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Family: Formicidae   Latreille, 1809 

Classification:

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2016)

Extant: 16 subfamilies, 39 tribes, 327 genera, 13,188 species, 2,070 subspecies

Fossil: 4 subfamilies, 8 tribes, 150 genera, 727 species, 2 subspecies

Formicariae Latreille, 1809 PDF: 124 . Type-genus: Formica. AntCat AntWiki

Taxonomic history

Formicidae as family: Latreille, 1809 PDF: 124 [Formicariae]; Leach, 1815: 147 [Formicarides]; Stephens, 1829b: 356 [first spelling as Formicidae]; Haliday, 1836: 331; Westwood, 1839a: 217; Swainson & Shuckard, 1840: 171; Nylander, 1846a PDF: 877; Foerster, 1850a: 1 [Formicariae]; Mayr, 1855 PDF: 275 [Formicina]; Smith, 1857a PDF: 52; Smith, 1858a PDF: 1; Mayr, 1861 PDF: 21; Mayr, 1865 PDF: 6; Heer, 1867 PDF: 6 [Formicaria]; Forel, 1870 PDF: 307 [Formicinae]; Forel, 1874 PDF: 19 [Formicariae]; Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF: 1; Forel, 1899B: 1; Ruzsky, 1902d: 5 [Formicarii]; Bingham, 1903 PDF: 1; Ruzsky, 1905b: 91 [Formicariae or Formicidae]; Ashmead, 1905c PDF: 384; all subsequent authors.
FAMILY FORMICIDAE REFERENCES, WORLD
WORLD CATALOGUES
Roger, 1863bRoger, J. 1863b. Verzeichniss der Formiciden-Gattungen und Arten. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 7(Beilage):1-65. [1863-06] 128094: 1 (Formicidae); Mayr, 1863aMayr, G. 1863a. Formicidarum index synonymicus. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 13:385-460. [1863] PDF 127213: 394 (Formicidae); Dalla Torre, 1893Dalla Torre, K. W. 1893. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. [1893] PDF 124002}: 1 (Formicidae); Emery, 1910bEmery, C. 1910b. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Dorylinae. Genera Insectorum 102:1-34. [1910-06-25] PDF 124696: 3 (Dorylinae); Emery, 1911eEmery, C. 1911e. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118:1-125. [1911-09-09] PDF 124702: 2 (Ponerinae); Emery, 1913aEmery, C. 1913a ("1912"). Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Dolichoderinae. Genera Insectorum 137:1-50. [1913-03-08] PDF 124711: 2 (Dolichoderinae); Emery, 1921cEmery, C. 1921c. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [part]. Genera Insectorum 174A:1-94 + 7 plates. [1921-06-01] 124749: 3, Emery, 1922cEmery, C. 1922c. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [part]. Genera Insectorum 174B:95-206. [1922-09-02] PDF 124756: 95 and Emery, 1924fEmery, C. 1924f ("1922"). Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [concl.]. Genera Insectorum 174C:207-397. [1924-06-24] 124769: 207 (Myrmicinae); Emery, 1925dEmery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183:1-302. [1925-12-31] PDF 124775: 2 (Formicinae); Shattuck, 1994Shattuck, S. O. 1994. Taxonomic catalog of the ant subfamilies Aneuretinae and Dolichoderinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). University of California Publications in Entomology 112:i-xix, 1-241. [1994-01] PDF 128601: 1 (Aneuretinae and Dolichoderinae); Bolton, 1995bBolton, B. 1995b. A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 504 pp. [1995-10] 122860: 7 (Formicidae)
WORLD SYNOPTIC CLASSIFICATIONS
Forel, 1893bForel, A. 1893b. Sur la classification de la famille des Formicides, avec remarques synonymiques. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 37:161-167. [1893-04-01>] PDF 125049: 161 (Formicidae); Emery, 1895lEmery, C. 1895l. Die Gattung Dorylus Fab. und die systematische Eintheilung der Formiciden. Zoologische Jahrbücher. Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere 8:685-778. [1895-10-18] PDF 124599: 764 (Formicidae); Emery, 1896eEmery, C. 1896e. Clef analytique des genres de la famille des Formicides, pour la détermination des neutres. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 40:172-189. [1896-05-02>] PDF 124609: 173 (Formicidae); Ashmead, 1905cAshmead, W. H. 1905c. A skeleton of a new arrangement of the families, subfamilies, tribes and genera of the ants, or the superfamily Formicoidea. Canadian Entomologist 37:381-384. [1905-11-01] PDF 122385: 381 (Formicidae); Wheeler, 1910aWheeler, W. M. 1910a. Ants: their structure, development and behavior. New York: Columbia University Press, xxv + 663 pp. [1910-03] 130044: 134 (Formicidae); Emery, 1910bEmery, C. 1910b. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Dorylinae. Genera Insectorum 102:1-34. [1910-06-25] PDF 124696: 3 (Dorylinae); Emery, 1911eEmery, C. 1911e. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118:1-125. [1911-09-09] PDF 124702: 2 (Ponerinae); Emery, 1913aEmery, C. 1913a ("1912"). Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Dolichoderinae. Genera Insectorum 137:1-50. [1913-03-08] PDF 124711: 2 (Dolichoderinae); Forel, 1917Forel, A. 1917. Cadre synoptique actuel de la faune universelle des fourmis. Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 51:229-253. [1917-03-08] PDF 124997: 235 (Formicidae); Emery, 1921cEmery, C. 1921c. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [part]. Genera Insectorum 174A:1-94 + 7 plates. [1921-06-01] 124749: 3 and Emery, 1922cEmery, C. 1922c. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [part]. Genera Insectorum 174B:95-206. [1922-09-02] PDF 124756: 95 (Myrmicinae); Wheeler, 1922Wheeler, W. M. 1922. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. New York: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 1139. 133015: 631 (Formicidae); Emery, 1924fEmery, C. 1924f ("1922"). Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [concl.]. Genera Insectorum 174C:207-397. [1924-06-24] 124769: 207 (Myrmicinae); Emery, 1925dEmery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183:1-302. [1925-12-31] PDF 124775: 2 (Formicinae); Brown, 1973bBrown, W. L., Jr. 1973b. A comparison of the Hylean and Congo-West African rain forest ant faunas. Pp. 161-185 in: Meggers, B. J.; Ayensu, E. S.; Duckworth, W. D. (eds.) 1973. Tropical forest ecosystems in Africa and South America: a comparative review. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, viii + 350 pp. [1973-01] PDF 123216}: 165, 178 (Formicidae); Snelling, 1981Snelling, R. R. 1981. Systematics of social Hymenoptera. Pp. 369-453 in: Hermann, H. R. (ed.) 1981. Social insects. Volume 2. New York: Academic Press, xiii + 491 pp. [1981] [1981] 128876: 387 (Formicidae); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1985bWheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1985b. A simplified conspectus of the Formicidae. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 111:255-264. [1985-07-30] PDF 129918: 256 (Formicidae); Dlussky & Fedoseeva, 1988Dlussky, G. M.; Fedoseeva, E. B. 1988. Origin and early stages of evolution in ants. [In Russian.]. Pp. 70-144 in: Ponomarenko, A. G. (ed.) 1988. Cretaceous biocenotic crisis and insect evolution. [In Russian.]. Moskva: Nauka, 232 pp. [1987-12-22>] 124165: 77 (Formicidae); Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990Hölldobler, B.; Wilson, E. O. 1990. The ants. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, xii + 732 pp. 122852: 9 (Formicidae); Bolton, 1994Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. [1994-07-25] 122834: 12 (Formicidae); Bolton, 2003Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and classification of Formicidae. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 71:1-370. [2003-11-10] PDF 130789: 4 (Formicidae); Engel & Grimaldi, 2005Engel, M. S.; Grimaldi, D. A. 2005. Primitive new ants in Cretaceous amber from Myanmar, New Jersey, and Canada (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). American Museum Novitates 3485:1-23. [2005-07-25] PDF 131191: 4 (Formicidae); Ward, 2007CWard, P. S. 2007C. Phylogeny, classification, and species-level taxonomy of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 1668:549-563. [2007-12-21] PDF 132572: 549 (Formicidae)
WORLD IDENTIFICATION KEYS
Emery, 1896eEmery, C. 1896e. Clef analytique des genres de la famille des Formicides, pour la détermination des neutres. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 40:172-189. [1896-05-02>] PDF 124609: 173 (Formicidae subfamilies and genera); Emery, 1910bEmery, C. 1910b. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Dorylinae. Genera Insectorum 102:1-34. [1910-06-25] PDF 124696: 4 (Dorylinae tribes and genera); Emery, 1911eEmery, C. 1911e. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Ponerinae. Genera Insectorum 118:1-125. [1911-09-09] PDF 124702: 4 (Ponerinae tribes and genera); Emery, 1913aEmery, C. 1913a ("1912"). Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Dolichoderinae. Genera Insectorum 137:1-50. [1913-03-08] PDF 124711: 6 (Dolichoderinae tribes and genera); Escherich, 1917Escherich, K. 1917. Die Ameise, Schilderung ihrer Lebensweise. Zweite verbesserte und vermehrte Auflage. Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn, xvi + 348 pp. [1917] 124797: 2 (Formicidae subfamilies); Emery, 1921cEmery, C. 1921c. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [part]. Genera Insectorum 174A:1-94 + 7 plates. [1921-06-01] 124749: 9, 12, 16 (Myrmicinae tribes and genera); Wheeler, 1922Wheeler, W. M. 1922. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. New York: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 1139. 133015: 631 (Formicidae subfamilies, tribes and genera); Emery, 1925dEmery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183:1-302. [1925-12-31] PDF 124775: 7 (Formicinae tribes and genera); Clark, 1951Clark, J. 1951. The Formicidae of Australia. Vol. 1. Subfamily Myrmeciinae. Melbourne: CSIRO, 230 pp. [1951] PDF 123635: 14 (Formicidae subfamilies); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1972aWheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1972a. The subfamilies of Formicidae. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 74:35-45. [1972-03-28] PDF 129891: 42 (Formicidae subfamilies); Snelling, 1981Snelling, R. R. 1981. Systematics of social Hymenoptera. Pp. 369-453 in: Hermann, H. R. (ed.) 1981. Social insects. Volume 2. New York: Academic Press, xiii + 491 pp. [1981] [1981] 128876: 386 (Formicidae subfamilies); Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990Hölldobler, B.; Wilson, E. O. 1990. The ants. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, xii + 732 pp. 122852: 33 (Formicidae subfamilies and genera); Bolton, 1990cBolton, B. 1990c. Army ants reassessed: the phylogeny and classification of the doryline section (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Journal of Natural History 24:1339-1364. [1990-10-19] PDF 122856: 1361 (Formicidae subfamilies); Shattuck, 1992cShattuck, S. O. 1992c. Generic revision of the ant subfamily Dolichoderinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 21:1-181. [1992] PDF 128605: 20 (Dolichoderinae genera); Ward, 1990Ward, P. S. 1990. The ant subfamily Pseudomyrmecinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): generic revision and relationship to other formicids. Systematic Entomology 15:449-489. [1990-11] PDF 129605: 464 (Pseudomyrmecinae genera); Brothers & Finnamore, 1993Brothers, D. J.; Finnamore, A. T. 1993. Superfamily Vespoidea. Pp. 161-278 in: Goulet, H.; Huber, J. T. (eds.) 1993. Hymenoptera of the world: an identification guide to families. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada Publication 1894/E. Ottawa: Canada Communications Group, vii + 668 pp. [1993] 123042: 218 (Formicidae subfamilies); Bolton, 1994Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. [1994-07-25] 122834: 7 (Formicidae subfamilies and genera); Bolton, 2003Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and classification of Formicidae. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 71:1-370. [2003-11-10] PDF 130789: 11 (revision of subfamilies); Boudinot, 2015Boudinot, B. E. 2015. Contributions to the knowledge of Formicidae (Hymenoptera, Aculeata): a new diagnosis of the family, the first global male-based key to subfamilies, and a treatment of early branching lineages. European Journal of Taxonomy 120:1-62. PDF 142740: 14 (male-based subfamily key)
MORPHOLOGY OF FORMICIDAE
Forel, 1878cForel, A. 1878c. Études myrmécologiques en 1878 (première partie) avec l'anatomie du gésier des fourmis. Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 15:337-392. [1878-10] PDF 125003: 339 (proventriculus); Janet, 1902Janet, C. 1902. Anatomie du gaster de la Myrmica rubra. Paris: G. Carré et C. Naud, 68 pp. [1902] 126123: 25 (general anatomy); Pietschker, 1910: 1 (brain structure); Wheeler, 1910aWheeler, W. M. 1910a. Ants: their structure, development and behavior. New York: Columbia University Press, xxv + 663 pp. [1910-03] 130044: 13 (general morphology, anatomy); Emery, 1913dEmery, C. 1913d. La nervulation de l'aile antérieure des Formicides. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 21:577-587. [1913-09] 124714: 577 (venation); Wheeler, 1918cWheeler, W. M. 1918c. A study of some ant larvae, with a consideration of the origin and meaning of the social habit among insects. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 57:293-343. [1918-08-08] PDF 130129: 293 (larvae); Janet, 1923: 5 (anatomical drawings synopsis); Bugnion, 1930Bugnion, E. 1930. Les pièces buccales, le sac infrabuccal et le pharynx des fourmis. Bulletin. Société Entomologique d'Egypte 14:85-210. [1930] 123318: 85 (mouthparts); Brown & Nutting, 1950Brown, W. L., Jr.; Nutting, W. L. 1950. Wing venation and the phylogeny of the Formicidae. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 75:113-132. [1950-01-04] PDF 123254: 113 (venation); Gregg, 1953cGregg, R. E. 1953c. Morphological considerations affecting the taxonomy of certain genera of ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 55:324-330. [1953-12-29] PDF 125680: 328 (promesonotal suture motility); Eisner, 1957Eisner, T. 1957. A comparative morphological study of the proventriculus of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 116:439-490. [1957-07] PDF 124480: 439 (proventriculus); Gotwald, 1969: 1 (mouthparts and gaster); Crozier, 1970aCrozier, R. H. 1970a. Karyotypes of twenty-one ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with reviews of the known ant karyotypes. Canadian Journal of Genetics and Cytology 12:109-128. [1970-03] PDF 123970: 109 (karyology); Markl, 1973Markl, H. 1973. The evolution of stridulatory communication in ants. Pp. 258-265 in: International Union for the Study of Social Insects. Congress 1973. Proceedings IUSSI VIIth International Congress, London, 10-15 September, 1973. Southampton: University of Southampton, vi + 418 pp. [1973] 127123: 258 (stridulitrum); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1976bWheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1976b. Ant larvae: review and synthesis. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Washington 7:1-108. [1976] PDF 129906: 45 (larvae); Hölldobler & Engel, 1979Hölldobler, B.; Engel, H. 1979 ("1978"). Tergal and sternal glands in ants. Psyche (Cambridge) 85:285-330. [1979-09-18] PDF 125952: 285 and Hölldobler & Engel-Siegel, 1982Hölldobler, B.; Engel-Siegel, H. 1982. Tergal and sternal glands in male ants. Psyche (Cambridge) 89:113-132. [1982-12-17] 125954: 113 (tergal and sternal glands); Imai, Baroni Urbani, Kubota, et al. 1984: 5 (karyology); Imai, Brown, Kubota, et al. 1984: 66 (karyology); Imai, Kubota, Brown, et al. 1985: 46 (karyology); Hölldobler & Engel-Siegel, 1985Hölldobler, B.; Engel-Siegel, H. 1985 ("1984"). On the metapleural gland of ants. Psyche (Cambridge) 91:201-224. [1985-04-22] PDF 125955: 201 (metapleural gland); Billen, 1986bBillen, J. P. J. 1986b. Comparative morphology and ultrastructure of the Dufour gland in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Entomologia Generalis 11:165-181. [1986-05-30] 122738: 165 (Dufour's gland); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1986eWheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1986e. Ten-year supplement to "Ant larvae: review and synthesis". Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 88:684-702. [1986-10-14] PDF 129923: 684 (larvae); Brown, 1988hBrown, W. L., Jr. 1988h. Data on Malpighian tubule numbers in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Pp. 17-27 in: Trager, J. C. (ed.) 1988. Advances in myrmecology. Leiden: E. J. Brill, xxvii + 551 pp. [1988] 123243: 17 (malpighian tubule numbers); Caetano, 1988Caetano, F. H. 1988. Anatomia, histologia e histoquímica do sistema digestivo e excretor de operárias de formigas (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Naturalia (São Paulo) 13:129-174. [1988] 123429: 129 (digestive tract anatomy); Francoeur & Loiselle, 1988aFrancoeur, A.; Loiselle, R. 1988a. Évolution du strigile chez les Formicides (Hyménoptères). Naturaliste Canadien (Québec) 115:333-353. [1988-12] PDF 125355: 333 (strigil, evolution); Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990Hölldobler, B.; Wilson, E. O. 1990. The ants. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, xii + 732 pp. 122852: 5, 229 (anatomy, exocrine glands); Hashimoto, 1991aHashimoto, Y. 1991a. Phylogenetic study of the family Formicidae based on the sensillum structures on the antennae and labial palpi (Hymenoptera, Aculeata). Japanese Journal of Entomology 59:125-140. [1991-03-25] PDF 125767: 125 (antennal and labial sensilla); Hashimoto, 1991bHashimoto, Y. 1991b. Phylogenetic implications of the spur structures of the hind tibia in the Formicidae (Hymenoptera). Japanese Journal of Entomology 59:289-294. [1991-06-25] PDF 125768: 289 (tibial spurs); Billen, 1993Billen, J. P. J. 1993. Morphology of the exocrine system in ants. Materialy Kollokviumov Sektsii Obshchestvennykh Nasekomykh Vsesoyuznogo Entomologicheskogo Obshchestva 2:1-15. 122728: 4 (exocrine glands); Bolton, 1994Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. [1994-07-25] 122834: 191 (morphology glossary); Hölldobler, Obermayer & Peeters, 1996Hölldobler, B.; Obermayer, M.; Peeters, C. 1996. Comparative study of the metatibial gland in ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Zoomorphology (Berlin) 116:157-167. [1996-12-17] 131493: 157 (metatibial gland); Wenseleers, Schoeters, et al. 1998: 121 (cloacal gland); Perrault, 1999APerrault, G. H. 1999A ("1998"). Heteroponera georgesi n. sp. de Guyane française (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 103:475-477. [1999-01-22] PDF 132006: 125 (thoracic anatomy); Perrault, 2005Perrault, G. H. 2005 ("2004"). Étude morphoanatomique et biométrique du métasoma antérieur des ouvrières. Contribution à la systématique et à la phylogénie des fourmis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (n.s.)40:291-371. [2005-08-10] 132008: 291 (anterior metasomal anatomy); Serna & MacKay, 2010Serna, F.; MacKay, W. 2010. A descriptive morphology of the ant genus Procryptocerus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Insect Science 10: Article 111 (available online: insectscience.org/10.111). PDF 132301: 1 (Procryptocerus morphology); Keller, 2011Keller, R. A. 2011. A phylogenetic analysis of ant morphology (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with special reference to the poneromorph subfamilies. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 355:1-90. [2011-08-10] PDF 132879: 1 (phylogenetic analysis of morphology); Boudinot, 2013Boudinot, B. E. 2013. The male genitalia of ants: musculature, homology, and functional morphology (Hymenoptera, Aculeata, Formicidae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 30:29-49. [2013-01-30] PDF 142314: 29 (male genitalia); Boudinot, 2015Boudinot, B. E. 2015. Contributions to the knowledge of Formicidae (Hymenoptera, Aculeata): a new diagnosis of the family, the first global male-based key to subfamilies, and a treatment of early branching lineages. European Journal of Taxonomy 120:1-62. PDF 142740: 1 (family diagnosis)
EVOLUTION AND PHYLOGENY OF FORMICIDAE
Wheeler, 1920Wheeler, W. M. 1920. The subfamilies of Formicidae, and other taxonomic notes. Psyche (Cambridge) 27:46-55. [1920-06] PDF 129953: 52; Emery, 1920eEmery, C. 1920e. La distribuzione geografica attuale delle formiche. Tentativo di spiegarne la genesi col soccorso di ipotesi filogenetiche e paleogeografiche. Atti della Reale Accademia dei Lincei. Memorie. Classe di Scienze Fisiche, Matematiche e Naturali (5)13:357-450. [1920] 124746: 370; Donisthorpe, 1922bDonisthorpe, H. 1922b ("1921"). The subfamilies of Formicidae. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1921:xl-xlvi. [1922-04-13] PDF 124234: xlvi; Wheeler, 1923gWheeler, W. M. 1923g. Social life among the insects. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., vii + 375 pp. [1923] 130169: 156; Wheeler, 1928hWheeler, W. M. 1928h. The social insects: their origin and evolution. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., xviii + 378 pp. [1928] 130203: 124; Stitz, 1935aStitz, H. 1935a. Formicidae. [part]. Tabulae Biologicae Periodicae 5:208-224. [1935-07-03&lt;] 129046: 211; Morley, 1938Morley, B. D. W. 1938. An outline of the phylogeny of the Formicidae. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 43:190-194. [1938-10-05] PDF 127459: 190; Brown & Nutting, 1950Brown, W. L., Jr.; Nutting, W. L. 1950. Wing venation and the phylogeny of the Formicidae. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 75:113-132. [1950-01-04] PDF 123254: 113; Bernard, 1951cBernard, F. 1951c. Hyménoptères, super-famille des Formicoidea Ashmead 1905. Pp. 997-1104 in: Grassé, P. P. (ed.) 1951. Traité de Zoologie. Tome X. Fasc. II. Paris: Masson et Cie, pp. 976-1948. [1951] 122634: 1041; Brown, 1954eBrown, W. L., Jr. 1954e. Remarks on the internal phylogeny and subfamily classification of the family Formicidae. Insectes Sociaux 1:21-31. [1954-03] PDF 123108: 30; Wilson, Carpenter & Brown, 1967Wilson, E. O.; Carpenter, F. M.; Brown, W. L., Jr. 1967. The first Mesozoic ants, with the description of a new subfamily. Psyche (Cambridge) 74:1-19. PDF 130410: 12; Taylor, 1978aTaylor, R. W. 1978a. Nothomyrmecia macrops: a living-fossil ant rediscovered. Science (Washington, D. C.) 201:979-985. [1978-09-15] PDF 129195: 982; Rasnitsyn, 1980Rasnitsyn, A. P. 1980. Origin and evolution of Hymenoptera. [In Russian.]. Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta. Akademiya Nauk SSSR 174:1-192. [1980-01-24&gt;] 128005: 45-46 (foldout page); Lutz, 1986Lutz, H. 1986. Eine neue Unterfamilie der Formicidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) aus dem mittel-eozänen Olschiefer der "Grube Messel" bei Darmstadt (Deutschland, S-Hessen). Senckenbergiana Lethaea 67:177-218. [1986-10-31] PDF 126988: 213; Dlussky & Fedoseeva, 1988Dlussky, G. M.; Fedoseeva, E. B. 1988. Origin and early stages of evolution in ants. [In Russian.]. Pp. 70-144 in: Ponomarenko, A. G. (ed.) 1988. Cretaceous biocenotic crisis and insect evolution. [In Russian.]. Moskva: Nauka, 232 pp. [1987-12-22&gt;] 124165: 137; Baroni Urbani, 1989Baroni Urbani, C. 1989. Phylogeny and behavioural evolution in ants, with a discussion of the role of behaviour in evolutionary processes. Ethology Ecology and Evolution 1:137-168. [1989-10] PDF 122456: 137; Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990Hölldobler, B.; Wilson, E. O. 1990. The ants. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, xii + 732 pp. 122852: 26; Hashimoto, 1991aHashimoto, Y. 1991a. Phylogenetic study of the family Formicidae based on the sensillum structures on the antennae and labial palpi (Hymenoptera, Aculeata). Japanese Journal of Entomology 59:125-140. [1991-03-25] PDF 125767: 125; Hashimoto, 1991bHashimoto, Y. 1991b. Phylogenetic implications of the spur structures of the hind tibia in the Formicidae (Hymenoptera). Japanese Journal of Entomology 59:289-294. [1991-06-25] PDF 125768: 289; Baroni Urbani, Bolton & Ward, 1992Baroni Urbani, C.; Bolton, B.; Ward, P. S. 1992. The internal phylogeny of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Systematic Entomology 17:301-329. [1992-10] PDF 122513: 301; Shattuck, 1992bShattuck, S. O. 1992b. Higher classification of the ant subfamilies Aneuretinae, Dolichoderinae and Formicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Systematic Entomology 17:199-206. [1992-04] PDF 128604: 203; Brothers & Carpenter, 1993Brothers, D. J.; Carpenter, J. M. 1993. Phylogeny of Aculeata: Chrysidoidea and Vespoidea (Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 2:227-304. [1993-09-30] PDF 123040: 227; Ward, 1994Ward, P. S. 1994. Adetomyrma, an enigmatic new ant genus from Madagascar (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and its implications for ant phylogeny. Systematic Entomology 19:159-175. [1994-08-01] PDF 129609: 173; Hashimoto, 1996Hashimoto, Y. 1996. Skeletomuscular modifications associated with the formation of an additional petiole on the anterior abdominal segments in aculeate Hymenoptera. Japanese Journal of Entomology 64:340-356. [1996-06-25] PDF 131444: 340; Crozier, Jermiin & Chiotis, 1997Crozier, R. H.; Jermiin, L. S.; Chiotis, M. 1997. Molecular evidence for a Jurassic origin of ants. Naturwissenschaften 84:22-23. [1997-01] PDF 130951: 22; Grimaldi, Agosti & Carpenter, 1997Grimaldi, D.; Agosti, D.; Carpenter, J. M. 1997. New and rediscovered primitive ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Cretaceous amber from New Jersey, and their phylogenetic relationships. American Museum Novitates 3208:1-43. [1977-10-23] PDF 131403: 25; Perrault, 1999APerrault, G. H. 1999A ("1998"). Heteroponera georgesi n. sp. de Guyane française (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 103:475-477. [1999-01-22] PDF 132006: 125; Brothers, 1999Brothers, D. J. 1999. Phylogeny and evolution of wasps, ants and bees (Hymenoptera, Chrysidoidea, Vespoidea and Apoidea). Zoologica Scripta 28:233-249. 130848: 233; Grimaldi & Agosti, 2000BGrimaldi, D.; Agosti, D. 2000B. A formicine in New Jersey Cretaceous amber (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and early evolution of the ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 97:13678-13683. [2000-12-05] 131402: 13680; Ohnishi, Imai & Yamamoto, 2004Ohnishi, H.; Imai, H. T.; Yamamoto, M.-T. 2004 ("2003"). Molecular phylogenetic analysis of ant subfamily relationship inferred from rDNA sequences. Genes and Genetic Systems 78:419-425. [2004-02-19] PDF 131945: 419; Astruc, Julien, Errard & Lenoir, 2004Astruc, C.; Julien, J. F.; Errard, C.; Lenoir, A. 2004. Phylogeny of ants (Formicidae) based on morphology and DNA sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 31:880-893. [2004-06] PDF 130694: 880; Grimaldi & Engel, 2005Grimaldi, D.; Engel, M. S. 2005. Evolution of the insects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, xv + 755 pp. PDF 131404: 440; Wilson & Hölldobler, 2005AWilson, E. O.; Hölldobler, B. 2005A. The rise of the ants: a phylogenetic and ecological explanation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102:7411-7414. [2005-05-24] PDF 132627: 7411; Brady, Schultz, Fisher & Ward, 2006Brady, S. G.; Schultz, T. R.; Fisher, B. L.; Ward, P. S. 2006. Evaluating alternative hypotheses for the early evolution and diversification of ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103:18172-18177. [2006-11-28] PDF 130828: 18172; Moreau, Bell, Vila, Archibald & Pierce, 2006Moreau, C. S.; Bell, C. D.; Vila, R.; Archibald, S. B.; Pierce, N. E. 2006. Phylogeny of the ants: diversification in the age of angiosperms. Science (Washington, D. C.) 312:101-104. [2006-04-07] PDF 131881: 101; Ouellette, Fisher & Girman, 2006Ouellette, G. D.; Fisher, B. L.; Girman, D. J. 2006. Molecular systematics of basal subfamilies of ants using 28S rRNA (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40:359-369. [2006-08 </span>] PDF 131969: 359; Rabeling, Brown & Verhaagh, 2008Rabeling, C.; Brown, J. M.; Verhaagh, M. 2008. Newly discovered sister lineage sheds light on early ant evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105:14913-14917. [2008-09-30] PDF 132046: 14914; Keller, 2011Keller, R. A. 2011. A phylogenetic analysis of ant morphology (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with special reference to the poneromorph subfamilies. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 355:1-90. [2011-08-10] PDF 132879: 1; Moreau & Bell, 2013Moreau, C. S.; Bell, C. D. 2013. Testing the museum versus cradle tropical biological diversity hypothesis: phylogeny, diversification, and ancestral biogeographic range evolution of the ants. Evolution 67:2240-2257. PDF 142401: 2245; Johnson, Borowiec, Chiu, Lee, Atallah & Ward, 2013Johnson, B. R.; Borowiec, M. L.; Chiu, J. C.; Lee, E. K.; Atallah, J.; Ward, P. S. 2013. Phylogenomics resolves evolutionary relationships among ants, bees, and wasps. Current Biology 23:2058-2062. [2013-10-21] PDF 142535: 2060
PALAEONTOLOGY OF FORMICIDAE
Scudder, 1891Scudder, S. H. 1891. Index to the known fossil insects of the world, including myriapods and arachnids. Bulletin of the United States Geological Survey 71:1-744. [1891] 128549: 682 (fossil taxa catalogue); Handlirsch, 1907Handlirsch, A. 1907. Die fossilen Insekten und die Phylogenie der rezenten Formen. Ein Handbuch für Paläontologen und Zoologen. Lieferung 6. Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann, pp. 801-960. [1907-06] 125751: 859 (fossil taxa catalogue); Wheeler, 1915iWheeler, W. M. 1915i ("1914"). The ants of the Baltic Amber. Schriften der Physikalisch-Ökonomischen Gesellschaft zu Königsberg 55:1-142. [1915] PDF 130096: 1 (Baltic amber fauna synopsis); Burnham, 1979Burnham, L. 1979 ("1978"). Survey of social insects in the fossil record. Psyche (Cambridge) 85:85-133. [1979-01-26] PDF 123341: 108 (fossils in amber checklist); Keilbach, 1982Keilbach, R. 1982. Bibliographie und Liste der Arten tierischer Einschlüsse in fossilen Harzen sowie ihrer Aufbewahrungsorte. Teil 1. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift (N.F.)29:129-286. [1982-03-15] 126289: 272 (fossils in amber checklist); Spahr, 1987Spahr, U. 1987. Ergänzungen und Berichtigungen zu R. Keilbach's Bibliographie und Liste der Bernsteinfossilien - Ordnung Hymenoptera. Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde. Serie B (Geologie und Paläontologie) 127:1-121. [1987-03-16] 128966: 41 (fossils in amber checklist); Carpenter, 1992Carpenter, F. M. 1992. Treatise on invertebrate paleontology. Part R. Arthropoda 4. Volume 4. Superclass Hexapoda. Boulder: Geological Society of America, pp. i-ii, 279-655. [1992-12-09] 123536: 490 (fossil genera review); Bolton, 1995bBolton, B. 1995b. A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 504 pp. [1995-10] 122860: 4 (fossil taxa checklist, in catalogue); Grimaldi, Agosti & Carpenter, 1997Grimaldi, D.; Agosti, D.; Carpenter, J. M. 1997. New and rediscovered primitive ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Cretaceous amber from New Jersey, and their phylogenetic relationships. American Museum Novitates 3208:1-43. [1977-10-23] PDF 131403: 1 (Cretaceous genera in amber review); Dlussky, 1997ADlussky, G. M. 1997A. Genera of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Baltic amber. [In Russian.]. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal 1997(6):50-62. PDF 131108: 617 (Baltic amber genera key); Bolton, 2003Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and classification of Formicidae. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 71:1-370. [2003-11-10] PDF 130789: 73 (fossil subfamilies synopsis); Dlussky & Rasnitsyn, 2007Dlussky, G. M.; Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2007. Paleontological record and stages of ant evolution. [In Russian.]. Uspekhi Sovremennoi Biologii 127:118-134. [2007] PDF 131131: 118 (Palaeontological record); Dlussky & Rasnitsyn, 2009Dlussky, G. M.; Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2009. Ants (Insecta: Vespida: Formicidae) in the Upper Eocene amber of central and eastern Europe. Paleontological Journal 43:1024-1042. [2009-12] PDF 131132: 1024 (European Upper Eocene amber, synopsis of species); LaPolla, Dlussky & Perrichot, 2013LaPolla, J. S.; Dlussky, G. M.; Perrichot, V. 2013. Ants and the fossil record. Annual Review of Entomology 58:609-630. PDF 142316 (Mesozoic and Cenozoic major ant fossil deposits list, Cretaceous and Cenozoic ant fossils bibliographical review); Dlussky, Rasnitsyn & Perfilieva, 2015Dlussky, G. M.; Rasnitsyn, A. P.; Perfilieva, K. S. 2015. The ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Bol’shaya Svetlovodnaya (Late Eocene of Sikhote-Alin, Russian Far East). Caucasian Entomological Bulletin 11(1):131-152. [2015-08-31] PDF 142813 (Late Eocene of Sikhote-Alin fossils).
OTHER GENERAL REFERENCES
Bolton, 1995aBolton, B. 1995a. A taxonomic and zoogeographical census of the extant ant taxa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Natural History 29:1037-1056. [1995-08] PDF 122859: 1038 (census of extant taxa); Ward, Bolton, Shattuck & Brown, 1996Ward, P. S.; Bolton, B.; Shattuck, S. O.; Brown, W. L., Jr. 1996. A bibliography of ant systematics. University of California Publications in Entomology 116:1-417. [1996-08] 132573}: 55 (bibliography of systematics); Brown, 2000: 46 (overview of genera); Brandão, 2000Brandão, C. R. F. 2000. Major regional and type collections of ants (Formicidae) of the world and sources for the identification of ant species. Pp. 172-185 in: Agosti, D.; Majer, J. D.; Alonso, L. E.; Schultz, T. R. (eds.) 2000. Ants. Standard methods for measuring and monitoring biodiversity. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, xix + 280 pp. [2000-11] [2000-11] 130830: 172 (list of major ant collections); Bolton, 2003Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and classification of Formicidae. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 71:1-370. [2003-11-10] PDF 130789: 15, 77 (diagnosis, synopsis); Bolton, 2007ABolton, B. 2007A. How to conduct large-scale taxonomic revisions in Formicidae. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 80:52-71. [2007-09] 130793: 51 (method for taxonomic revisions); Taylor, 2007Taylor, R. W. 2007. Bloody funny wasps! Speculations on the evolution of eusociality in ants. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 80:580-609. [2007-09] 132428: 580 (eusociality in ants)
Regional catalogues and checklists
NEARCTIC & PALEARCTIC: Smith, 1951cSmith, M. R. 1951c. Family Formicidae. Pp. 778-875 in: Muesebeck, C. F.; Krombein, K. V.; Townes, H. K. (eds.) 1951. Hymenoptera of America north of Mexico. Synoptic catalogue. United States Department of Agriculture. Agriculture Monograph 2:1-1420. [1951-07-11] 128824: 778; Smith, 1958cSmith, M. R. 1958c. Family Formicidae. Pp. 108-162 in: Krombein, K. V. (ed.) 1958. Hymenoptera of America north of Mexico. Synoptic catalogue. First supplement. United States Department of Agriculture. Agriculture Monograph 2(suppl. 1):1-305. [1958-10-08] 128854: 108 (first supplement to previous); Smith, 1967aSmith, M. R. 1967a. Family Formicidae. Pp. 343-374 in: Krombein, K. V.; Burks, B. D. (eds.) 1967. Hymenoptera of America north of Mexico. Synoptic catalog. Second supplement. United States Department of Agriculture. Agriculture Monograph 2(suppl. 2):1-584. [1967-02] 128863: 343 (second supplement); Smith, 1979Smith, D. R. 1979. Superfamily Formicoidea. Pp. 1323-1467 in: Krombein, K. V.; Hurd, P. D.; Smith, D. R.; Burks, B. D. (eds.) 1979. Catalog of Hymenoptera in America north of Mexico. Volume 2. Apocrita (Aculeata). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, pp. i-xvi, 1199-2209. [1979] 128659: 1323; Karaman, 2011Karaman, M. G. 2011. A catalogue of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Montenegro [in Montenegrin]. Podgorica: Catalogues 3, Volume 2, Montenegrin Academy of Sciences and Arts, 140 pp. PDF 142634 (Montenegro catalogue); Borowiec, 2014Borowiec, L. 2014. Catalogue of ants of Europe, the Mediterranean Basin and adjacent regions (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Genus (Wroclaw) 25(1-2):1-340. [2014-07-15] PDF 142632 (Europe, Mediterranean Basin and adjacent regions); Castaño-Meneses, Vásquez-Bolaños, Navarrete-Heredia, Quiroz-Rocha & Alcalá-Martínez, 2015Castaño-Meneses, G.; Vásquez-Bolaños, M.; Navarrete-Heredia, J. L.; Quiroz-Rocha, G. A.; Alcalá-Martínez, I. 2015. Avances de Formicidae de México. Guadalajara, Jalisco, México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 211 pp. PDF 142804 (Mexico partial checklist).
NEOTROPICAL: Kempf, 1972bKempf, W. W. 1972b. Catálogo abreviado das formigas da região Neotropical. Studia Entomologica 15:3-344. [1972-08-25] PDF 126357: 3; Brandão, 1991Brandão, C. R. F. 1991. Adendos ao catálogo abreviado das formigas da região Neotropical (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 35:319-412. [1991-08-31] PDF 122994: 319 (supplement to previous); Castaño-Meneses, Vásquez-Bolaños, Navarrete-Heredia, Quiroz-Rocha & Alcalá-Martínez, 2015Castaño-Meneses, G.; Vásquez-Bolaños, M.; Navarrete-Heredia, J. L.; Quiroz-Rocha, G. A.; Alcalá-Martínez, I. 2015. Avances de Formicidae de México. Guadalajara, Jalisco, México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 211 pp. PDF 142804 (Mexico partial checklist).Salazar & Donoso, 2013Salazar, F.; Donoso, D. A. 2013. New ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) records for Ecuador deposited at the Carl Rettenmeyer ant collection in the QCAZ Museum. Boletín Técnico 11. Serie Zoológica 8-9:151-177. PDF 142800: 151 (partial checklist)
AFROTROPICAL AND MALAGASY: Wheeler, 1922Wheeler, W. M. 1922. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. New York: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 1139. 133015: 727, 1005
ORIENTAL AND MALESIAN: Chapman & Capco, 1951Chapman, J. W.; Capco, S. R. 1951. Check list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Asia. Monographs of the Institute of Science and Technology. Manila 1:1-327. [1951] PDF 123583: 9
AUSTRAL: Taylor & Brown, 1985Taylor, R. W.; Brown, D. R. 1985. Formicoidea. Zoological Catalogue of Australia 2:1-149, 306-348. [1985] 129218: 5; Taylor, 1987aTaylor, R. W. 1987a. A checklist of the ants of Australia, New Caledonia and New Zealand (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization) Division of Entomology Report 41:1-92. [1987-06] PDF 129202: 1; Taylor, 1987bTaylor, R. W. 1987b. A checklist of the ants of Australia, New Caledonia and New Zealand (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). First supplement, 10 July, 1987. CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization) Division of Entomology Report 41(Suppl.1):1-5. [1987-07] 129203: 1 (supplement to previous)
Regional and national faunas with keys
PALAEARCTIC
Mayr, 1855Mayr, G. 1855. Formicina austriaca. Beschreibung der bisher im österreichischen Kaiserstaate aufgefundenen Ameisen, nebst Hinzufügung jener in Deutschland, in der Schweiz und in Italien vorkommenden Arten. Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Vereins in Wien 5:273-478. [1855] PDF 127185: 299 (Austria); Mayr, 1861Mayr, G. 1861. Die europäischen Formiciden. Nach der analytischen Methode bearbeitet. Wien: C. Gerolds Sohn, 80 pp. [1861] PDF 127189: 25 (Europe); Forel, 1874Forel, A. 1874. Les fourmis de la Suisse. Systématique, notices anatomiques et physiologiques, architecture, distribution géographique, nouvelles expériences et observations de moeurs. Neue Denkschriften der Allgemeinen Schweizerischen Gesellschaft für die Gesammten Naturwissenschaften 26:1-452. [1874] PDF 124988: 19 (Switzerland); Saunders, 1880Saunders, E. 1880. Synopsis of the British Heterogyna and fossorial Hymenoptera. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1880:201-304. [1880-12-31] PDF 128453: 202 (Britain); André, 1882aAndré, Ern. 1882a. Les fourmis. [part]. Pp. 49-80 in: André, Edm. 1882. 1881-1886. Species des Hyménoptères d'Europe et d'Algérie. Tome Deuxième. Beaune: Edmond André, 919 + 48 pp. [1882-01] 122251: 125 (Europe & Algeria); Nasonov, 1889Nasonov, N. V. 1889. Contribution to the natural history of the ants primarily of Russia. 1. Contribution to the ant fauna of Russia. [In Russian.]. Izvestiya Imperatorskago Obshchestva Lyubitelei Estestvoznaniya Antropologii i Etnografii pri Imperatorskom Moskovskom Universitete 58:1-78. [1889] 127508: 50 (Russia); Lameere, 1892Lameere, A. 1892. Note sur les fourmis de la Belgique. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 36:61-69. [1892-02-06&gt;] 126777: 62 (Belgium); Saunders, 1896Saunders, E. 1896. The Hymenoptera Aculeata of the British islands. A descriptive account of the families, genera, and species indigenous to Great Britain and Ireland, with notes as to habits, localities, habitats, etc. London: L. Reeve & Co., 391 pp. [1896] 128456: 18 (Britain); Ruzsky, 1905bRuzsky, M. 1905b. The ants of Russia. (Formicariae Imperii Rossici). Systematics, geography and data on the biology of Russian ants. Part I. [In Russian.]. Trudy Obshchestva Estestvoispytatelei pri Imperatorskom Kazanskom Universitete 38(4-6):1-800. [1905] 128184: 99 (Russian Empire); Wasmann, 1906Wasmann, E. 1906. Zur Kenntniss der Ameisen und Ameisengäste von Luxemburg. Archives. Institut Grand-Ducal de Luxembourg (n.s.)1(1/2):104-124. [1906-06] PDF 129630: 7 (Luxemburg); Emery, 1908aEmery, C. 1908a. Beiträge zur Monographie der Formiciden des paläarktischen Faunengebietes. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1908:165-205. [1908-03-01] PDF 124676 (Palaearctic); Bondroit, 1910Bondroit, J. 1910 ("1909"). Les fourmis de Belgique. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 53:479-500. [1910-01-05] PDF 122874: 480 (Belgium); Stitz, 1914Stitz, H. 1914. Die Ameisen (Formicidae) Mitteleuropas, insbesondere Deutschlands. Pp. 1-111 in: Schröder, C. (ed.) 1914. Die Insekten Mitteleuropas insbesondere Deutschlands. Band II, Hymenopteren, 2. Teil. Stuttgart: Franckh'sche Verlagshandlung, 256 pp. [1914] 129025: 54 (Central Europe); Donisthorpe, 1915fDonisthorpe, H. 1915f. British ants, their life-history and classification. Plymouth: Brendon & Son Ltd., xv + 379 pp. [1915] 124216: 65 (Britain); Forel, 1915dForel, A. 1915d. Fauna insectorum helvetiae. Hymenoptera. Formicidae. Die Ameisen der Schweiz. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 12(Beilage):1-77. [1915] 125260: 1 (Switzerland); Emery, 1916aEmery, C. 1916a ("1915"). Fauna entomologica italiana. I. Hymenoptera.-Formicidae. Bullettino della Società Entomologica Italiana 47:79-275. [1916-11-30] PDF 124734: 92 (Italy); Bondroit, 1918Bondroit, J. 1918. Les fourmis de France et de Belgique. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 87:1-174. [1918-12-24] PDF 122872: 12 (France & Belgium); Kutter, 1920b: 132 (Switzerland); Soudek, 1922bSoudek, S. 1922b. Mravenci. Soustava, zemepisné rozsírení, oekologie a urcovací klíc mravencu zijících na území Ceskoslovenské republiky. Praha: Ceskoslovenská Spolecnost Entomologická, 100 pp. [1922] PDF 128940: 17 (Czechoslovakia); Lomnicki, 1925aLomnicki, J. 1925a ("1924"). Przeglad polskich gatunków rodzaju mrówki (Formica Linné). Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 3:151-182. [1925-03-15&lt;] PDF 126935: 160 (Poland); Stärcke, 1926Stärcke, A. 1926. Nieuwe Nederlandsche Formiciden (benevens enkele systematische opmerkingen). Entomologische Berichten (Amsterdam) 7:86-97. [1926-05-01] 128985: 79 (Netherlands); Karavaiev, 1927dKaravaiev, V. 1927d. The ant fauna of Ukraine. [In Ukrainian.]. Zbirnyk Prats' Zoolohichnoho Muzeyu 2:1-52 [= Trudy. Ukrains'ka Akademiya Nauk. Fizichno-Matematichnoho Viddilu 4:247-296]. [1927] 126255: 254 (Ukraine); Donisthorpe, 1927cDonisthorpe, H. 1927c. British ants, their life history and classification (2nd edn.). London: G. Routledge and Sons, xvi + 436 pp. [1927] 124250: 66 (Britain); Arnol'di, 1933aArnol'di, K. V. 1933a. Formicidae - ants. [In Russian.]. Pp. 594-605 in: Filip'ev, I. N.; Ogloblin, D. A. (eds.) 1933. Keys to insects. [In Russian.]. Moskva: Ogiz, viii + 820 pp. [1933-12-03&gt;] 122356: 596 (Russia); Menozzi, 1933bMenozzi, C. 1933b. Le formiche della Palestina. Memorie della Società Entomologica Italiana 12:49-113. [1933-06-15] PDF 127374: 87 (Israel); Karavaiev, 1934Karavaiev, V. 1934. The fauna of the family Formicidae (ants) of the Ukraine. [In Ukrainian.]. Trudy Instytutu Zoolohii ta Biolohii Vseukrains'koi Akademii Nauk. Seriya 1. Pratsi z Systematyky ta Faunistyky 1934:1-164. [1934-09-27&gt;] 126234: 48 (Ukraine); Stitz, 1939Stitz, H. 1939. Die Tierwelt Deutschlands und der angrenzenden Meersteile nach ihren Merkmalen und nach ihrer Lebensweise. 37. Theil. Hautflüger oder Hymenoptera. I: Ameisen oder Formicidae. Jena: G. Fischer, 428 pp. [1939] 129033: 56 (Germany); Kratochvíl, 1941bKratochvíl, J. 1941b. [Untitled. New subgenera of Tetramorium, and a new subspecies, Tetramorium ferox silhavyi, attributed to Kratochvíl.]. P. 84 in: Novák, V.; Sadil, J. 1941. Klíc k urcování mravencu strední Evropy se zvlástním zretelem k mravencí zvírene Cech a Moravy. Entomologické Listy 4:65-115. [1941] 126513: 69 (Central Europe); Novák & Sadil, 1941Novák, V.; Sadil, J. 1941. Klíc k urcování mravencu strední Evropy se zvlástním zretelem k mravencí zvírene Cech a Moravy. Entomologické Listy 4:65-115. PDF 126512: 69 (Central Europe); Ceballos, 1943Ceballos, G. 1943. Las tribus de los himenópteros de España. [part]. Madrid: Instituto Español de Entomología, pp. 289-420. [1943-12-30] 123568: 313 (Spain);Holgersen, 1942bHolgersen, H. 1942b. Ants of northern Norway (Hym., Form.). Tromso Museums Årshefter [Aarshefter] 63(2):1-34. [1942-10-09] PDF 125917: 3 (Northern Norway); Holgersen, 1943cHolgersen, H. 1943c. Bestemmelsestabell over norske maur (Hym., Formicidae). Norsk Entomologisk Tidsskrift 6:164-182. [1943-09-01] 125920: 166 and Holgersen, 1944aHolgersen, H. 1944a. The ants of Norway (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Nytt Magasin for Naturvidenskapene 84:165-203. [1944-09-08] 125923: 198 (Norway); Boven, 1947: 168 (Belgium); Collingwood, 1958bCollingwood, C. A. 1958b. A key to the species of ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) found in Britain. Transactions of the Society for British Entomology 13:69-96. [1958-04-30] PDF 123782: 69 (Britain); Somfai, 1959Somfai, E. 1959. Hangya alkatúak Formicoidea. Magyarország Allatvilága 43:1-79. [1959-02-11] 128917: 1 (Hungary); Boven, 1959Boven, J. K. A. 1959. Vliesvleugelige insekten - Hymenoptera VI. Angeldragers (Aculeata). Mieren (Formicidae). Wetenschappelijke Mededelingen. Koninklijke Nederlandse Natuurhistorische Vereniging 30:1-32. [1959-01] 122956: 1 (Netherlands); Collingwood, 1964bCollingwood, C. A. 1964b. The identification and distribution of British ants. 1. A revised key to the species found in Britain. Transactions of the Society for British Entomology 16:93-114,121. [1964-12] PDF 123798: 93 (Britain); Bernard, 1967aBernard, F. 1967a ("1968"). Faune de l'Europe et du Bassin Méditerranéen. 3. Les fourmis (Hymenoptera Formicidae) d'Europe occidentale et septentrionale. Paris: Masson, 411 pp. [1967-11] PDF 122660: 75 (Western Europe); Boven, 1970bBoven, J. K. A. 1970b. Le polymorphisme des ouvrières de Megaponera foetens Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Publicatiës van het Natuurhistorisch Genootschap in Limburg 20(3/4):5-9. [1970] 122979: 7 (Netherlands); Tarbinsky, 1976Tarbinsky, Y. S. 1976. The ants of Kirghizia. [In Russian.]. Frunze: Ilim, 217 pp. [1976-06-04&gt;] PDF 129149: 14 (Kyrghyzstan); Bolton & Collingwood, 1975Bolton, B.; Collingwood, C. A. 1975. Handbooks for the identification of British Insects. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects 6(3(c)):1-34. [1975-06] 122862: 1 (Britain); Boven, 1977Boven, J. K. A. 1977. De mierenfauna van België (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Acta Zoologica et Pathologica Antverpiensia 67:1-191. [1977-06] PDF 122960: 1 (Belgium); Kutter, 1977cKutter, H. 1977c. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Insecta Helvetica. Fauna 6:1-298. [1977] 126740: 19 (Switzerland); Brian, 1977Brian, M. V. 1977. Ants. London: Collins, 223 pp. 122535: 33 (Britain); Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978Arnol'di, K. V.; Dlussky, G. M. 1978. Superfam. Formicoidea. 1. Fam. Formicidae - ants. [In Russian.]. Pp. 519-556 in: Medvedev, G. S. (ed.) 1978. Keys to the insects of the European part of the USSR. Vol. 3. Hymenoptera. Part 1. [In Russian.]. Opredeliteli Faune SSSR 119:3-584. [1978-11-02&gt;] 122371: 520 (former European U.S.S.R.); Collingwood, 1978Collingwood, C. A. 1978. A provisional list of Iberian Formicidae with a key to the worker caste (Hym. Aculeata). EOS. Revista Española de Entomología 52:65-95. [1978-05-10] PDF 123763: 65 (Iberian Peninsula); Collingwood, 1979Collingwood, C. A. 1979. The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 8:1-174. [1979] PDF 123764: 28 (Fennoscandia & Denmark); Schembri & Collingwood, 1981Schembri, S. P.; Collingwood, C. A. 1981. A revision of the myrmecofauna of the Maltese Islands (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale "Giacomo Doria" 83:417-442. [1981-09-01] PDF 128469: 417 (Malta); Verhaeghe, Deligne, et al., 1984: 105 (Belgium genera); Gösswald, 1985Gösswald, K. 1985. Organisation und Leben der Ameisen. Stuttgart: Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 355 pp. [1985] 125570: 262 (Germany); Collingwood, 1985Collingwood, C. A. 1985. Hymenoptera: Fam. Formicidae of Saudi Arabia. Fauna of Saudi Arabia 7:230-302. [1985] PDF 123767: 230 (Saudi Arabia); Nilsson & Douwes, 1987Nilsson, O.; Douwes, P. 1987. Norrländska myror med bestämningstabell till arbetarna. Natur i Norr 6:49-90. 127531: 56 (Norway); Agosti & Collingwood, 1987bAgosti, D.; Collingwood, C. A. 1987b. A provisional list of the Balkan ants (Hym. Formicidae) with a key to the worker caste. II. Key to the worker caste, including the European species without the Iberian. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 60:261-293. [1987-12-15] PDF 122149: 261 (Balkans); Casevitz-Weulersse, 1990bCasevitz-Weulersse, J. 1990b. Étude systématique de la myrmécofaune corse (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) (Première partie). Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section A. Zoologie, Biologie et Écologie Animales (4)12:135-163. [1990-08-02] 123552: 135 and Casevitz-Weulersse, 1990cCasevitz-Weulersse, J. 1990c. Étude systématique de la myrmécofaune corse (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) (Deuxième partie). Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section A. Zoologie, Biologie et Écologie Animales (4)12:415-442. [1990-11-24] PDF 123553: 415 (Corsica); Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990Dlussky, G. M.; Soyunov, O. S.; Zabelin, S. I. 1990. Ants of Turkmenistan. [In Russian.]. Ashkabad: Ylym Press, 273 pp. PDF 124151: 99 (Turkmenistan); Kupyanskaya, 1990aKupyanskaya, A. N. 1990a. Ants of the Far Eastern USSR. [In Russian.]. Vladivostok: Akademiya Nauk SSSR, 258 pp. [1990-09-13&gt;] 126604: 83 (Far Eastern Russia); Bolton, in Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990Hölldobler, B.; Wilson, E. O. 1990. The ants. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, xii + 732 pp. 122852: 34 (Palaearctic genera key); Atanasov & Dlussky, 1992: 47 (Bulgaria); Arakelian, 1994Arakelian, G. R. 1994. Fauna of the Republic of Armenia. Hymenopterous insects. Ants (Formicidae). [In Russian.]. Erevan: Gitutium, 153 pp. [1994-06-20&gt;] PDF 122300: 1 (Armenia); Radchenko, 1994bRadchenko, A. G. 1994b. Identification table for the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of southern Siberia. [In Russian.]. Pp. 95-118 in: Kotenko, A. G. (ed.) 1994. Hymenopterous insects of Siberia and the Far East. [In Russian.]. Trudy Zapovednika "Daurskii" 3:1-147. [1994-06-10&gt;] 127961: 95 (South Siberia); Seifert, 1994aSeifert, B. 1994a ("1993"). Die freilebenden Ameisenarten Deutschlands (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) und Angaben zu deren Taxonomie und Verbreitung. Abhandlungen und Berichte des Naturkundemuseums Görlitz 67(3):1-44. [1994-01-10] PDF 128577: 1 (Germany, synopsis); Onoyama & Terayama, 1994Onoyama, K.; Terayama, M. 1994. A list of references on Japanese ants. [In Japanese.]. Tokyo: Myrmecological Society of Japan, iii + 50 pp. [1994-03-25] 127638: 1 (Japan bibliography); Bolton, 1994Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. [1994-07-25] 122834: 22, 42, 75, 153 (Dolichoderinae, Formicinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae genera keys); Douwes, 1995Douwes, P. 1995. Sveriges myror. Entomologisk Tidskrift 116:83-99. [1995-11] 124392: 83 (Sweden); Kupyanskaya, 1995: 327 (Far Eastern Russia); Wu & Wang, 1995aWu, J.; Wang, C. 1995a. The ants of China. [In Chinese.]. Beijing: China Forestry Publishing House, x + 214 pp. [1995-06] 130487: 30 (China); Fontenla Rizo, 1995bFontenla Rizo, J. L. 1995b. Reflexiones sobre las hormigas "vagabundas" de Cuba. Cocuyo (Havana) 3:11-22. [1995-06] 124963: 16 (Cuba, tramp species key); Collingwood & Agosti, 1996Collingwood, C. A.; Agosti, D. 1996. Formicidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) of Saudi Arabia (part 2). Fauna of Saudi Arabia 15:300-385. [1996-04-15] PDF 130931: 300 (Saudi Arabia); Collingwood & Van Harten, 1994Collingwood, C. A.; Van Harten, A. 1994. A general guide to the ants of Yemen. Sana'a: Yemeni-German Plant Protection Project, 39 pp. 123815: 1 (Yemen); Seifert, 1996BSeifert, B. 1996B. Ameisen beobachten, bestimmen. Augsburg: Naturbuch Verlag, 351 pp. [1996-12-31] 132274: 106 (Central Europe); Skinner & Allen, 1996Skinner, G. J.; Allen, G. W. 1996. Ants. Naturalists' Handbook 24. Slough: Richmond Publishing Co., ii + 83 pp. [1996] 132350: 40 (Britain); Dlussky, 1997ADlussky, G. M. 1997A. Genera of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Baltic amber. [In Russian.]. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal 1997(6):50-62. PDF 131108: 616 (*Baltic Amber genera); Collingwood & Prince, 1998Collingwood, C.; Prince, A. 1998. A guide to ants of continental Portugal (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Boletim da Sociedade Portuguesa de Entomologia. Suplemento 5:1-49. [1998-07] 130938: 9 (Portugal); Czechowski, Radchenko & Czechowska, 2002Czechowski, W.; Radchenko, A.; Czechowska, W. 2002. The ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Poland. Warsaw: Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 200 pp. PDF 130994: 133 (Poland); Aktaç & Radchenko, 2002Aktaç, N.; Radchenko, A. G. 2002. Türkiye karincalarinin (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) altfamilya ve cins tani anahtarlari. Türkiye Entomoloji Dergisi 26:51-61. [2002-03] 130646: 53 (Turkey genera); Yoshimura & Onoyama, 2002BYoshimura, M.; Onoyama, K. 2002B. Male-based keys to the subfamilies and genera of Japanese ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Entomological Science 5:421-443. [2002-12-25] PDF 132694: 424 (Japan genera, males key); Imai, Kihara, Kondoh, et al. 2003: 8 (Japan); Radchenko, 2005BRadchenko, A. 2005B. Monographic revision of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of North Korea. Annales Zoologici (Warsaw) 55:127-221. [2005-06-30] PDF 132056: 183 (North Korea); Seifert, 2007Seifert, B. 2007. Die Ameisen Mittel- und Nordeuropas. Tauer: lutra Verlags- und Vertriebsgesellschaft, 368 pp. [2007-04] 132271: 107 (North and Central Europe); Boer, 2010Boer, P. 2010. Mieren van de Benelux. ?s-Graveland, Netherlands: Stichting Jeugdbondsuitgeverij, 183 pp. 130781: 8 (Benelux); Lapeva-Gjonova, et al. 2010: 1 (Bulgaria species catalogue); Cs?sz, Markó & Gallé, 2011Cs?sz, S.; Markó, B.; Gallé, L. 2011. The myrmecofauna (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Hungary: an updated checklist. North-Western Journal of Zoology 7:55-62. [2011-06] PDF 132876: 56 (Hungary species catalogue); Czechowski, Radchenko, et al. 2012: 333 (Poland); Douwes, Abenius, Cederberg & Wahlstedt, 2012Douwes, P.; Abenius, J.; Cederberg, B.; Wahlstedt, U. 2012. Nationalnyckeln till Sveriges flora och fauna. Steklar: Myror-getingar. Hymenoptera: Formicidae-Vespidae. Uppsala: ArtDatabanken, 382 pp. 142692: 1 (Sweden)
NEARCTIC
Provancher, 1883Provancher, L. 1883. Petite faune entomologique du Canada et particulièrement de la province de Québec. Vol. II. Comprenant les Orthoptères, les Névroptères et les Hyménoptères. Québec: C. Darveau, vii + v + 879 pp. [with some irregularities in pagination]. [1883] PDF 127914: 596 (Canada); Provancher, 1887Provancher, L. 1887. Fam. X. - Les Formicides. Dummy reference. Pp. 224-249 in: Provancher, L. 1887. 1885-1889. Additions et corrections au Volume II de la Faune entomologique du Canada, traitant des Hyménoptères. Québec: C. Darveau, 477 pp. 133021: 225 (Canada); Cresson, 1887Cresson, E. T. 1887. Synopsis of the families and genera of the Hymenoptera of America, north of Mexico, together with a catalogue of the described species, and bibliography. Transactions of the American Entomological Society, Suppl. Vol. 1887:1-351. [1887] PDF 123936: 93 (U.S.A.); Wheeler, 1910aWheeler, W. M. 1910a. Ants: their structure, development and behavior. New York: Columbia University Press, xxv + 663 pp. [1910-03] 130044: 557 (North America genera); Wheeler, 1916rWheeler, W. M. 1916r. Formicoidea. Formicidae. Pp. 577-601 in: Viereck, H. L. 1916. Guide to the insects of Connecticut. Part III. The Hymenoptera, or wasp-like insects, of Connecticut. Connecticut State Geological and Natural History Survey. Bulletin 22:1-824. [1916] 130115: 579 (U.S.A., Connecticut); Cole, 1942Cole, A. C., Jr. 1942. The ants of Utah. American Midland Naturalist 28:358-388. [1942-10-13] PDF 123672}: 359 (U.S.A., Utah); Smith, 1943eSmith, M. R. 1943e. A generic and subgeneric synopsis of the male ants of the United States. American Midland Naturalist 30:273-321. [1943-10-22] PDF 128795: 276 (U.S.A. subfamilies & genera, males); Buren, 1944aBuren, W. F. 1944a. A list of Iowa ants. Iowa State College Journal of Science 18:277-312. [1944-04] PDF 123329: 278 (U.S.A., Iowa); Smith, 1947fSmith, M. R. 1947f. A generic and subgeneric synopsis of the United States ants, based on the workers. American Midland Naturalist 37:521-647. [1947-07-27] PDF 128808: 524 (U.S.A. genera); Creighton, 1950aCreighton, W. S. 1950a. The ants of North America. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 104:1-585. [1950-04] PDF 123910: 29 (North America); Gregg, 1963Gregg, R. E. 1963. The ants of Colorado, with reference to their ecology, taxonomy, and geographic distribution. Boulder: University of Colorado Press, xvi + 792 pp. [1963] 125667: 278 (U.S.A., Colorado); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1963Wheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1963. The ants of North Dakota. Grand Forks, North Dakota: University of North Dakota Press, viii + 326 pp. [1963] 129848: 149 (U.S.A., North Dakota); Francoeur, 1979aFrancoeur, A. 1979a. Les fourmis du Québec. 1. Introduction. 2. La famille des Formicidae. 3. La sous-famille des Ponerinae. Annales de la Société Entomologique du Québec 24:12-47. [1979-01] PDF 125338: 48 (Canada, Québec, introduction); Allred, 1982Allred, D. M. 1982. Ants of Utah. Great Basin Naturalist 42:415-511. [1982-12-31] 122181: 437 (U.S.A., Utah); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1986gWheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1986g. The ants of Nevada. Los Angeles: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, vii + 138 pp. [1986] PDF 129925: 16 (U.S.A., Nevada); Mackay, Lowrie, et al., 1988: 81 (U.S.A., New Mexico); Cover, in Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990Hölldobler, B.; Wilson, E. O. 1990. The ants. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, xii + 732 pp. 122852: 62 (Nearctic genera key); Mackay & MacKay, 2002Mackay, W.; MacKay, E. 2002. The ants of New Mexico (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 400 pp. [2002-12] PDF 131795: 16 (U.S.A., New Mexico); Dlussky & Rasnitsyn, 2003Dlussky, G. M.; Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2003 ("2002"). Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Formation Green River and some other Middle Eocene deposits of North America. Russian Entomological Journal 11:411-436. [2003-06] PDF 131135: 430 (*Eocene North American genera); Bolton, 1994Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. [1994-07-25] 122834: 25, 38, 48, 95, 160 (Dolichoderinae, Ecitoninae, Formicinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae genera keys); Coovert, 2005: 1 (U.S.A., Ohio); Ward, 2005Ward, P. S. 2005. A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa 936:1-68. [2005-04-12] PDF 132562: 20 (U.S.A., California genera); Fisher & Cover, 2007Fisher, B. L.; Cover, S. P. 2007. Ants of North America. A guide to genera. Berkeley: University of California Press, xiv + 194 pp. [2007-09] 131301: 1 (North American genera key)
NEOTROPICAL
Gallardo, 1915Gallardo, A. 1915. Observaciones sobre algunas hormigas de la República Argentina. Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires 27:1-35. [1915-06-03] PDF 125411: 30 (Argentina genera); Menozzi & Russo, 1930Menozzi, C.; Russo, G. 1930. Contributo alla conoscenza della mirmecofauna della Repubblica Dominicana (Antille). Bollettino del Laboratorio di Zoologia Generale e Agraria della Reale Scuola Superiore d'Agricoltura. Portici 24:148-173. PDF 127353: 169 (Dominican Republic); Smith, 1937Smith, M. R. 1937 ("1936"). The ants of Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico 20:819-875. [1937-01] PDF 128776: 822 (Puerto Rico); Kusnezov, 1956aKusnezov, N. 1956a. Claves para la identificación de las hormigas de la fauna argentina. Idia 104-105:1-56. [1956-09] PDF 126654: 7 (Argentina); Kusnezov, 1960bKusnezov, N. 1960b ("1959"). La fauna de hormigas en el oeste de la Patagonia y Tierra del Fuego. Acta Zoologica Lilloana 17:321-401. [1960-06-10] PDF 126667: 330 (West Patagonia); Snelling & Hunt, 1975Snelling, R. R.; Hunt, J. H. 1975. The ants of Chile (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Revista Chilena de Entomología 9:63-129. [1976-05] PDF 128906: 63 (Chile); Kempf, 1978aKempf, W. W. 1978a. Formicidae-Hym. 111. Chave para identificação de operárias des sete subfamilias que ocorrem no Brasil. Studia Entomologica 20:33. [1978-08-30] 126377: 33 (Neotropical subfamilies); Baroni Urbani, 1984Baroni Urbani, C. 1984 ("1983"). Clave para la determinación de los géneros de hormigas neotropicales. Graellsia 39:73-82. [1984-02-10] PDF 122506: 73 (Neotropical genera); Mackay & Mackay, 1989: 1 (Mexico genera); Cover, in Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990Hölldobler, B.; Wilson, E. O. 1990. The ants. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, xii + 732 pp. 122852: 69 (Neotropical genera key); Lattke, in Jaffe, 1993Jaffe, K. 1993. El mundo de las hormigas. Baruta, Venezuela: Equinoccio (Ediciones de la Universidad Simón Bolívar), 188 pp. [1993-07] 126108: 145 (Neotropical subfamilies & genera); Bolton, 1994Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. [1994-07-25] 122834: 26, 38, 49, 98, 162 (Dolichoderinae, Ecitoninae, Formicinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae genera keys); Fernández, Palacio, MacKay & MacKay, 1996Fernández, F.; Palacio, E. E.; MacKay, W. P.; MacKay, E. S. 1996. Introducción al estudio de las hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) de Colombia. Pp. 349-412 in: Andrade, M. G.; Amat García, G.; Fernández, F. (eds.) 1996. Insectos de Colombia. Estudios escogidos. Bogotá: Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, 541 pp. [1996-09] 131275: 353 (Neotropical subfamilies); Fernández & Ospina, in {ref 133005}: 49 (Neotropical genera synopsis); Palacio & Fernández, in {ref 133005}: 233 (Neotropical subfamilies and genera keys)
AFROTROPICAL AND MALAGASY
Forel, 1891cForel, A. 1891c. Les Formicides. [part]. In: Grandidier, A. 1891. Histoire physique, naturelle, et politique de Madagascar. Volume XX. Histoire naturelle des Hyménoptères. Deuxième partie (28e fascicule). Paris: Hachette et Cie, v + 237 pp. [1891] PDF 125030: 8 (Madagascar genera); Arnold, 1915Arnold, G. 1915. A monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. Part I. Ponerinae, Dorylinae. Annals of the South African Museum 14:1-159. [1915-02-11] 122309: 6 (South Africa); Arnold, 1916Arnold, G. 1916. A monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. Part II. Ponerinae, Dorylinae. Annals of the South African Museum 14:159-270. [1916-05-20] PDF 122310: 159 (South Africa); Bolton, 1973aBolton, B. 1973a. The ant genera of West Africa: a synonymic synopsis with keys (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Entomology 27:317-368. [1973-01-18] PDF 122835: 321 (West Africa subfamilies & genera); Bolton, in Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990Hölldobler, B.; Wilson, E. O. 1990. The ants. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, xii + 732 pp. 122852: 39 (Afrotropical and Malagasy genera key); Bolton, 1994Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. [1994-07-25] 122834: 23, 44, 79, 155 (Dolichoderinae, Formicinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae genera keys); Yoshimura & Fisher, 2007Yoshimura, M.; Fisher, B. L. 2007. A revision of male ants of the Malagasy region (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): key to subfamilies and treatment of the genera of Ponerinae. Zootaxa 1654:21-40. [2007-12-05] PDF 132688: 27 (Malagasy subfamilies, males key); Yoshimura & Fisher, 2009Yoshimura, M.; Fisher, B. L. 2009. A revision of male ants of the Malagasy region (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Key to genera of the subfamily Proceratiinae. Zootaxa 2216:1-21. [2009-09-01] PDF 132689: 8 (Proceratiinae males); Yoshimura & Fisher, 2011Yoshimura, M.; Fisher, B. L. 2011. A revision of male ants of the Malagasy region (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): key to genera of the subfamily Dolichoderinae. Zootaxa 2794:1-34. [2011-03-18] PDF 132806: 7 (Dolichoderinae males); Yoshimura & Fisher, 2012Yoshimura, M.; Fisher, B. L. 2012. A revision of male ants of the Malagasy Amblyoponinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with resurrections of the genera Stigmatomma and Xymmer. PLoS ONE (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0033325) 7(3):e33325. [2012-03-29] PDF 133048: 11 (Amblyoponinae males)
ORIENTAL AND MALESIAN
Forel, 1892kForel, A. 1892k. Les Formicides de l'Empire des Indes et de Ceylan. Part I. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 7:219-245. [1892-10-01] PDF 125041: 219 (India & Sri Lanka); Bingham, 1903Bingham, C. T. 1903. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera, Vol. II. Ants and Cuckoo-wasps. London: Taylor and Francis, 506 pp. [1903] PDF 122766: 1 (India, Sri Lanka & Burma); Wilson & Taylor, 1967bWilson, E. O.; Taylor, R. W. 1967b. The ants of Polynesia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Pacific Insects Monograph 14:1-109. [1967-08-15] PDF 130430: 10 (Polynesia); Bolton, in Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990Hölldobler, B.; Wilson, E. O. 1990. The ants. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, xii + 732 pp. 122852: 46 (Oriental and Indo-Australian genera key); Bolton, 1994Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. [1994-07-25] 122834: 23, 45, 84, 158 (Dolichoderinae, Formicinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae genera keys); Wu & Wang, 1995aWu, J.; Wang, C. 1995a. The ants of China. [In Chinese.]. Beijing: China Forestry Publishing House, x + 214 pp. [1995-06] 130487: 30 (China); Zhou, 2001AZhou, S. 2001A. Ants of Guangxi. [In Chinese.]. Guilin, China: Guangxi Normal University Press, 255 pp. [2001-09-01] PDF 132709: 21 (China, Guangxi subfamilies); Clouse, 2007BClouse, R. M. 2007B. The ants of Micronesia (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Micronesica 39:171-295. [2007-07] 130924: 190 (Micronesia); Framenau & Thomas, 2008Framenau, V. W.; Thomas, M. L. 2008. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean): identification and distribution. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25:45-85. [2008] PDF 131339: 52 (Christmas I.); Terayama, 2009 (Taiwan); Eguchi, Bui & Yamane, 2011Eguchi, K.; Bui, T. V.; Yamane, S. 2011. Generic synopsis of the Formicidae of Vietnam (Insecta: Hymenoptera), part I — Myrmicinae and Pseudomyrmecinae. Zootaxa 2878:1-61. [2011-05-13] PDF 132840: 7 (Vietnam subfamilies key); Pfeiffer, et al. 2011: 32 (ants of Borneo, checklist); General & Alpert, 2012General, D. M.; Alpert, G. D. 2012. A synoptic review of the ant genera (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of the Philippines. ZooKeys 200:1-111. [2012-06-05] PDF 133060: 68 (Philippines genera key); Sarnat & Economo, 2012Sarnat, E. M.; Economo, E. P. 2012. The ants of Fiji. University of California Publications in Entomology 132:1-384. [2012-09-01] PDF 142254: 1 (Fiji); Yamane, 2013Yamane, S. 2013. A review of the ant fauna of the Krakatau Islands, Indonesia. Bulletin of the Kitakyushu Museum of Natural History and Human History Series A (Natural History) 11:1-66. [2013-03-31] 142394: 1 (Krakatau Islands, species keys)
AUSTRAL
Forel, 1905dForel, A. 1905d. A revision of the species of the Formicidae (ants) of New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 37:353-355. [1905-06] PDF 125161: 353 (New Zealand); Brown, 1958hBrown, W. L., Jr. 1958h. A review of the ants of New Zealand. Acta Hymenopterologica 1:1-50. [1958-07-30] PDF 123147}: 1 (New Zealand); Brown & Taylor, 1970Brown, W. L., Jr.; Taylor, R. W. 1970. Superfamily Formicoidea. Pp. 951-959 in: CSIRO (ed.) 1970. The insects of Australia. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, xiii + 1029 pp. [1970] 123256}: 958 (Australia subfamilies); Greenslade, 1979Greenslade, P. J. M. 1979. A guide to ants of South Australia. Adelaide: South Australian Museum (Special Educational Bulletin Series), 44 pp. [1979] 125641: 10 (South Australia subfamilies); Taylor, R.W., in Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990Hölldobler, B.; Wilson, E. O. 1990. The ants. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, xii + 732 pp. 122852: 55 (Australia genera key); Taylor, 1991dTaylor, R. W. 1991d. Formicidae. Pp. 980-989 in: CSIRO (ed.) 1991. The insects of Australia. Second edition. Volume II. Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, pp. i-vi, 543-1137. [1991] 129214: 987 (Australia subfamilies); Bolton, 1994Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. [1994-07-25] 122834: 24, 47, 91, 159 (Dolichoderinae, Formicinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae genera keys); Shattuck, 1999Shattuck, S. O. 1999. Australian ants. Their biology and identification. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing, xi + 226 pp. [1999-01] 132308: 21 (Australia subfamilies & genera); Andersen, 2000Andersen, A. N. 2000. The ants of northern Australia. A guide to the monsoonal fauna. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing, v + 106 pp. 130660: 14 (northern Australia subfamilies & genera); Don, 2007Don, W. 2007. Ants of New Zealand. Dunedin, New Zealand: Otago University Press, 239 pp. [2007] 131140: 39 (New Zealand); Heterick, 2009Heterick, B. E. 2009. A guide to the ants of south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 76:1-206. PDF 131481: 16, 28 (south-western Australia subfamilies & genera); Jennings, Krogmann & Burwell, 2013Jennings, J. T.; Krogmann, L.; Burwell, C. 2013. Review of the hymenopteran fauna of New Caledonia with a checklist of species. Zootaxa 3736(1):1-53. [2013-11-11] PDF 142510: 20 (New Caledonia species checklist)

Distribution:


African Region: Kenya, Macaronesia, Tanzania
Australian Region: Barrow Island, New Guinea, New Zealand, Queensland, Solomon Islands, Western Australia
Eurasian Region: Alicante, Austria, Belgium, China, Crete, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Greece, Iran, Italy, Netherlands, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Slovenia, United Arab Emirates
Malagasy Region: Comoros, Europa Island, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mayotte, Reunion, Seychelles
Nearctic Region: Alabama, Alberta, Arizona, Arkansas, Baja California, British Columbia, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, New Mexico, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah
Neotropical Region: Costa Rica, Ecuador, Galapagos Islands, Martinique, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mexico, Paraguay
Pacific Islands Region: Fiji, French Polynesia, Hawaii, Micronesia, Tokelau
South East Asia Region: Borneo, India, Philippines, Xishuangbanna

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Treatment Citation: Brown, W. L., 1952, Heteroponera Mayr reinstated (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Psyche 59, pp. 70-70

Heteroponera Mayr ReinstatedHNS (Hymenoptera: FormicidaeHNS) .

- Heteroponera MayrHNS (1887, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 37: 533) has remained suppressed as a synonym of Acanthoponera MayrHNS for many years. Wheeler (1923, loc. cit.) has shown, however that AcanthoponeraHNS can be split into two groups; one group { AcanthoponeraHNS s. str.) having the tarsal claws with an extra, strong tooth and a basal lobe (or tooth), while the second group (Anacanthoponera Wheeler) has the tarsal claws at most with a single, weak median tooth. In this second group, Wheeler included Heteroponera carinifrons MayrHNS, and since HeteroponeraHNS, with the genotype H. carinifronsHNS, has precedence, it must be reinstated as a good genus. Anacanthoponera Wheeler (1923, Psyche, 30: 176, as a subgenus of AcanthoponeraHNS) is a new synonym of HeteroponeraHNS, since the genotype, Ponera dolo RogerHNS, is congeneric with H. carinifronsHNS.

AcanthoponeraHNS is neotropical, and has well developed propodeal teeth and the petiolar apex produced as a long tooth or spine; Kusnezov (in litt.) finds A. mucronataHNS to have 6, 4 palpal segmentation. HeteroponeraHNS is neotropical and Australasian , and the propodeal teeth and dentiform petiolar apex are absent or feebly developed; H. imbellis EmeryHNS has 3, 3 palpal segmentation (my dissection). Until more species can be critically examined, AcanthoponeraHNS and HeteroponeraHNS should be considered as distinct genera. AcanthoponeraHNS appears to be the most generalized living member of the EctatomminiHNS, and is probably close to the stem from which the proceratiines, the myrmicines and ParaponeraHNS arose. - W. L. Brown, Jr., Museum of Comparative Zoology , Harvard University.

(-1 examples)



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