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Family: Formicidae   Latreille, 1809 

Classification:

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2018)

Extant: 17 valid subfamilies, 39 valid tribes, 334 valid genera, 13,462 valid species, 1,905 valid subspecies

Fossil: 3 valid subfamilies, 8 valid tribes, 156 valid genera, 752 valid species, 3 valid subspecies

Formicariae Latreille, 1809 PDF: 124. Type-genus: Formica. AntCat AntWiki

Taxonomic history

Formicidae as family: Latreille, 1809 PDF: 124 [Formicariae]; Leach, 1815: 147 [Formicarides]; Stephens, 1829b: 356 [first spelling as Formicidae]; Haliday, 1836: 331; Westwood, 1839a: 217; Swainson & Shuckard, 1840 PDF: 171; Nylander, 1846a PDF: 877; Foerster, 1850a: 1 [Formicariae]; Mayr, 1855 PDF: 275 [Formicina]; Smith, 1857a PDF: 52; Smith, 1858a PDF: 1; Mayr, 1861 PDF: 21; Mayr, 1865 PDF: 6; Heer, 1867 PDF: 6 [Formicaria]; Forel, 1870 PDF: 307 [Formicinae]; Forel, 1874 PDF: 19 [Formicariae]; Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF: 1; Forel, 1899B: 1; Ruzsky, 1902d: 5 [Formicarii]; Bingham, 1903 PDF: 1; Ruzsky, 1905b: 91 [Formicariae or Formicidae]; Ashmead, 1905c PDF: 384; all subsequent authors.
Subfamilies (extant) of Formicidae: Agroecomyrmecinae, Amblyoponinae, Aneuretinae, Apomyrminae, Dolichoderinae, Dorylinae, Ectatomminae, Formicinae, Heteroponerinae, Leptanillinae, Martialinae, Myrmeciinae, Myrmicinae, Paraponerinae, Ponerinae, Proceratiinae, Pseudomyrmecinae.
Subfamilies (extinct) of Formicidae: †Brownimeciinae, †Formiciinae, †Sphecomyrminae.
Genera (extinct) incertae sedis in Formicidae: Calyptites, Camelomecia, Cretopone, Curticorna, Eoaenictites, Eoformica, Fonsecahymen, Gerontoformica, Klondikia, Kohlsimyrma, Myanmyrma, Petropone.
WORLD SYNOPTIC CLASSIFICATIONS
Forel, 1893b PDF: 161 (Formicidae); Emery, 1895l PDF: 764 (Formicidae); Emery, 1896e PDF: 173 (Formicidae); Ashmead, 1905c PDF: 381 (Formicidae); Wheeler, 1910a PDF: 134 (Formicidae); Emery, 1910b PDF: 3 (Dorylinae); Emery, 1911e PDF: 2 (Ponerinae); Emery, 1913a PDF: 2 (Dolichoderinae); Forel, 1917 PDF: 235 (Formicidae); Emery, 1921c: 3 and Emery, 1922c PDF: 95 (Myrmicinae); Wheeler, 1922: 631 (Formicidae); Emery, 1924f PDF: 207 (Myrmicinae); Emery, 1925d PDF: 2 (Formicinae); Brown, 1973b PDF: 165, 178 (Formicidae); Snelling, 1981: 387 (Formicidae); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1985b PDF: 256 (Formicidae); Dlussky & Fedoseeva, 1988: 77 (Formicidae); Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 9 (Formicidae); Bolton, 1994: 12 (Formicidae); Bolton, 2003 PDF: 4 (Formicidae); Engel & Grimaldi, 2005 PDF: 4 (Formicidae); Ward, 2007C PDF: 549 (Formicidae); Borysenko, 2017 PDF: 1
WORLD IDENTIFICATION KEYS
Emery, 1896e PDF: 173 (Formicidae subfamilies and genera); Emery, 1910b PDF: 4 (Dorylinae tribes and genera); Emery, 1911e PDF: 4 (Ponerinae tribes and genera); Emery, 1913a PDF: 6 (Dolichoderinae tribes and genera); Escherich, 1917: 2 (Formicidae subfamilies); Emery, 1921c: 9, 12, 16 (Myrmicinae tribes and genera); Wheeler, 1922: 631 (Formicidae subfamilies, tribes and genera); Emery, 1925d PDF: 7 (Formicinae tribes and genera); Clark, 1951 PDF: 14 (Formicidae subfamilies); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1972a PDF: 42 (Formicidae subfamilies); Snelling, 1981: 386 (Formicidae subfamilies); Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 33 (Formicidae subfamilies and genera); Bolton, 1990c PDF: 1361 (Formicidae subfamilies); Shattuck, 1992c PDF: 20 (Dolichoderinae genera); Ward, 1990 PDF: 464 (Pseudomyrmecinae genera); Brothers & Finnamore, 1993: 218 (Formicidae subfamilies); Bolton, 1994: 7 (Formicidae subfamilies and genera); Bolton, 2003 PDF: 11 (revision of subfamilies); Boudinot, 2015 PDF: 14 (male-based subfamily key); Cantone, 2017 PDF: 1 (wing venation of males, key to most genera)
MORPHOLOGY OF FORMICIDAE
Forel, 1878c PDF: 339 (proventriculus); Lubbock, 1881 PDF: 141 (Lasius w.q. mesosomal skeletomusculature); Emery, 1900a PDF: 103 (mesosomal exoskeleton); Janet, 1902: 25 (general anatomy); Pietschker, 1910: 1 (brain structure); Snodgrass, 1910: 81 (mesosomal exoskeleton); Wheeler, 1910a PDF: 13 (general morphology, anatomy); Emery, 1913d PDF: 577 (venation); Wheeler, 1918c PDF: 293 (larvae); Janet, 1923: 5 (anatomical drawings synopsis); Bugnion, 1930: 85 (mouthparts); Tulloch, 1935 PDF: 93 (mesosomal exoskeleton); Reid, 1941 PDF: 418 (worker thoracic exoskeleton); Brown & Nutting, 1950 PDF: 113 (venation); Gregg, 1953c PDF: 328 (promesonotal suture motility); Pavan & Ronchetti, 1955 PDF: 3 (Linepithema humile, anatomy); Eisner, 1957 PDF: 439 (proventriculus); Short, 1959 PDF: 194 (Dorylus anterior metasomal skeletomusculature); Keister, 1963: 336 (Camponotus tracheal system anatomy); Markl, 1966: 138 (Formica mesosomal skeletomusculature, peripheral nervous system); Gotwald, 1969: 1 (mouthparts and gaster); Matsuda, 1970: 353 (review of mesosomal anatomy); Crozier, 1970a PDF: 109 (karyology); Markl, 1973: 258 (stridulitrum); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1976b PDF: 45 (larvae); Harris, 1979 PDF: 1 (surface sculpture); Hölldobler & Engel, 1979 PDF: 285 and Hölldobler & Engel-Siegel, 1982: 113 (tergal and sternal glands); Saini et al., 1982: (Camponotus w.q. mesosomal skeletomusculature); Imai, Baroni Urbani, Kubota, et al. 1984: 5 (karyology); Imai, Brown, Kubota, et al. 1984: 66 (karyology); Imai, Kubota, Brown, et al. 1985: 46 (karyology); Hölldobler & Engel-Siegel, 1985 PDF: 201 (metapleural gland); Billen, 1986b: 165 (Dufour's gland); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1986e PDF: 684 (larvae); Brown, 1988h: 17 (malpighian tubule numbers); Caetano, 1988: 129 (digestive tract anatomy); Francoeur & Loiselle, 1988a PDF: 333 (strigil, evolution); Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 5, 229 (anatomy, exocrine glands); Bolton, 1990a PDF: (abdominal morphology); Hashimoto, 1991a PDF: 125 (antennal and labial sensilla); Hashimoto, 1991b PDF: 289 (tibial spurs); Billen, 1993: 4 (exocrine glands); Bolton, 1994: 191 (morphology glossary); Hashimoto, 1996 PDF: 340 (anterior metasomal skeletomusculature); Hölldobler et al., 1996: 157 (metatibial gland); Wenseleers, Schoeters, et al. 1998: 121 (cloacal gland); Perrault, 1999B: 125 (thoracic anatomy); Gusmão et al., 2001 PDF: 31 (Atta ultramorphology metapleural gland) Perrault, 2005: 291 (anterior metasomal anatomy); Serna & MacKay, 2010 PDF: 1 (Procryptocerus morphology); Keller, 2011 PDF: 1 (phylogenetic analysis of morphology); Boudinot, 2013 PDF: 29 (male genitalia); Nguyen et al., 2014 10.1016/j.biomech.2013.10.053 PDF: 497 (Formica neck joint); Boudinot, 2015 PDF: 1 (family diagnosis, mesosoma, coxae)
EVOLUTION AND PHYLOGENY OF FORMICIDAE
Wheeler, 1920 PDF: 52; Emery, 1920e: 370; Donisthorpe, 1922b PDF: xlvi; Wheeler, 1923g: 156; Wheeler, 1928h: 124; Stitz, 1935a: 211; Morley, 1938 PDF: 190; Brown & Nutting, 1950 PDF: 113; Bernard, 1951c: 1041; Brown, 1954e PDF: 30; Wilson et al., 1967 PDF: 12; Taylor, 1978a PDF: 982; Rasnitsyn, 1980: 45-46 (foldout page); Lutz, 1986 PDF: 213; Dlussky & Fedoseeva, 1988: 137; Baroni Urbani, 1989 PDF: 137; Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 26; Hashimoto, 1991a PDF: 125; Hashimoto, 1991b PDF: 289; Baroni Urbani et al., 1992 PDF: 301; Shattuck, 1992b PDF: 203; Brothers & Carpenter, 1993 PDF: 227; Ward, 1994 PDF: 173; Hashimoto, 1996 PDF: 340; Crozier et al., 1997 PDF: 22; Grimaldi et al., 1997 PDF: 25; Perrault, 1999A PDF: 125; Brothers, 1999: 233; Grimaldi & Agosti, 2000B: 13680; Ohnishi et al., 2004 PDF: 419; Astruc et al., 2004 PDF: 880; Grimaldi & Engel, 2005 PDF: 440; Wilson & Hölldobler, 2005A PDF: 7411; Brady et al., 2006 PDF: 18172; Moreau et al., 2006 PDF: 101; Ouellette et al., 2006 PDF: 359; Rabeling et al., 2008 PDF: 14914; Keller, 2011 PDF: 1; Moreau & Bell, 2013 PDF: 2245; Johnson et al., 2013 PDF: 2060; Branstetter et al., 2017 10.1111/20141-210X.12742 PDF: 774
PALAEONTOLOGY OF FORMICIDAE
Scudder, 1891 PDF: 682 (fossil taxa catalogue); Handlirsch, 1907: 859 (fossil taxa catalogue); Wheeler, 1915i PDF: 1 (Baltic amber fauna synopsis); Burnham, 1979 PDF: 108 (fossils in amber checklist); Keilbach, 1982: 272 (fossils in amber checklist); Spahr, 1987: 41 (fossils in amber checklist); Carpenter, 1992: 490 (fossil genera review); Bolton, 1995b: 4 (fossil taxa checklist, in catalogue); Grimaldi et al., 1997 PDF: 1 (Cretaceous genera in amber review); Dlussky, 1997A PDF: 617 (Baltic amber genera key); Bolton, 2003 PDF: 73 (fossil subfamilies synopsis); Dlussky & Rasnitsyn, 2007 PDF: 118 (Palaeontological record); Dlussky & Rasnitsyn, 2009 PDF: 1024 (European Upper Eocene amber, synopsis of species); LaPolla et al., 2013 PDF (Mesozoic and Cenozoic major ant fossil deposits list, Cretaceous and Cenozoic ant fossils bibliographical review); Dlussky et al., 2015 PDF (Late Eocene of Sikhote-Alin fossils); Barden & Grimaldi, 2016 PDF (Cretaceous stem-group ants and phylogeny); Barden, 2017 (literature review); Zheng et al., 2018 10.1038/s41467-018-05650-2 PDF (subfamily records from Late Cretaceous burmite)
OTHER GENERAL REFERENCES
Bolton, 1995a PDF: 1038 (census of extant taxa); Ward et al., 1996: 55 (bibliography of systematics); Brown, 2000: 46 (overview of genera); Brandão, 2000 PDF: 172 (list of major ant collections); Bolton, 2003 PDF: 15, 77 (diagnosis, synopsis); Bolton, 2007A: 51 (method for taxonomic revisions); Taylor, 2007: 580 (eusociality in ants)
Regional catalogues and checklists
NEARCTIC & PALEARCTIC: Smith, 1951c PDF: 778; Smith, 1958c PDF: 108 (first supplement to previous); Smith, 1967a PDF: 343 (second supplement); Smith, 1979: 1323; Karaman, 2011 PDF (Montenegro catalogue); Borowiec, 2014 PDF (Europe, Mediterranean Basin and adjacent regions); Castaño-Meneses et al., 2015 PDF (Mexico partial checklist).
NEOTROPICAL: Kempf, 1972b PDF: 3; Brandão, 1991 PDF: 319 (supplement to previous); Castaño-Meneses et al., 2015 PDF (Mexico partial checklist); Salazar & Donoso, 2013 PDF: 151 (partial checklist)
AFROTROPICAL AND MALAGASY: Wheeler, 1922: 727, 1005
ORIENTAL AND MALESIAN: Chapman & Capco, 1951 PDF: 9
AUSTRAL: Taylor & Brown, 1985: 5; Taylor, 1987a PDF: 1; Taylor, 1987b: 1 (supplement to previous)
Regional and national faunas with keys
PALAEARCTIC
Mayr, 1855 PDF: 299 (Austria); Mayr, 1861 PDF: 25 (Europe); Forel, 1874 PDF: 19 (Switzerland); Saunders, 1880 PDF: 202 (Britain); André, 1882a PDF: 125 (Europe & Algeria); Nasonov, 1889: 50 (Russia); Lameere, 1892: 62 (Belgium); Saunders, 1896 PDF: 18 (Britain); Ruzsky, 1905b: 99 (Russian Empire); Wasmann, 1906 PDF: 7 (Luxemburg); Emery, 1908a PDF (Palaearctic); Bondroit, 1910 PDF: 480 (Belgium); Stitz, 1914 PDF: 54 (Central Europe); Donisthorpe, 1915f: 65 (Britain); Forel, 1915d: 1 (Switzerland); Emery, 1916a PDF: 92 (Italy); Bondroit, 1918 PDF: 12 (France & Belgium); Kutter, 1920b: 132 (Switzerland); Soudek, 1922b PDF: 17 (Czechoslovakia); Lomnicki, 1925a PDF: 160 (Poland); Stärcke, 1926: 79 (Netherlands); Karavaiev, 1927d: 254 (Ukraine); Donisthorpe, 1927c: 66 (Britain); Arnol'di, 1933a: 596 (Russia); Menozzi, 1933b PDF: 87 (Israel); Karavaiev, 1934: 48 (Ukraine); Stitz, 1939: 56 (Germany); Kratochvíl, 1941b PDF: 69 (Central Europe); Novák & Sadil, 1941 PDF: 69 (Central Europe); Ceballos, 1943: 313 (Spain);Holgersen, 1942b PDF: 3 (Northern Norway); Holgersen, 1943c PDF: 166 and Holgersen, 1944a PDF: 198 (Norway); Boven, 1947: 168 (Belgium); Collingwood, 1958b PDF: 69 (Britain); Somfai, 1959: 1 (Hungary); Boven, 1959: 1 (Netherlands); Collingwood, 1964b PDF: 93 (Britain); Bernard, 1967a PDF: 75 (Western Europe); Boven, 1970b: 7 (Netherlands); Tarbinsky, 1976 PDF: 14 (Kyrghyzstan); Bolton & Collingwood, 1975: 1 (Britain); Boven, 1977 PDF: 1 (Belgium); Kutter, 1977c: 19 (Switzerland); Brian, 1977: 33 (Britain); Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978: 520 (former European U.S.S.R.); Collingwood, 1978 PDF: 65 (Iberian Peninsula); Collingwood, 1979 PDF: 28 (Fennoscandia & Denmark); Schembri & Collingwood, 1981 PDF: 417 (Malta); Verhaeghe, Deligne, et al., 1984: 105 (Belgium genera); Gösswald, 1985: 262 (Germany); Collingwood, 1985 PDF: 230 (Saudi Arabia); Nilsson & Douwes, 1987: 56 (Norway); Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b PDF: 261 (Balkans); Casevitz-Weulersse, 1990b: 135 and Casevitz-Weulersse, 1990c PDF: 415 (Corsica); Dlussky et al., 1990 PDF: 99 (Turkmenistan); Kupyanskaya, 1990a: 83 (Far Eastern Russia); Bolton, in Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 34 (Palaearctic genera key); Atanasov & Dlussky, 1992: 47 (Bulgaria); Arakelian, 1994 PDF: 1 (Armenia); Radchenko, 1994b: 95 (South Siberia); Seifert, 1994a PDF: 1 (Germany, synopsis); Onoyama & Terayama, 1994: 1 (Japan bibliography); Bolton, 1994: 22, 42, 75, 153 (Dolichoderinae, Formicinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae genera keys); Douwes, 1995: 83 (Sweden); Kupyanskaya, 1995: 327 (Far Eastern Russia); Wu & Wang, 1995a: 30 (China); Fontenla Rizo, 1995b: 16 (Cuba, tramp species key); Collingwood & Agosti, 1996 PDF: 300 (Saudi Arabia); Collingwood & Van Harten, 1994: 1 (Yemen); Seifert, 1996B: 106 (Central Europe); Skinner & Allen, 1996: 40 (Britain); Dlussky, 1997A PDF: 616 (*Baltic Amber genera); Collingwood & Prince, 1998: 9 (Portugal); Czechowski et al., 2002 PDF: 133 (Poland); Aktaç & Radchenko, 2002: 53 (Turkey genera); Yoshimura & Onoyama, 2002B PDF: 424 (Japan genera, males key); Imai, Kihara, Kondoh, et al. 2003: 8 (Japan); Radchenko, 2005B PDF: 183 (North Korea); Seifert, 2007: 107 (North and Central Europe); Boer, 2010: 8 (Benelux); Lapeva-Gjonova, et al. 2010: 1 (Bulgaria species catalogue); Csosz et al., 2011 PDF: 56 (Hungary species catalogue); Czechowski, Radchenko, et al. 2012: 333 (Poland); Douwes et al., 2012: 1 (Sweden)
NEARCTIC
Provancher, 1883 PDF: 596 (Canada); Provancher, 1887: 225 (Canada); Cresson, 1887 PDF: 93 (U.S.A.); Wheeler, 1910a PDF: 557 (North America genera); Wheeler, 1916r: 579 (U.S.A., Connecticut); Cole, 1942 PDF: 359 (U.S.A., Utah); Smith, 1943e PDF: 276 (U.S.A. subfamilies & genera, males); Buren, 1944a PDF: 278 (U.S.A., Iowa); Smith, 1947f PDF: 524 (U.S.A. genera); Creighton, 1950a PDF: 29 (North America); Gregg, 1963: 278 (U.S.A., Colorado); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1963: 149 (U.S.A., North Dakota); Francoeur, 1979a PDF: 48 (Canada, Québec, introduction); Allred, 1982: 437 (U.S.A., Utah); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1986g PDF: 16 (U.S.A., Nevada); Mackay, Lowrie, et al., 1988: 81 (U.S.A., New Mexico); Cover, in Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 62 (Nearctic genera key); Mackay & MacKay, 2002 PDF: 16 (U.S.A., New Mexico); Dlussky & Rasnitsyn, 2003 PDF: 430 (*Eocene North American genera); Bolton, 1994: 25, 38, 48, 95, 160 (Dolichoderinae, Ecitoninae, Formicinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae genera keys); Coovert, 2005: 1 (U.S.A., Ohio); Ward, 2005 PDF: 20 (U.S.A., California genera); Fisher & Cover, 2007: 1 (North American genera key)
NEOTROPICAL
Gallardo, 1915 PDF: 30 (Argentina genera); Menozzi & Russo, 1930 PDF: 169 (Dominican Republic); Smith, 1937 PDF: 822 (Puerto Rico); Kusnezov, 1956a PDF: 7 (Argentina); Kusnezov, 1960b PDF: 330 (West Patagonia); Snelling & Hunt, 1975 PDF: 63 (Chile); Kempf, 1978a: 33 (Neotropical subfamilies); Baroni Urbani, 1984 PDF: 73 (Neotropical genera); Mackay & Mackay, 1989: 1 (Mexico genera); Cover, in Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 69 (Neotropical genera key); Lattke, in Jaffe, 1993: 145 (Neotropical subfamilies & genera); Bolton, 1994: 26, 38, 49, 98, 162 (Dolichoderinae, Ecitoninae, Formicinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae genera keys); Fernández et al., 1996: 353 (Neotropical subfamilies); Fernández & Ospina, in CANNOT FIND REFERENCE WITH ID 133005: 49 (Neotropical genera synopsis); Palacio & Fernández, in CANNOT FIND REFERENCE WITH ID 133005: 233 (Neotropical subfamilies and genera keys)
AFROTROPICAL AND MALAGASY
Forel, 1891c PDF: 8 (Madagascar genera); Arnold, 1915: 6 (South Africa); Arnold, 1916 PDF: 159 (South Africa); Bolton, 1973a PDF: 321 (West Africa subfamilies & genera); Bolton, in Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 39 (Afrotropical and Malagasy genera key); Bolton, 1994: 23, 44, 79, 155 (Dolichoderinae, Formicinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae genera keys); Yoshimura & Fisher, 2007 PDF: 27 (Malagasy subfamilies, males key); Yoshimura & Fisher, 2009 PDF: 8 (Proceratiinae males); Yoshimura & Fisher, 2011 PDF: 7 (Dolichoderinae males); Yoshimura & Fisher, 2012 PDF: 11 (Amblyoponinae males); Fisher & Bolton, 2016 : 60 (Afrotropical and Malagasy genera key, workers)
ORIENTAL AND MALESIAN
Forel, 1892k PDF: 219 (India & Sri Lanka); Bingham, 1903 PDF: 1 (India, Sri Lanka & Burma); Wilson & Taylor, 1967b PDF: 10 (Polynesia); Bolton, in Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 46 (Oriental and Indo-Australian genera key); Bolton, 1994: 23, 45, 84, 158 (Dolichoderinae, Formicinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae genera keys); Wu & Wang, 1995a: 30 (China); Zhou, 2001A PDF: 21 (China, Guangxi subfamilies); Clouse, 2007B: 190 (Micronesia); Framenau & Thomas, 2008 PDF: 52 (Christmas I.); Terayama, 2009 (Taiwan); Eguchi et al., 2011 PDF: 7 (Vietnam subfamilies key); Pfeiffer, et al. 2011: 32 (ants of Borneo, checklist); General & Alpert, 2012 PDF: 68 (Philippines genera key); Sarnat & Economo, 2012 PDF: 1 (Fiji); Yamane, 2013: 1 (Krakatau Islands, species keys)
AUSTRAL
Forel, 1905d PDF: 353 (New Zealand); Brown, 1958h PDF: 1 (New Zealand); Brown & Taylor, 1970: 958 (Australia subfamilies); Greenslade, 1979: 10 (South Australia subfamilies); Taylor, R.W., in Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990: 55 (Australia genera key); Taylor, 1991d: 987 (Australia subfamilies); Bolton, 1994: 24, 47, 91, 159 (Dolichoderinae, Formicinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae genera keys); Shattuck, 1999: 21 (Australia subfamilies & genera); Andersen, 2000: 14 (northern Australia subfamilies & genera); Don, 2007: 39 (New Zealand); Heterick, 2009 PDF: 16, 28 (south-western Australia subfamilies & genera); Jennings et al., 2013 PDF: 20 (New Caledonia species checklist)

Distribution:

   (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists)
Afrotropical Region: Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cabo Verde, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Saint Helena, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Antarctica Region: Kerguelen Islands
Australasia Region: Australia, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Norfolk Island, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, Vanuatu
Indomalaya Region: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Borneo, Brunei, Cambodia, Christmas Island, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam
Malagasy Region: Chagos Islands, Comoros, Europa Island, Grande Glorieuse, Ile du Lys, Juan de Nova Island, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mayotte, Reunion, Seychelles, Tromelin Island
Nearctic Region: Canada, United States
Neotropical Region: Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Curaçao, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Martinique, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands, United States Virgin Islands, Uruguay, Venezuela
Oceania Region: American Samoa, Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Hawaii, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, Niue, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Palmyra Atoll, Samoa, Tonga, Tuvalu, Wallis and Futuna
Palearctic Region: Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macaronesia, Macedonia, Madeira, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Netherlands, North Korea, Norway, Oman, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uzbekistan, Yemen

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Treatment Citation: Brown, W. L., 1952, Heteroponera Mayr reinstated (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Psyche 59, pp. 70-70

Heteroponera Mayr ReinstatedHNS (Hymenoptera: FormicidaeHNS) .

- Heteroponera MayrHNS (1887, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 37: 533) has remained suppressed as a synonym of Acanthoponera MayrHNS for many years. Wheeler (1923, loc. cit.) has shown, however that AcanthoponeraHNS can be split into two groups; one group { AcanthoponeraHNS s. str.) having the tarsal claws with an extra, strong tooth and a basal lobe (or tooth), while the second group (Anacanthoponera Wheeler) has the tarsal claws at most with a single, weak median tooth. In this second group, Wheeler included Heteroponera carinifrons MayrHNS, and since HeteroponeraHNS, with the genotype H. carinifronsHNS, has precedence, it must be reinstated as a good genus. Anacanthoponera Wheeler (1923, Psyche, 30: 176, as a subgenus of AcanthoponeraHNS) is a new synonym of HeteroponeraHNS, since the genotype, Ponera dolo RogerHNS, is congeneric with H. carinifronsHNS.

AcanthoponeraHNS is neotropical, and has well developed propodeal teeth and the petiolar apex produced as a long tooth or spine; Kusnezov (in litt.) finds A. mucronataHNS to have 6, 4 palpal segmentation. HeteroponeraHNS is neotropical and Australasian , and the propodeal teeth and dentiform petiolar apex are absent or feebly developed; H. imbellis EmeryHNS has 3, 3 palpal segmentation (my dissection). Until more species can be critically examined, AcanthoponeraHNS and HeteroponeraHNS should be considered as distinct genera. AcanthoponeraHNS appears to be the most generalized living member of the EctatomminiHNS, and is probably close to the stem from which the proceratiines, the myrmicines and ParaponeraHNS arose. - W. L. Brown, Jr., Museum of Comparative Zoology , Harvard University.



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