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Family: Formicidae

Classification:

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2014)

Extant: 16 subfamilies, 57 tribes, 322 genera, 12,955 species, 2,092 subspecies

Fossil: 4 subfamilies, 8 tribes, 146 genera, 685 species, 2 subspecies

Formicariae Latreille, 1809 PDF: 124 . Type-genus: Formica. AntCat AntWiki

Taxonomic history

Formicidae as family: Latreille, 1809 PDF: 124 [Formicariae]; Leach, 1815: 147 [Formicarides]; Stephens, 1829b: 356 [first spelling as Formicidae]; Haliday, 1836: 331; Westwood, 1839a: 217; Swainson & Shuckard, 1840: 171; Nylander, 1846a PDF: 877; Foerster, 1850a: 1 [Formicariae]; Mayr, 1855 PDF: 275 [Formicina]; Smith, 1857a PDF: 52; Smith, 1858a PDF: 1; Mayr, 1861 PDF: 21; Mayr, 1865: 6; Heer, 1867 PDF: 6 [Formicaria]; Forel, 1870 PDF: 307 [Formicinae]; Forel, 1874 PDF: 19 [Formicariae]; Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF}: 1; Forel, 1899b: 1; Ruzsky, 1902d: 5 [Formicarii]; Bingham, 1903 PDF: 1; Ruzsky, 1905b: 91 [Formicariae or Formicidae]; Ashmead, 1905c PDF: 384; all subsequent authors.
WORLD IDENTIFICATION KEYS
Emery, 1896e PDF: 173 (Formicidae subfamilies and genera); Emery, 1910b PDF: 4 (Dorylinae tribes and genera); Emery, 1911e PDF: 4 (Ponerinae tribes and genera); Emery, 1913a PDF: 6 (Dolichoderinae tribes and genera); Escherich, 1917: 2 (Formicidae subfamilies); Emery, 1921c: 9, 12, 16 (Myrmicinae tribes and genera); Wheeler, 1922: 631 (Formicidae subfamilies, tribes and genera); Emery, 1925d PDF: 7 (Formicinae tribes and genera); Clark, 1951 PDF: 14 (Formicidae subfamilies); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1972a PDF: 42 (Formicidae subfamilies); Snelling, 1981: 386 (Formicidae subfamilies); Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 33 (Formicidae subfamilies and genera); Bolton, 1990c PDF: 1361 (Formicidae subfamilies); Shattuck, 1992c PDF: 20 (Dolichoderinae genera); Ward, 1990 PDF: 464 (Pseudomyrmecinae genera); Brothers & Finnamore, 1993: 218 (Formicidae subfamilies); Bolton, 1994: 7 (Formicidae subfamilies and genera); Bolton, 2003 PDF: 11 (revision of subfamilies)
MORPHOLOGY OF FORMICIDAE
Forel, 1878c PDF: 339 (proventriculus); Janet, 1902}: 25 (general anatomy); Pietschker, 1910: 1 (brain structure); Wheeler, 1910a: 13 (general morphology, anatomy); Emery, 1913d: 577 (venation); Wheeler, 1918c PDF: 293 (larvae); Janet, 1923: 5 (anatomical drawings synopsis); Bugnion, 1930: 85 (mouthparts); Brown & Nutting, 1950 PDF}: 113 (venation); Gregg, 1953c PDF: 328 (promesonotal suture motility); Eisner, 1957 PDF: 439 (proventriculus); Gotwald, 1969: 1 (mouthparts and gaster); Crozier, 1970a PDF: 109 (karyology); Markl, 1973: 258 (stridulitrum); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1976b PDF: 45 (larvae); Hölldobler & Engel, 1979 PDF}: 285 and Hölldobler & Engel-Siegel, 1982: 113 (tergal and sternal glands); Imai, Baroni Urbani, Kubota, et al. 1984: 5 (karyology); Imai, Brown, Kubota, et al. 1984: 66 (karyology); Imai, Kubota, Brown, et al. 1985: 46 (karyology); Hölldobler & Engel-Siegel, 1985 PDF: 201 (metapleural gland); Billen, 1986b: 165 (Dufour's gland); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1986e PDF: 684 (larvae); Brown, 1988h}: 17 (malpighian tubule numbers); Caetano, 1988: 129 (digestive tract anatomy); Francoeur & Loiselle, 1988a PDF: 333 (strigil, evolution); Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 5, 229 (anatomy, exocrine glands); Hashimoto, 1991a PDF: 125 (antennal and labial sensilla); Hashimoto, 1991b PDF: 289 (tibial spurs); Billen, 1993: 4 (exocrine glands); Bolton, 1994: 191 (morphology glossary); Hölldobler, Obermayer & Peeters, 1996}: 157 (metatibial gland); Wenseleers, Schoeters, et al. 1998: 121 (cloacal gland); Perrault, 1999A PDF: 125 (thoracic anatomy); Perrault, 2005: 291 (anterior metasomal anatomy); Serna & MacKay, 2010 PDF: 1 (Procryptocerus morphology); Keller, 2011 PDF: 1 (phylogenetic analysis of morphology); Boudinot, 2013 PDF: 29 (male genitalia)
PALAEONTOLOGY OF FORMICIDAE
Scudder, 1891: 682 (fossil taxa catalogue); Handlirsch, 1907: 859 (fossil taxa catalogue); Wheeler, 1915i PDF: 1 (Baltic amber fauna synopsis); Burnham, 1979 PDF: 108 (fossils in amber checklist); Keilbach, 1982: 272 (fossils in amber checklist); Spahr, 1987: 41 (fossils in amber checklist); Carpenter, 1992: 490 (fossil genera review); Bolton, 1995b: 4 (fossil taxa checklist, in catalogue); Grimaldi, Agosti & Carpenter, 1997 PDF: 1 (Cretaceous genera in amber review); Dlussky, 1997A PDF: 617 (Baltic amber genera key); Bolton, 2003 PDF: 73 (fossil subfamilies synopsis); Dlussky & Rasnitsyn, 2007 PDF: 118 (Palaeontological record); Dlussky & Rasnitsyn, 2009 PDF: 1024 (European Upper Eocene amber, synopsis of species); LaPolla, Dlussky & Perrichot, 2013 PDF (Mesozoic and Cenozoic major ant fossil deposits list, Cretaceous and Cenozoic ant fossils bibliographical review).
OTHER GENERAL REFERENCES
Bolton, 1995a PDF: 1038 (census of extant taxa); Ward, Bolton, Shattuck & Brown, 1996}: 55 (bibliography of systematics); Brown, 2000: 46 (overview of genera); Brandão, 2000: 172 (list of major ant collections); Bolton, 2003 PDF: 15, 77 (diagnosis, synopsis); Bolton, 2007A: 51 (method for taxonomic revisions); Taylor, 2007: 580 (eusociality in ants)
Regional catalogues and checklists
NEARCTIC: Smith, 1951c: 778; Smith, 1958c: 108 (first supplement to previous); Smith, 1967a: 343 (second supplement); Smith, 1979: 1323
NEOTROPICAL: Kempf, 1972b PDF: 3; Brandão, 1991 PDF: 319 (supplement to previous)
AFROTROPICAL AND MALAGASY: Wheeler, 1922: 727, 1005
ORIENTAL AND MALESIAN: Chapman & Capco, 1951 PDF: 9
AUSTRAL: Taylor & Brown, 1985: 5; Taylor, 1987a PDF: 1; Taylor, 1987b: 1 (supplement to previous)
Regional and national faunas with keys
PALAEARCTIC
Mayr, 1855 PDF: 299 (Austria); Mayr, 1861 PDF: 25 (Europe); {ref 132986}: 167 (Europe); Forel, 1874 PDF: 19 (Switzerland); Saunders, 1880 PDF: 202 (Britain); André, 1882a}: 125 (Europe & Algeria); Nasonov, 1889: 50 (Russia); Lameere, 1892: 62 (Belgium); Saunders, 1896: 18 (Britain); Ruzsky, 1905b: 99 (Russian Empire); Wasmann, 1906 PDF: 7 (Luxemburg); Emery, 1908a PDF} (Palaearctic); Bondroit, 1910 PDF: 480 (Belgium); Stitz, 1914: 54 (Central Europe); Donisthorpe, 1915f: 65 (Britain); Forel, 1915d: 1 (Switzerland); Emery, 1916a PDF: 92 (Italy); Bondroit, 1918 PDF: 12 (France & Belgium); Kutter, 1920b: 132 (Switzerland); Soudek, 1922b PDF: 17 (Czechoslovakia); Lomnicki, 1925a PDF: 160 (Poland); Stärcke, 1926}: 79 (Netherlands); Karavaiev, 1927d: 254 (Ukraine); Donisthorpe, 1927c: 66 (Britain); Arnol'di, 1933a: 596 (Russia); Menozzi, 1933b PDF: 87 (Israel); Karavaiev, 1934: 48 (Ukraine); Stitz, 1939: 56 (Germany); Kratochvíl, 1941b: 69 (Central Europe); Novák & Sadil, 1941 PDF: 69 (Central Europe); Ceballos, 1943: 313 (Spain); Holgersen, 1943c: 166 and Holgersen, 1944a: 198 (Norway); Boven, 1947: 168 (Belgium); Collingwood, 1958b PDF: 69 (Britain); Somfai, 1959: 1 (Hungary); Boven, 1959}: 1 (Netherlands); Collingwood, 1964b PDF: 93 (Britain); Bernard, 1967a PDF: 75 (Western Europe); Boven, 1970b}: 7 (Netherlands); Tarbinsky, 1976 PDF: 14 (Kyrghyzstan); Bolton & Collingwood, 1975: 1 (Britain); Boven, 1977 PDF}: 1 (Belgium); Kutter, 1977c: 19 (Switzerland); Brian, 1977: 33 (Britain); Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978: 520 (former European U.S.S.R.); Collingwood, 1978 PDF: 65 (Iberian Peninsula); Collingwood, 1979 PDF: 28 (Fennoscandia & Denmark); Schembri & Collingwood, 1981 PDF: 417 (Malta); Verhaeghe, Deligne, et al., 1984: 105 (Belgium genera); Gösswald, 1985: 262 (Germany); Collingwood, 1985 PDF: 230 (Saudi Arabia); Nilsson & Douwes, 1987: 56 (Norway); Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b PDF: 261 (Balkans); Casevitz-Weulersse, 1990b: 135 and Casevitz-Weulersse, 1990c PDF: 415 (Corsica); Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990 PDF: 99 (Turkmenistan); Kupyanskaya, 1990a: 83 (Far Eastern Russia); Bolton, in Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 34 (Palaearctic genera key); Atanasov & Dlussky, 1992: 47 (Bulgaria); Arakelian, 1994 PDF: 1 (Armenia); Radchenko, 1994b: 95 (South Siberia); Seifert, 1994a PDF: 1 (Germany, synopsis); Onoyama & Terayama, 1994: 1 (Japan bibliography); Bolton, 1994: 22, 42, 75, 153 (Dolichoderinae, Formicinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae genera keys); Douwes, 1995: 83 (Sweden); Kupyanskaya, 1995: 327 (Far Eastern Russia); Wu & Wang, 1995a: 30 (China); Fontenla Rizo, 1995b: 16 (Cuba, tramp species key); Collingwood & Agosti, 1996 PDF: 300 (Saudi Arabia); Seifert, 1996B: 106 (Central Europe); Skinner & Allen, 1996: 40 (Britain); Dlussky, 1997A PDF: 616 (*Baltic Amber genera); Collingwood & Prince, 1998: 9 (Portugal); Czechowski, Radchenko & Czechowska, 2002 PDF: 133 (Poland); Aktaç & Radchenko, 2002: 53 (Turkey genera); Yoshimura & Onoyama, 2002B PDF: 424 (Japan genera, males key); Imai, Kihara, Kondoh, et al. 2003: 8 (Japan); Radchenko, 2005B PDF}: 183 (North Korea); Seifert, 2007: 107 (North and Central Europe); Boer, 2010: 8 (Benelux); Lapeva-Gjonova, et al. 2010: 1 (Bulgaria species catalogue); Cs?sz, Markó & Gallé, 2011 PDF: pagination? (Hungary species catalogue); Czechowski, Radchenko, et al. 2012: 333 (Poland)
NEARCTIC
Provancher, 1883 PDF: 596 (Canada); Provancher, 1887: 225 (Canada); Cresson, 1887 PDF: 93 (U.S.A.); Wheeler, 1910a: 557 (North America genera); Wheeler, 1916r: 579 (U.S.A., Connecticut); Cole, 1942 PDF}: 359 (U.S.A., Utah); Smith, 1943e PDF: 276 (U.S.A. subfamilies & genera, males); Buren, 1944a PDF: 278 (U.S.A., Iowa); Smith, 1947f PDF: 524 (U.S.A. genera); Creighton, 1950a PDF: 29 (North America); Gregg, 1963: 278 (U.S.A., Colorado); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1963: 149 (U.S.A., North Dakota); Francoeur, 1979a PDF: 48 (Canada, Québec, introduction); Allred, 1982: 437 (U.S.A., Utah); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1986g PDF: 16 (U.S.A., Nevada); Mackay, Lowrie, et al., 1988: 81 (U.S.A., New Mexico); Cover, in Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 62 (Nearctic genera key); Mackay & MacKay, 2002 PDF: 16 (U.S.A., New Mexico); Dlussky & Rasnitsyn, 2003 PDF: 430 (*Eocene North American genera); Bolton, 1994: 25, 38, 48, 95, 160 (Dolichoderinae, Ecitoninae, Formicinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae genera keys); Coovert, 2005: 1 (U.S.A., Ohio); Ward, 2005 PDF: 20 (U.S.A., California genera); Fisher & Cover, 2007: 1 (North American genera key)
NEOTROPICAL
Gallardo, 1915 PDF: 30 (Argentina genera); Menozzi & Russo, 1930 PDF: 169 (Dominican Republic); Smith, 1937 PDF: 822 (Puerto Rico); Kusnezov, 1956a PDF: 7 (Argentina); Kusnezov, 1960b PDF: 330 (West Patagonia); Snelling & Hunt, 1975 PDF: 63 (Chile); Kempf, 1978a: 33 (Neotropical subfamilies); Baroni Urbani, 1984 PDF: 73 (Neotropical genera); Mackay & Mackay, 1989: 1 (Mexico genera); Cover, in Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 69 (Neotropical genera key); Lattke, in Jaffe, 1993: 145 (Neotropical subfamilies & genera); Bolton, 1994: 26, 38, 49, 98, 162 (Dolichoderinae, Ecitoninae, Formicinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae genera keys); Fernández, Palacio, MacKay & MacKay, 1996: 353 (Neotropical subfamilies); Fernández & Ospina, in {ref 133005}: 49 (Neotropical genera synopsis); Palacio & Fernández, in {ref 133005}: 233 (Neotropical subfamilies and genera keys)
AFROTROPICAL AND MALAGASY
Forel, 1891c PDF: 8 (Madagascar genera); Arnold, 1915: 6 (South Africa); Arnold, 1916 PDF: 159 (South Africa); Bolton, 1973a PDF: 321 (West Africa subfamilies & genera); Bolton, in Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 39 (Afrotropical and Malagasy genera key); Bolton, 1994: 23, 44, 79, 155 (Dolichoderinae, Formicinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae genera keys); Yoshimura & Fisher, 2007 PDF: 27 (Malagasy subfamilies, males key)
ORIENTAL AND MALESIAN
Forel, 1892k PDF: 219 (India & Sri Lanka); Bingham, 1903 PDF: 1 (India, Sri Lanka & Burma); Wilson & Taylor, 1967b PDF: 10 (Polynesia); Bolton, in Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 46 (Oriental and Indo-Australian genera key); Bolton, 1994: 23, 45, 84, 158 (Dolichoderinae, Formicinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae genera keys); Wu & Wang, 1995a: 30 (China); Zhou, 2001A PDF: 21 (China, Guangxi subfamilies); Clouse, 2007B: 190 (Micronesia); Framenau & Thomas, 2008 PDF: 52 (Christmas I.); Terayama, 2009 (Taiwan); Eguchi, Bui & Yamane, 2011 PDF: 7 (Vietnam subfamilies key); Pfeiffer, et al. 2011: 32 (ants of Borneo, checklist); General & Alpert, 2012 PDF: 68 (Philippines genera key); Sarnat & Economo, 2012 PDF: 1 (Fiji)
AUSTRAL
Forel, 1905d PDF: 353 (New Zealand); Brown, 1958h PDF}: 1 (New Zealand); Brown & Taylor, 1970}: 958 (Australia subfamilies); Greenslade, 1979: 10 (South Australia subfamilies); Taylor, R.W., in Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 55 (Australia genera key); Taylor, 1991d: 987 (Australia subfamilies); Bolton, 1994: 24, 47, 91, 159 (Dolichoderinae, Formicinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae genera keys); Shattuck, 1999: 21 (Australia subfamilies & genera); Andersen, 2000: 14 (northern Australia subfamilies & genera); Don, 2007: 39 (New Zealand); Heterick, 2009 PDF: 16, 28 (south-western Australia subfamilies & genera); Jennings, Krogmann & Burwell, 2013 PDF: 20 (New Caledonia species checklist)

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