlussky, et al. 1990: 124 (Turkmenistan); Kupyanskaya, 1990a: 162 (Far Eastern Russia); Morisita, et al., 1991: 10 (Japan); Atanasov & Dlussky, 1992: 49 (Bulgaria); Shattuck, 1992b PDF: 199 (higher classification, phylogeny); Lattke, in Jaffe, 1993: 150 (Neotropical genera); Arakelian, 1994 PDF: 76 (Armenia); Wu & Wang, 1995a: 125 (China genera); [missing reference] Kupyanskaya, 1995: 332 (Far Eastern Russia); Collingwood & Agosti, 1996 PDF: 361 (Saudi Arabia); Seifert, 1996B: 166 (Central Europe); Skinner & Allen, 1996: 41 (Britain); Collingwood & Prince, 1998: 21 (Portugal); Shattuck, 1999: 25, 86 (Australia genera, synopsis); Andersen, 2000: 68 (northern Australia genera); Zhou, 2001A PDF: 165 (China, Guangxi); Czechowski et al., 2002 PDF: 147 (Poland); Aktaç & Radchenko, 2002: 54 (Turkey genera); Yoshimura & Onoyama, 2002B PDF: 425 (Japan genera, males); Mackay & MacKay, 2002 PDF: 236 (U.S.A., New Mexico); Palacio & Fernández, in Fernández, 2003d: 242 (Neotropical genera); Radchenko, 2005b: 187 (North Korea); Coovert, 2005: 113 (U.S.A., Ohio); Clouse, 2007B: 190 (Micronesia); Seifert, 2007: 150 (North and Central Europe); Terayama, 2009 PDF: 202 (Taiwan); Heterick, 2009 PDF: 30 (south-western Australia genera); Boer, 2010: 17 (Benelux); Czechowski, et al. 2012: 351 (Poland); General & Alpert, 2012 PDF: 71 (Philippines genera key) ; Dlussky & Perfilieva, 2014 PDF: 433 (British Eocene species key); Baccaro, et al. 2015: 77, 176 (Brazil genera key, text); Radchenko, 2016: 266 (Ukraine)

Distribution:

  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Africa: Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cabo Verde, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Europa Island, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Grande Glorieuse, Guinea, Ile du Lys, Ivory Coast, Juan de Nova Island, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Macaronesia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritius, Mayotte, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Reunion, Rwanda, Saint Helena, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tromelin Island, Tunisia, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe
    Americas: Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Canada, Cayman Islands, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Martinique, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, United States, United States Virgin Islands, Uruguay, Venezuela
    Antarctica_region: Kerguelen Islands
    Asia: Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bhutan, Borneo, Brunei, Cambodia, China, Christmas Island, Cyprus, Georgia, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, North Korea, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Syria, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkey, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Yemen
    Europe: Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Malta, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom
    Oceania: Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Hawaii, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Palmyra Atoll, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Vanuatu, Wallis and Futuna
  Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):
    Afrotropical, Antarctica, Australasia, Indomalaya, Malagasy, Nearctic, Neotropical, Oceania, Palearctic

Identification:

Formicine ants have a single node-like or scale-like petiole (postpetiole entirely lacking) and the apex of the abdomen has a circular or U-shaped opening, usually fringed with hairs (acidopore). A functional sting is absent, and defense is provided by the ejection of formic acid through the acidopore. If the acidopore is concealed by the pygidium and difficult to discern, then the antennal sockets are located well behind the posterior margin of the clypeus (cf. Dolichoderinae). In most formicines the eyes are well developed (ocelli may also be present), the antennal insertions are not concealed by the frontal carinae, and the promesonotal suture is present and flexible.

Notes:

This is a cosmopolitan group, with about 100 species in California. These include mound-building Formica ants; carpenter ants in the genus Camponotus; and honeypot ants (Myrmecocystus).

References:

Agosti (1991); Bolton (1994); Grimaldi & Agosti (2000); Shattuck (1992b).

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Formicinae   Clark, J., 1930, New Formicidae, with notes on some little-known species., Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 43, pp. 2-25: 11-12, (download) 11-12 6104
Formicinae   Collingwood, C. A., 1979, The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark., Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 8, pp. 1-174: 85-86, (download) 85-86 6175


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