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Costa Rica: Atlantic slope and montane areas.
This species is very common in Winkler samples from mature wet forest, from 50m elevation at La Selva to cloud forest areas in the Talamancas and Monteverde. Workers have been observed on the ground at night, and at baits during the day. Nests have been observed in and under dead wood on the ground.
Pheidole borucaHNS new species
Types Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard.
etymology Named after the Boruca Amerindians, one of the surviving native tribes of Costa Rica.
Diagnosis Major: carinulae originating on the frontal lobes curve laterally above the eyes, many reaching the lateral margins of the head seen in full-face view; posterior quarter of dorsal surface of head, including occiput, covered by scattered conspicuous foveae. Media caste present in type series (a possible developmental anomaly). Similar to violaceaHNS of Costa Rica, especially in the peculiar pattern of cephalic carinulae, but nests on the ground (instead of in arboreal ant gardens), lacks the bluish reflections on the body of the minor, has a media caste, and is different in the major and minor castes in many details of body form, sculpturing, and pilosity as illustrated. See also the less similar aculiferaHNS (in the fallaxHNS group), prostrataHNS, and variegataHNS.
Measurements (mm) Holotype major: HW 1.10, HL 1.10, SL 0.78, EL 0.20, PW 0.48.
Paratype minor: HW 0.54, HL 0.66, SL 0.84, EL 0.12, PW 0.36.
color Major: body dark, almost blackish brown; appendages medium brown.
Minor: body blackish brown, appendages medium brown.
Range Atlantic slope and montane regions of Costa Rica (Longino 1997).
Biology Longino (1997): very common in Winkler samples from mature wet forest, from 50 m elevation at La Selva Biological Station to cloud forest in the Talamancas and at Monteverde. Longino found nests under pieces of dead wood on the ground, and observed workers foraging on the ground day and night.
Figure Upper: holotype, major. Lower: paratype, minor, and partial head of media. COSTA RICA: Monteverde, Puntarenas, 10Ã‚Â° 18 IM 84Ã‚Â°48W, 1500 m (J. T. Longino). Scale bars = 1 mm.
Found most commonly in these habitats: 130 times found in mature wet forest, 120 times found in montane wet forest, 84 times found in cloud forest, 62 times found in tropical wet forest, 49 times found in ridgetop cloud forest, isolated peak with oak trees, 32 times found in ridgetop cloud forest, 28 times found in tropical rainforest, 12 times found in wet forest, 17 times found in cloud forest edge, near dairy farm pasture, some big trees in rocky areas, probably disturbed primary or old second growth, on a steep slope, 16 times found in riparian forest, cloud forest along stream, near dairy farm pasture, 2nd growth or disturbed primary, ...
Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 374 times ex sifted leaf litter, 134 times at bait, 46 times ex sifted litter from forest floor, 28 times Hojarasca, 9 times ex sifted leaf litter on ground, 2 times wet forest litter, 5 times Primary forest, 1 times under moss on rock, 1 times nest in dead wood, 1 times nest between dead leaves, 2 times at ground bait, ...
Collected most commonly using these methods: 306 times miniWinkler, 93 times Winkler, 133 times baiting, 47 times MaxiWinkler, 30 times Mini Winkler, 7 times Search, 9 times bait, 7 times Berlese, 8 times Pitfall, 8 times flight intercept trap, 6 times Lure/Bait, ...
Elevations: collected from 30 - 2080 meters, 800 meters average
Type specimens: holotype major boruca: jtl137604