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Genus: Polyrhachis   Smith, 1857 

Classification:

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2016)

Extant: 697 species, 87 subspecies

Fossil: 1 species

Polyrhachis Smith, 1857a PDF: 58 . Type-species: Formica bihamata, by original designation. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

[Polyrhachis Shuckard, in Swainson & Shuckard, 1840: 172, nomen nudum.].
Polyrhachis in Camponotinae: Forel, 1878c PDF: 367 [Camponotidae]; Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF}: 257.
Polyrhachis in Formicinae, Camponotini: Wheeler, 1922: 701; Emery, 1925d PDF: 175; all subsequent authors except the following.
Polyrhachis as subgenus of Myrma: Wheeler, 1911c PDF: 860; Wheeler, 1911g PDF: 170. [Myrma as subgenus of Polyrhachis: Forel, 1915b PDF: 106; Forel, 1917 PDF: 251; Wheeler, 1922: 702, 993; Emery, 1925d PDF: 198; all subsequent authors (see note under Myrma).].
[Polyrachis Arnold, 1924: 741, incorrect subsequent spelling.].
Genus Polyrhachis references
Smith, 1858aSmith, F. 1858a. Catalogue of hymenopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. Formicidae. London: British Museum, 216 pp. [1858-03-27] PDF 128685: 58 (diagnosis); Roger, 1863bRoger, J. 1863b. Verzeichniss der Formiciden-Gattungen und Arten. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 7(Beilage):1-65. [1863-06] 128094: 6 (catalogue); Mayr, 1863aMayr, G. 1863a. Formicidarum index synonymicus. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 13:385-460. [1863] PDF 127213: 422, 443 (Hemioptica, Polyrhachis catalogues); Mayr, 1865Mayr, G. 1865. Formicidae. In: Novara Expedition 1865. Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte "Novara" um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859. Zoologischer Theil. Bd. II. Abt. 1. Wien: K. Gerold's Sohn, 119 pp. [1865-12-14] PDF 127193: 6 (Polyrhachis, Hemioptica diagnoses); Mayr, 1867aMayr, G. 1867a. Adnotationes in monographiam formicidarum Indo-Neerlandicarum. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 10:33-117. [1867] PDF 127217: 40, 41 (diagnosis, species groups (as "turmae")); Mayr, 1876Mayr, G. 1876. Die australischen Formiciden. Journal des Museum Godeffroy 12:56-115. [1876] PDF 127196: 68 (Australia species key); Forel, 1878cForel, A. 1878c. Études myrmécologiques en 1878 (première partie) avec l'anatomie du gésier des fourmis. Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 15:337-392. [1878-10] PDF 125003: 368 (diagnosis); Mayr, 1879Mayr, G. 1879. Beiträge zur Ameisen-Fauna Asiens. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 28:645-686. [1879] PDF 127197: 648 (species groups); André, 1887André, Ern. 1887. Description de quelques fourmis nouvelles ou imparfaitement connues. Revue d'Entomologie (Caen) 6:280-298. [1887-11] PDF 122232: 286 (Afrotropical species key); Dalla Torre, 1893Dalla Torre, K. W. 1893. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. [1893] PDF 124002: 257, 271 (Polyrhachis, Hemioptica catalogues); Forel, 1893eForel, A. 1893e. Les Formicides de l'Empire des Indes et de Ceylan. Part III. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 8:17-36. [1893-07-01] PDF 125052: 17 (India & Sri Lanka species key); Emery, 1896jEmery, C. 1896j. Saggio di un catalogo sistematico dei generi Camponotus, Polyrhachis e affini. Memorie della Reale Accademia delle Scienze dell'Istituto di Bologna (5)5:363-382 [pagination of separate: 761-780]. [1896] 124614: 378 (catalogue); Emery, 1897Emery, C. 1897. Viaggio di Lamberto Loria nella Papuasia orientale. XVIII. Formiche raccolte nella Nuova Guinea dal Dott. Lamberto Loria. Dummy reference. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale 38[=(2)18]:546-594. 133003: 579, 582 (Polyrhachis relucens & Polyrhachis guerini groups, keys); Emery, 1898aEmery, C. 1898a. Aggiunte e correzioni al saggio di un catalogo sistematico dei generi Camponotus, Polyrachis [sic] e affini. Rendiconti delle Sessioni della Reale Accademia delle Scienze dell'Istituto di Bologna (n.s.)2:225-231. [1898] 124626: 227 (additions to 1896a catalogue); Bingham, 1903Bingham, C. T. 1903. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera, Vol. II. Ants and Cuckoo-wasps. London: Taylor and Francis, 506 pp. [1903] PDF 122766: 383 (India, Sri Lanka & Burma species key); Santschi, 1910hSantschi, F. 1910h. Deux nouvelles fourmis du Tonkin. Naturaliste 32:283-284. [1910-12-15] 128256: 284 (Polyrhachis rastellata group, key); Viehmeyer, 1914bViehmeyer, H. 1914b ("1913"). Neue und unvollständig bekannte Ameisen der alten Welt. Archiv für Naturgeschichte (A)79(12):24-60. [1914-04] PDF 129527: 50, 54 (Polyrhachis rastellata & Polyrhachis hostilis groups, keys); Wheeler, 1922Wheeler, W. M. 1922. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. New York: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 1139. 133015: 256, 701, 992 (diagnosis, subgenera key, Afrotropical catalogue); Arnold, 1924Arnold, G. 1924. A monograph of the Formicidae of South Africa. Part VI. Camponotinae. Annals of the South African Museum 14:675-766. [1924-04] 122313: 741 (diagnosis, South Africa species key); Emery, 1925dEmery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183:1-302. [1925-12-31] PDF 124775: 175 (diagnosis, subgenera key, catalogue); Emery, 1925dEmery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183:1-302. [1925-12-31] PDF 124775: 178 (Polyrhachis (Campomyrma) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1925dEmery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183:1-302. [1925-12-31] PDF 124775: 180 (Polyrhachis (Myrmatopa) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1925dEmery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183:1-302. [1925-12-31] PDF 124775: 181 (Polyrhachis (Polyrhachis) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1925dEmery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183:1-302. [1925-12-31] PDF 124775: 182 (Polyrhachis (Myrmothrinax) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1925dEmery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183:1-302. [1925-12-31] PDF 124775: 184 (Polyrhachis (Hagiomyrma) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1925dEmery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183:1-302. [1925-12-31] PDF 124775: 185 (Polyrhachis (Chariomyrma) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1925dEmery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183:1-302. [1925-12-31] PDF 124775: 188 (Polyrhachis (Dolichorhachis) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1925dEmery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183:1-302. [1925-12-31] PDF 124775: 189 (Polyrhachis (Hedomyrma) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1925dEmery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183:1-302. [1925-12-31] PDF 124775: 190 (Polyrhachis (Myrmhopla) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1925dEmery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183:1-302. [1925-12-31] PDF 124775: 197 (Polyrhachis (Aulacomyrma) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1925dEmery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183:1-302. [1925-12-31] PDF 124775: 198 (Polyrhachis (Myrma) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1925dEmery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183:1-302. [1925-12-31] PDF 124775: 206 (Polyrhachis (Pseudocyrtomyrma) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1925dEmery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183:1-302. [1925-12-31] PDF 124775: 207 (Polyrhachis (Cyrtomyrma) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1925dEmery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183:1-302. [1925-12-31] PDF 124775: 209 (Hemioptica diagnosis, catalogue); Donisthorpe, 1938cDonisthorpe, H. 1938c. The subgenus Cyrtomyrma Forel of Polyrhachis Smith, and descriptions of new species, etc. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (11)1:246-267. [1938-03] 124285: 246 (Polyrhachis (Cyrtomyrma) review); Santschi, 1939cSantschi, F. 1939c. Trois notes sur quelques fourmis du Musée Royal d'Histoire Naturelle de Belgique. Bulletin du Musée Royal d'Histoire Naturelle de Belgique 15(14):1-15. [1939-04] PDF 128444: 13 (Polyrhachis (Pseudocyrtomyrma) species key); Chapman & Capco, 1951Chapman, J. W.; Capco, S. R. 1951. Check list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Asia. Monographs of the Institute of Science and Technology. Manila 1:1-327. [1951] PDF 123583: 186, 255, 256 (Asia Irenea, Hemioptica, Polyrhachis checklists); Hung, 1962Hung, A. C. F. 1962. Preliminary studies on the ants of Taiwan (Formosa). (I). Genus Polyrhachis Fr. Smith (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Bulletin of the Society of Entomology. Taiwan Provincial Chung-Hsing University 1(1):22-38. [1962-06] 126011: 24 (Taiwan species key); Hung, 1967bHung, A. C. F. 1967b. A revision of the ant genus Polyrhachis at the subgeneric level (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Transactions of the American Entomological Society 93:395-422. [1967-12-20] PDF 126017: 395 (review of subgenera); Hung, 1970Hung, A. C. F. 1970. A revision of ants of the subgenus Polyrhachis Fr. Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae). Oriental Insects 4:1-36. [1970-04] PDF 126013: 5 (Polyrhachis (Polyrhachis) species revision, key); Bolton, 1973bBolton, B. 1973b. The ant genus Polyrhachis F. Smith in the Ethiopian region (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Entomology 28:283-369. [1973-07-25] PDF 122836: 289 (Afrotropical species revision, key); Bolton, 1975cBolton, B. 1975c. The sexspinosa-group of the ant genus Polyrhachis F. Smith (Hym. Formicidae). Journal of Entomology. Series B 44:1-14. [1975-05-27] PDF 122843: 1 (Polyrhachis sexspinosa group, key); Taylor & Brown, 1985Taylor, R. W.; Brown, D. R. 1985. Formicoidea. Zoological Catalogue of Australia 2:1-149, 306-348. [1985] 129218: 131 (Australia catalogue); Taylor, 1987aTaylor, R. W. 1987a. A checklist of the ants of Australia, New Caledonia and New Zealand (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization) Division of Entomology Report 41:1-92. [1987-06] PDF 129202: 59 (Australia, New Caledonia checklist); Kohout, 1987Kohout, R. J. 1987. Three new Polyrhachis sexspinosa-group species from the Philippines (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 25:169-176. [1987-10-31] PDF 126477: 169 (Philippines Polyrhachis sexspinosa group, key); Kohout, 1989Kohout, R. J. 1989. The Australian ants of the Polyrhachis relucens species-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 27:509-516. [1989-11-13] PDF 126478: 515 (Australia Polyrhachis relucens group, key); Kohout, 1990Kohout, R. J. 1990. A review of the Polyrhachis viehmeyeri species-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 28:499-508. [1990-08-31] 126479: 500 (Polyrhachis viehmeyeri group, key); Kohout & Taylor, 1990Kohout, R. J.; Taylor, R. W. 1990. Notes on Australian ants of the genus Polyrhachis Fr. Smith, with a synonymic list of the species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 28:509-522. [1990-08-31] PDF 126485: 509 (Australia checklist); Morisita, Kubota, Onoyama, et al., 1991: 45 (Japan species key); Wang C. & Wu, 1991: 596 (China species key); Dorow & Kohout, 1995Dorow, W. H. O.; Kohout, R. J. 1995. A review of the subgenus Hemioptica Roger of the genus Polyrhachis Fr. Smith with description of a new species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae). Zoologische Mededelingen (Leiden) 69:93-104. [1995-07-31] PDF 124383: 96 (Polyrhachis (Hemioptica) species key); Bolton, 1994Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. [1994-07-25] 122834: 50 (synoptic classification); Bolton, 1995aBolton, B. 1995a. A taxonomic and zoogeographical census of the extant ant taxa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Natural History 29:1037-1056. [1995-08] PDF 122859: 1052 (census); Bolton, 1995bBolton, B. 1995b. A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 504 pp. [1995-10] 122860: 342 (catalogue); Dorow, 1995Dorow, W. H. O. 1995. Revision of the ant genus Polyrhachis Smith, 1857 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae) on subgenus level with keys, checklist of species and bibliography. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 185:1-113. [1995-10-20] PDF 124382: 9 (subgenera revision, subgenera key, catalogue); Dorow, 1995Dorow, W. H. O. 1995. Revision of the ant genus Polyrhachis Smith, 1857 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae) on subgenus level with keys, checklist of species and bibliography. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 185:1-113. [1995-10-20] PDF 124382: 10-11 (Polyrhachis (Myrmhopla) species groups, key; Polyrhachis arachne-, Polyrhachis cryptoceroides- Polyrhachis flavoflagellata-, Polyrhachis furcata- and Polyrhachis hector species groups, keys); Dorow, 1995Dorow, W. H. O. 1995. Revision of the ant genus Polyrhachis Smith, 1857 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae) on subgenus level with keys, checklist of species and bibliography. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 185:1-113. [1995-10-20] PDF 124382: 12 (Polyrhachis (Aulacomyrma) synopsis); Dorow, 1995Dorow, W. H. O. 1995. Revision of the ant genus Polyrhachis Smith, 1857 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae) on subgenus level with keys, checklist of species and bibliography. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 185:1-113. [1995-10-20] PDF 124382: 13 (Polyrhachis (Campomoyrma) synopsis); Dorow, 1995Dorow, W. H. O. 1995. Revision of the ant genus Polyrhachis Smith, 1857 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae) on subgenus level with keys, checklist of species and bibliography. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 185:1-113. [1995-10-20] PDF 124382: 16 (Polyrhachis (Chariomyrma) synopsis); Dorow, 1995Dorow, W. H. O. 1995. Revision of the ant genus Polyrhachis Smith, 1857 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae) on subgenus level with keys, checklist of species and bibliography. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 185:1-113. [1995-10-20] PDF 124382: 21 (Polyrhachis (Cyrtomyrma) synopsis); Dorow, 1995Dorow, W. H. O. 1995. Revision of the ant genus Polyrhachis Smith, 1857 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae) on subgenus level with keys, checklist of species and bibliography. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 185:1-113. [1995-10-20] PDF 124382: 24 (Polyrhachis (Hagiomyrma) synopsis); Dorow, 1995Dorow, W. H. O. 1995. Revision of the ant genus Polyrhachis Smith, 1857 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae) on subgenus level with keys, checklist of species and bibliography. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 185:1-113. [1995-10-20] PDF 124382: 26 (Polyrhachis (Hedomyrma) synopsis); Dorow, 1995Dorow, W. H. O. 1995. Revision of the ant genus Polyrhachis Smith, 1857 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae) on subgenus level with keys, checklist of species and bibliography. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 185:1-113. [1995-10-20] PDF 124382: 28 (Polyrhachis (Hemioptica) synopsis); Dorow, 1995Dorow, W. H. O. 1995. Revision of the ant genus Polyrhachis Smith, 1857 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae) on subgenus level with keys, checklist of species and bibliography. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 185:1-113. [1995-10-20] PDF 124382: 30 (Polyrhachis (Myrma) synopsis); Dorow, 1995Dorow, W. H. O. 1995. Revision of the ant genus Polyrhachis Smith, 1857 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae) on subgenus level with keys, checklist of species and bibliography. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 185:1-113. [1995-10-20] PDF 124382: 42 (Polyrhachis (Myrmatopa) synopsis); Dorow, 1995Dorow, W. H. O. 1995. Revision of the ant genus Polyrhachis Smith, 1857 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae) on subgenus level with keys, checklist of species and bibliography. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 185:1-113. [1995-10-20] PDF 124382: 45 (Polyrhachis (Myrmhopla) synopsis); Dorow, 1995Dorow, W. H. O. 1995. Revision of the ant genus Polyrhachis Smith, 1857 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae) on subgenus level with keys, checklist of species and bibliography. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 185:1-113. [1995-10-20] PDF 124382: 61 (Polyrhachis (Myrmothrinax) synopsis); Dorow, 1995Dorow, W. H. O. 1995. Revision of the ant genus Polyrhachis Smith, 1857 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae) on subgenus level with keys, checklist of species and bibliography. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 185:1-113. [1995-10-20] PDF 124382: 63 (Polyrhachis (Polyrhachis) synopsis); Wu & Wang, 1995aWu, J.; Wang, C. 1995a. The ants of China. [In Chinese.]. Beijing: China Forestry Publishing House, x + 214 pp. [1995-06] 130487: 159 (China species key); Shattuck, 1999Shattuck, S. O. 1999. Australian ants. Their biology and identification. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing, xi + 226 pp. [1999-01] 132308: 107 (Australia synopsis); Zhou, 2001AZhou, S. 2001A. Ants of Guangxi. [In Chinese.]. Guilin, China: Guangxi Normal University Press, 255 pp. [2001-09-01] PDF 132709: 190 (China, Guangxi species key); Xu, 2002BXu, Z.-H. 2002B. A systematic study on the ant subgenus Cyrtomyrma Forel of the genus Polyrhachis Smith of China (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Acta Entomologica Sinica 45:522-530. [2002-08] 132663: 523 (China Polyrhachis (Cyrtomyrma) species key; Bolton, 2003Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and classification of Formicidae. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 71:1-370. [2003-11-10] PDF 130789: 122 (synopsis); Karmaly, 2004Karmaly, K. A. 2004. A new species and a key to species of Polyrhachis Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from India. Pp. 539-551 in: Rajmohana, K.; Sudheer, K.; Girish Kumar, P.; Santhosh, S. (eds.) 2004. Perspectives on biosystematics and biodiversity. Prof. T.C. Narendran commemoration volume. Kerala: Systematic Entomology Research Scholars Association, xxii + 666 pp. [2004-03] PDF 131580: 542 (India species key); Kohout, 2006CKohout, R. J. 2006C. A review of the Polyrhachis cryptoceroides species-group with description of a new species from Thailand (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecologische Nachrichten 8:145-150. [2006-09] PDF 131634: 146 (Polyrhachis cryptoceroides group, key); Kohout, 2006DKohout, R. J. 2006D. Review of Polyrhachis (Cyrtomyrma) Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae) of Australia, Borneo, New Guinea and the Solomon Islands with descriptions of new species. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 52:87-146. [2006-11-11] PDF 131635: 87 (Cyrtomyrma) Kohout, 2007CKohout, R. J. 2007C. Revision of the subgenus Aulacomyrma Emery of the genus Polyrhachis F. Smith, with descriptions of new species. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 80:186-253. [2007-09] 131636: 189 (Kohout, 2007BKohout, R. 2007B. A review of the subgenus Polyrhachis (Campomyrma) Wheeler from Borneo with descriptions of new species (Hymenoptera:Formicidae: Formicinae). Asian Myrmecology 1:7-17. [2007-08] PDF 131626: 8 (Polyrhachis (Campomyrma) Borneo, key); Kohout, 2008AKohout, R. J. 2008A. A review of the Polyrhachis ants of Sulawesi with keys and descriptions of new species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 52:255-317. [2008-04-30] PDF 131638: 255 (Sulawesi species, keys); Kohout, 2008BKohout, R. J. 2008B. A new Polyrhachis (Myrma) vestita-group species from Sulawesi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae). Zoologische Mededelingen (Leiden) 82:297-302. [2008-06] PDF 131639: 298 (Polyrhachis vestita group key); Kohout, 2008DKohout, R. J. 2008D. A new species of the Polyrhachis (Myrmhopla) flavoflagellata-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae) from Borneo. Asian Myrmecology 2:11-16. [2008-12] PDF 131641: 12 (Polyrhachis flavoflagellata group key); Kohout, 2009Kohout, R. J. 2009. A new species and nomenclatural changes in the subgenus Polyrhachis (Cyrtomyrma) Forel. Australian Entomologist 36:37-48. [2009-03-07] PDF 131630: 40, 44 (modifications to Kohout 2006b key); Terayama, 2009Terayama, M. 2009. A synopsis of the family Formicidae of Taiwan (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Research Bulletin of Kanto Gakuen University. Liberal Arts 17:81-266. [2009] PDF 132431: 218 (Taiwan species key); Heterick, 2009Heterick, B. E. 2009. A guide to the ants of south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 76:1-206. PDF 131481: 106 (south-western Australia species key); Kohout, 2010Kohout, R. J. 2010. A review of the Australian Polyrhachis ants of the subgenera Myrmhopla Forel and Hirtomyrma subgen. nov. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum - Nature 55:167-204. [2010-03] PDF 131631: 169, 171, 200 (Australia subgenera key, Australia Polyrhachis (Myrmhopla) species key, Australia Polyrhachis (Hirtomyrma) species key); Kohout, 2012Kohout, R. J. 2012. A review of the Australian Polyrhachis ants of the subgenera Myrma Billberg, Myrmatopa Forel, Myrmothrinax Forel and Polyrhachis Fr. Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum - Nature 56:25-59. [2012-02-17] PDF 133056: 38, 43, 50 (Australia Polyrhachis (Myrma), Polyrhachis (Myrmatopa) and Polyrhachis (Myrmothrinax) keys); Kohout, 2012Kohout, R. J. 2012. A new species of the subgenus Campomyrma Wheeler of the genus Polyrhachis Fr. Smith from the Australian Capital Territory (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae). Australian Entomologist 39:321-329. [2012-11-26] PDF 142383 (Polyrhachis hexacantha complex species key); Kohout, 2013Kohout, R. J. 2013. A review of the Polyrhachis xiphias species-group of the subgenus Campomyrma Wheeler (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae). Asian Myrmecology 5:21-27. [2013-03-13] PDF 142335 (Polyrhachis xiphias species-group diagnosis, species revision, key); Kohout, 2013Kohout, R. J. 2013. A review of the Polyrhachis aculeata species-group of the subgenus Myrma Billberg (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae), with keys and descriptions of new species. Australian Entomologist 40(3):137-171. PDF 142472 (Polyrhachis aculeata species-group diagnosis, review, key); Kohout, 2013Kohout, R. J. 2013. Revision of Polyrhachis (Hagiomyrma) Wheeler, 1911 (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum - Nature 56:487-577. PDF 142403 (Polyrhachis (Hagiomyrma) revision, species key, species-group definition and diagnosis); Kohout, 2013Kohout, R. J. 2013. A review of the Polyrhachis gravis and micans species-groups of the subgenus Campomyrma Wheeler (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum - Nature 56:92-117. PDF 142402 (Polyrhachis (Campomyrma) gravis and micans species-group diagnosis, review, species key); Kohout, 2014Kohout, R. J. 2014. A review of the subgenus Polyrhachis (Polyrhachis) Fr. Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae) with keys and description of a new species. Asian Myrmecology 6:1-31. PDF 142617 (Mezger & Moreau, 2015Mezger, D.; Moreau, C. S. 2015. Out of South-East Asia: phylogeny and biogeography of the spiny ant genus Polyrhachis Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Systematic Entomology 0:1-10. 10.1111/syen.12163 142852: 1 (phylogeny)

Taxon Page Images:



When threatened, a Polyrhachis militaris worker hunkers down with her protective spines thrust upward. Kibale forest, Uganda.
Image © Alex Wild.

Distribution:


African Region: Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Australian Region: Australia, Barrow Island, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Queensland, Solomon Islands, Western Australia
Eurasian Region: Afghanistan, China, Denmark, Ethiopia, Iran, Israel, Japan, Jordan, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates
Pacific Islands Region: Fiji, Guam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Micronesia, Singapore, Timor-Leste, Vanuatu
South East Asia Region: Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, India, Krakatau Islands, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicobar Island, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Xishuangbanna

Taxon Page Author History

On 2013-08-23 09:04:17 Zach Lieberman modified Images
On 2013-08-23 09:03:56 Zach Lieberman modified Images

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Polyrhachis   Smith, F., 1859, Catalogue of hymenopterous insects collected by Mr. A. R. Wallace at the Islands of Aru and Key., Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 3, pp. 132-158: 142, (download) 142 10342
Polyrhachis   Forel, A., 1891, Histoire naturelle des Hymenopteres. Deuxieme partie: Les Formicides., Histoire Physique, Naturelle et Politique de Madagascar., Paris: L'Imprimerie Nationale, pp. 1-231: 78-79, (download) 78-79 6734
Polyrhachis   Smith, F., 1857, Catalogue of the hymenopterous insects collected at Sarawak, Borneo; Mount Ophir, Malacca; and at Singapore, by A. R. Wallace., Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 2, pp. 42-88: 58-59, (download) 58-59 2588
Polyrhachis   Wheeler, W. M., 1922, The ants collected by the American Museum Congo Expedition., Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 45, pp. 39-269: 256-258, (download) 256-258 20597
Polyrhachis   Forel, A., 1891, Histoire naturelle des Hymenopteres. Deuxieme partie: Les Formicides., Histoire Physique, Naturelle et Politique de Madagascar., Paris: L'Imprimerie Nationale, pp. 1-231: 77-78, (download) 77-78 6734
Polyrhachis   Kohout, R. J., 2007, Revision of the subgenus Aulacomyrma Emery of the genus Polyrhachis F. Smith, with descriptions of new species., Advances in ant systematics (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Homage to E. O. Wilson - 50 years of contributions. (Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 80), pp. 186-253: 189, (download) 189 21282

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