Current View: Global: All Antweb
Change View
Cite this page

Citing AntWeb

X

To cite this page, please use the following:

· For print: . Accessed

· For web:

Genus: Formica   Linnaeus, 1758 

Classification:

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2016)

Extant: 175 species, 24 subspecies

Fossil: 59 species, 1 subspecies

Formica Linnaeus, 1758 PDF: 579 . Type-species: Formica rufa, by subsequent designation of Curtis, 1839: 752. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

Formica in Camponotinae: Forel, 1878c PDF: 373 [Camponotidae]; Emery & Forel, 1879a: 450 [Camponotidae]; Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF}: 192.
Formica in Camponotinae, Camponotini: Forel, 1886h PDF: 205.
Formica in Formicinae, Formicini: Ashmead, 1905c PDF: 384; Bondroit, 1918 PDF: 41; Wheeler, 1922: 699; Emery, 1925d PDF: 241; all subsequent authors except the following.
Formica in Formicinae, Formica genus group: Agosti, 1991 PDF: 295.
Genus Formica references
Mayr, 1855Mayr, G. 1855. Formicina austriaca. Beschreibung der bisher im österreichischen Kaiserstaate aufgefundenen Ameisen, nebst Hinzufügung jener in Deutschland, in der Schweiz und in Italien vorkommenden Arten. Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Vereins in Wien 5:273-478. [1855] PDF 127185: 300 (diagnosis, Austria species key); Smith, 1858aSmith, F. 1858a. Catalogue of hymenopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. Formicidae. London: British Museum, 216 pp. [1858-03-27] PDF 128685: 1 (diagnosis); Mayr, 1861Mayr, G. 1861. Die europäischen Formiciden. Nach der analytischen Methode bearbeitet. Wien: C. Gerolds Sohn, 80 pp. [1861] PDF 127189: 46 (Europe species key); Roger, 1863bRoger, J. 1863b. Verzeichniss der Formiciden-Gattungen und Arten. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 7(Beilage):1-65. [1863-06] 128094: 12 (catalogue); Mayr, 1863aMayr, G. 1863a. Formicidarum index synonymicus. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 13:385-460. [1863] PDF 127213: 410 (catalogue); Mayr, 1865Mayr, G. 1865. Formicidae. In: Novara Expedition 1865. Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte "Novara" um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859. Zoologischer Theil. Bd. II. Abt. 1. Wien: K. Gerold's Sohn, 119 pp. [1865-12-14] PDF 127193: 8 (diagnosis); Forel, 1874Forel, A. 1874. Les fourmis de la Suisse. Systématique, notices anatomiques et physiologiques, architecture, distribution géographique, nouvelles expériences et observations de moeurs. Neue Denkschriften der Allgemeinen Schweizerischen Gesellschaft für die Gesammten Naturwissenschaften 26:1-452. [1874] PDF 124988: 51 (Switzerland species key); Forel, 1878cForel, A. 1878c. Études myrmécologiques en 1878 (première partie) avec l'anatomie du gésier des fourmis. Bulletin de la Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 15:337-392. [1878-10] PDF 125003: 373 (diagnosis); André, 1882b: 176 (Europe & Algeria species key); Cresson, 1887Cresson, E. T. 1887. Synopsis of the families and genera of the Hymenoptera of America, north of Mexico, together with a catalogue of the described species, and bibliography. Transactions of the American Entomological Society, Suppl. Vol. 1887:1-351. [1887] PDF 123936: 255 (U.S.A. catalogue); Provancher, 1887Provancher, L. 1887. Fam. X. - Les Formicides. Dummy reference. Pp. 224-249 in: Provancher, L. 1887. 1885-1889. Additions et corrections au Volume II de la Faune entomologique du Canada, traitant des Hyménoptères. Québec: C. Darveau, 477 pp. 133021: 232 (Canada species key); Nasonov, 1889Nasonov, N. V. 1889. Contribution to the natural history of the ants primarily of Russia. 1. Contribution to the ant fauna of Russia. [In Russian.]. Izvestiya Imperatorskago Obshchestva Lyubitelei Estestvoznaniya Antropologii i Etnografii pri Imperatorskom Moskovskom Universitete 58:1-78. [1889] 127508: 61 (Russia species key); Dalla Torre, 1893Dalla Torre, K. W. 1893. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. [1893] PDF 124002: 192 (catalogue); Emery, 1893kEmery, C. 1893k. Beiträge zur Kenntniss der nordamerikanischen Ameisenfauna. Zoologische Jahrbücher. Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere 7:633-682. [1893-12-23] PDF 124571: 643 (North America species key); Forel, 1894cForel, A. 1894c. Les Formicides de l'Empire des Indes et de Ceylan. Part IV. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 8:396-420. [1894-02-01] PDF 125060: 402 (India species key); Bingham, 1903Bingham, C. T. 1903. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera, Vol. II. Ants and Cuckoo-wasps. London: Taylor and Francis, 506 pp. [1903] PDF 122766: 334 (India species key); Ruzsky, 1905bRuzsky, M. 1905b. The ants of Russia. (Formicariae Imperii Rossici). Systematics, geography and data on the biology of Russian ants. Part I. [In Russian.]. Trudy Obshchestva Estestvoispytatelei pri Imperatorskom Kazanskom Universitete 38(4-6):1-800. [1905] 128184: 318 (Russian Empire species key); Wasmann, 1906Wasmann, E. 1906. Zur Kenntniss der Ameisen und Ameisengäste von Luxemburg. Archives. Institut Grand-Ducal de Luxembourg (n.s.)1(1/2):104-124. [1906-06] PDF 129630: 8 (Luxemburg species key); Emery, 1909bEmery, C. 1909b. Beiträge zur Monographie der Formiciden des paläarktischen Faunengebietes. (Hym.) Teil VII. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 1909:179-204. [1909-03-01] 124689: 180 (Palaearctic species key); Bondroit, 1910Bondroit, J. 1910 ("1909"). Les fourmis de Belgique. Annales de la Société Entomologique de Belgique 53:479-500. [1910-01-05] PDF 122874: 482 (Belgium species key); Wheeler, 1913iWheeler, W. M. 1913i. A revision of the ants of the genus Formica (Linné) Mayr. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 53:379-565. [1913-10] PDF 130081: 387 (subgenera, species groups, all species keys); Stitz, 1914Stitz, H. 1914. Die Ameisen (Formicidae) Mitteleuropas, insbesondere Deutschlands. Pp. 1-111 in: Schröder, C. (ed.) 1914. Die Insekten Mitteleuropas insbesondere Deutschlands. Band II, Hymenopteren, 2. Teil. Stuttgart: Franckh'sche Verlagshandlung, 256 pp. [1914] 129025: 88 (Central Europe species key); Donisthorpe, 1915fDonisthorpe, H. 1915f. British ants, their life-history and classification. Plymouth: Brendon & Son Ltd., xv + 379 pp. [1915] 124216: 244 (Britain species key); Emery, 1916aEmery, C. 1916a ("1915"). Fauna entomologica italiana. I. Hymenoptera.-Formicidae. Bullettino della Società Entomologica Italiana 47:79-275. [1916-11-30] PDF 124734: 257 (Italy species key); Wheeler, 1916rWheeler, W. M. 1916r. Formicoidea. Formicidae. Pp. 577-601 in: Viereck, H. L. 1916. Guide to the insects of Connecticut. Part III. The Hymenoptera, or wasp-like insects, of Connecticut. Connecticut State Geological and Natural History Survey. Bulletin 22:1-824. [1916] 130115: 594 (U.S.A., Connecticut species key); Bondroit, 1917aBondroit, J. 1917a. Notes sur quelques Formicidae de France (Hym.). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 1917:174-177. [1917-06-27] 122877: 174 (France Formica rufa group, key); Bondroit, 1918Bondroit, J. 1918. Les fourmis de France et de Belgique. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 87:1-174. [1918-12-24] PDF 122872: 41 (France & Belgium species key); Wheeler, 1922Wheeler, W. M. 1922. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. New York: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 1139. 133015: 699 (subgenera key); Emery, 1925dEmery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183:1-302. [1925-12-31] PDF 124775: 241 (diagnosis, subgenera key, catalogue); Emery, 1925dEmery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183:1-302. [1925-12-31] PDF 124775: 244 Formica (Neoformica) diagnosis, catalogue; Emery, 1925dEmery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183:1-302. [1925-12-31] PDF 124775: 245 Formica (Serviformica) diagnosis, catalogue; Emery, 1925dEmery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183:1-302. [1925-12-31] PDF 124775: 251 Formica (Formica) diagnosis, catalogue; Emery, 1925dEmery, C. 1925d. Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Formicinae. Genera Insectorum 183:1-302. [1925-12-31] PDF 124775: 258 Formica (Raptiformica) diagnosis, catalogue; Lomnicki, 1925aLomnicki, J. 1925a ("1924"). Przeglad polskich gatunków rodzaju mrówki (Formica Linné). Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 3:151-182. [1925-03-15<] PDF 126935: 171 (Poland species key); Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1926cKuznetsov-Ugamsky, N. N. 1926c. Contributions to the knowledge of the myrmecology of Turkestan. I. [In Russian.]. Russkoe Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 20:93-100. [1926] PDF 126751: 93 (Turkestan species key); Karavaiev, 1927dKaravaiev, V. 1927d. The ant fauna of Ukraine. [In Ukrainian.]. Zbirnyk Prats' Zoolohichnoho Muzeyu 2:1-52 [= Trudy. Ukrains'ka Akademiya Nauk. Fizichno-Matematichnoho Viddilu 4:247-296]. [1927] 126255: 282 (Ukraine species key); Donisthorpe, 1927cDonisthorpe, H. 1927c. British ants, their life history and classification (2nd edn.). London: G. Routledge and Sons, xvi + 436 pp. [1927] 124250: 284 (Britain species key); Arnol'di, 1933aArnol'di, K. V. 1933a. Formicidae - ants. [In Russian.]. Pp. 594-605 in: Filip'ev, I. N.; Ogloblin, D. A. (eds.) 1933. Keys to insects. [In Russian.]. Moskva: Ogiz, viii + 820 pp. [1933-12-03>] 122356: 603 (Russia species key); Karavaiev, 1936Karavaiev, V. 1936. The fauna of the family Formicidae (ants) of the Ukraine. Part II (conclusion). [In Ukrainian.]. Trudy Instytutu Zoolohii ta Biolohii Ukrains'koi Akademii Nauk. Seriya 1. Pratsi z Systematyky ta Faunistyky 1936:161-316. [1936-05-26>] 126235: 220 (Ukraine species key); Menozzi, 1939aMenozzi, C. 1939a. Formiche dell'Himalaya e del Karakorum raccolte dalla Spedizione italiana comandata da S. A. R. il Duca di Spoleto (1929). Atti della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano 78:285-345. [1939-10] PDF 127381: 321 (Himalaya & Tibet species key); Stitz, 1939Stitz, H. 1939. Die Tierwelt Deutschlands und der angrenzenden Meersteile nach ihren Merkmalen und nach ihrer Lebensweise. 37. Theil. Hautflüger oder Hymenoptera. I: Ameisen oder Formicidae. Jena: G. Fischer, 428 pp. [1939] 129033: 306 (Germany species key); Creighton, 1940aCreighton, W. S. 1940a. A revision of the North American variants of the ant Formica rufa. American Museum Novitates 1055:1-10. [1940-04-15] PDF 123908: 1 (North America Formica rufa subspecies key); Kratochvíl, 1941bKratochvíl, J. 1941b. [Untitled. New subgenera of Tetramorium, and a new subspecies, Tetramorium ferox silhavyi, attributed to Kratochvíl.]. P. 84 in: Novák, V.; Sadil, J. 1941. Klíc k urcování mravencu strední Evropy se zvlástním zretelem k mravencí zvírene Cech a Moravy. Entomologické Listy 4:65-115. [1941] 126513: 103 (Central Europe species key); Novák & Sadil, 1941Novák, V.; Sadil, J. 1941. Klíc k urcování mravencu strední Evropy se zvlástním zretelem k mravencí zvírene Cech a Moravy. Entomologické Listy 4:65-115. PDF 126512: 103 (Central Europe species key); Cole, 1942Cole, A. C., Jr. 1942. The ants of Utah. American Midland Naturalist 28:358-388. [1942-10-13] PDF 123672: 375 (U.S.A., Utah species key); Holgersen, 1943cHolgersen, H. 1943c. Bestemmelsestabell over norske maur (Hym., Formicidae). Norsk Entomologisk Tidsskrift 6:164-182. [1943-09-01] 125920: 175 (Norway species key); Holgersen, 1944aHolgersen, H. 1944a. The ants of Norway (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Nytt Magasin for Naturvidenskapene 84:165-203. [1944-09-08] 125923: 200 (Norway species key); Buren, 1944aBuren, W. F. 1944a. A list of Iowa ants. Iowa State College Journal of Science 18:277-312. [1944-04] PDF 123329: 299 (U.S.A., Iowa species key); Boven, 1947: 187 (Belgium species key); Creighton, 1950aCreighton, W. S. 1950a. The ants of North America. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 104:1-585. [1950-04] PDF 123910: 456 (North America species key); Chapman & Capco, 1951Chapman, J. W.; Capco, S. R. 1951. Check list of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Asia. Monographs of the Institute of Science and Technology. Manila 1:1-327. [1951] PDF 123583: 197 (Asia checklist); Yarrow, 1954aYarrow, I. H. H. 1954a. The British ants allied to Formica fusca L. (Hym., Formicidae). Transactions of the Society for British Entomology 11:229-244. [1954-07-14] PDF 130541: 229 (Britain Formica fusca group); Yarrow, 1955aYarrow, I. H. H. 1955a. The British ants allied to Formica rufa L. (Hym., Formicidae). Transactions of the Society for British Entomology 12:1-48. [1955-03-22] PDF 130544: 29 (Britain Formica rufa group, key); Wilson & Brown, 1955Wilson, E. O.; Brown, W. L., Jr. 1955. Revisionary notes on the sanguinea and neogagates groups of the ant genus Formica. Psyche (Cambridge) 62:108-129. [1955-11-08] PDF 130408: 108 (Formica sanguinea & Formica neogagates groups, synopsis); Boven, 1959Boven, J. K. A. 1959. Vliesvleugelige insekten - Hymenoptera VI. Angeldragers (Aculeata). Mieren (Formicidae). Wetenschappelijke Mededelingen. Koninklijke Nederlandse Natuurhistorische Vereniging 30:1-32. [1959-01] 122956: 12 (Netherlands species key); Betrem, 1960bBetrem, J. G. 1960b. Ueber die Systematik der Formica rufa-gruppe. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 103:51-81. [1960-08-05] 122711: 75 (Formica rufa group, key); Gregg, 1963Gregg, R. E. 1963. The ants of Colorado, with reference to their ecology, taxonomy, and geographic distribution. Boulder: University of Colorado Press, xvi + 792 pp. [1963] 125667: 498 (U.S.A., Colorado species key); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1963Wheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1963. The ants of North Dakota. Grand Forks, North Dakota: University of North Dakota Press, viii + 326 pp. [1963] 129848: 205 (U.S.A., North Dakota species key); Cotti, 1963Cotti, G. 1963. Bibliografia ragionata 1930-1961 del gruppo Formica rufa in Italiano, Deutsch, English. Collana Verde 8:1-413. [1963-06-07] 123843: 1 (Formica rufa group, bibliography 1930-61); Dlussky, 1964Dlussky, G. M. 1964. The ants of the subgenus Coptoformica of the genus Formica (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of the USSR. [In Russian.]. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 43:1026-1040. [1964-07] PDF 124125: 1026 (former U.S.S.R. Formica (Coptoformica) species key); Collingwood, 1964bCollingwood, C. A. 1964b. The identification and distribution of British ants. 1. A revised key to the species found in Britain. Transactions of the Society for British Entomology 16:93-114,121. [1964-12] PDF 123798: 109 (Britain species key); Brown, 1965dBrown, W. L., Jr. 1965d. Studies on North American ants. I. The Formica integra subgroup. Entomological News 76:181-186. [1965-06-25] PDF 123188: 181 (Formica integra subgroup); Dlussky, 1965aDlussky, G. M. 1965a. Ants of the genus Formica L. of Mongolia and northeast Tibet (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Annales Zoologici (Warsaw) 23:15-43. [1965-05-20] PDF 124134: 15 (Mongolia and Tibet species key); Dlussky, 1967aDlussky, G. M. 1967a. Ants of the genus Formica (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, g. Formica). [In Russian.]. Moskva: Nauka Publishing House, 236 pp. [1967-03-14>] PDF 124136: 39 (Palaearctic species key); Dlussky, 1967bDlussky, G. M. 1967b. Ants of the genus Formica from the Baltic amber. [In Russian.]. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal 1967(2):80-89. [1967-05-19>] PDF 124137: 80 (*Baltic Amber species key); Bernard, 1967aBernard, F. 1967a ("1968"). Faune de l'Europe et du Bassin Méditerranéen. 3. Les fourmis (Hymenoptera Formicidae) d'Europe occidentale et septentrionale. Paris: Masson, 411 pp. [1967-11] PDF 122660: 285 (diagnosis, Western Europe species key); Buren, 1968aBuren, W. F. 1968a. Some fundamental taxonomic problems in Formica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society 3:25-40. [1968-04] PDF 123332: 36 (Nearctic Formica sanguinea group species key); Boven, 1970bBoven, J. K. A. 1970b. Le polymorphisme des ouvrières de Megaponera foetens Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Publicatiës van het Natuurhistorisch Genootschap in Limburg 20(3/4):5-9. [1970] 122979: 34 (Netherlands species key); Dlussky & Pisarski, 1971Dlussky, G. M.; Pisarski, B. 1971. Rewizja polskich gatunków mrówek (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) z rodzaju Formica L. Fragmenta Faunistica (Warsaw) 16:145-224. [1971-03-25] PDF 124167: 145 (Poland species key); Francoeur, 1973Francoeur, A. 1973. Révision taxonomique des espèces néarctiques du groupe fusca, genre Formica (Formicidae, Hymenoptera). Mémoires de la Société Entomologique du Québec 3:1-316. [1973-09] PDF 125328: 272 (Nearctic Formica fusca group, revision, key); Bolton & Collingwood, 1975Bolton, B.; Collingwood, C. A. 1975. Handbooks for the identification of British Insects. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects 6(3(c)):1-34. [1975-06] 122862: 6 (Britain species key); Tarbinsky, 1976Tarbinsky, Y. S. 1976. The ants of Kirghizia. [In Russian.]. Frunze: Ilim, 217 pp. [1976-06-04>] PDF 129149: 177 (Kyrghyzstan species key); Boven, 1977Boven, J. K. A. 1977. De mierenfauna van België (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Acta Zoologica et Pathologica Antverpiensia 67:1-191. [1977-06] PDF 122960: 94 (Belgium species key); Kutter, 1977cKutter, H. 1977c. Hymenoptera, Formicidae. Insecta Helvetica. Fauna 6:1-298. [1977] 126740: 236 (Switzerland species key); Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978Arnol'di, K. V.; Dlussky, G. M. 1978. Superfam. Formicoidea. 1. Fam. Formicidae - ants. [In Russian.]. Pp. 519-556 in: Medvedev, G. S. (ed.) 1978. Keys to the insects of the European part of the USSR. Vol. 3. Hymenoptera. Part 1. [In Russian.]. Opredeliteli Faune SSSR 119:3-584. [1978-11-02>] 122371: 552 (former European U.S.S.R. species key); Collingwood, 1978Collingwood, C. A. 1978. A provisional list of Iberian Formicidae with a key to the worker caste (Hym. Aculeata). EOS. Revista Española de Entomología 52:65-95. [1978-05-10] PDF 123763: 93 (Iberian Peninsula species key); Collingwood, 1979Collingwood, C. A. 1979. The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 8:1-174. [1979] PDF 123764: 112 (Fennoscandia & Denmark species key); Smith, 1979Smith, D. R. 1979. Superfamily Formicoidea. Pp. 1323-1467 in: Krombein, K. V.; Hurd, P. D.; Smith, D. R.; Burks, B. D. (eds.) 1979. Catalog of Hymenoptera in America north of Mexico. Volume 2. Apocrita (Aculeata). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, pp. i-xvi, 1199-2209. [1979] 128659: 1448 (North America catalogue); Douwes, 1979Douwes, P. 1979. Formica rufa-gruppens systematik. Entomologisk Tidskrift 100:187-191. [1979-12-10] PDF 124389: 187 (Formica rufa group systematics); Kupyanskaya, 1980Kupyanskaya, A. N. 1980. Ants of the genus Formica Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of the Soviet Far East. [In Russian.]. Pp. 95-108 in: Ler, P. A. (ed.) 1980. Taxonomy of insects of the Far East. [In Russian.]. Vladivostok: Akademiya Nauk SSSR, 120 pp. [1980-02-06>] PDF 126589: 95 (Far Eastern Russia species key); Allred, 1982Allred, D. M. 1982. Ants of Utah. Great Basin Naturalist 42:415-511. [1982-12-31] 122181: 446 (U.S.A., Utah species key); Kupyanskaya, 1984Kupyanskaya, A. N. 1984. The ant Formica yessensis Forel, 1901 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in southern Primorye Territory. [In Russian.]. Pp. 98-112 in: Ler, P. A. (ed.) 1984. The fauna and ecology of insects in the south of the Far East. Collected scientific papers. [In Russian.]. Vladivostok: Akademiya Nauk SSSR, 151 pp. [1984-01-06>] 126593: 103 (Far Eastern Russia Formica truncorum complex, key); Snelling & Buren, 1985Snelling, R. R.; Buren, W. F. 1985. Description of a new species of slave-making ant in the Formica sanguinea group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Great Lakes Entomologist 18:69-78. [1985-06-03] PDF 128903: 71 (Nearctic Formica sanguinea group, key); Gösswald, 1985Gösswald, K. 1985. Organisation und Leben der Ameisen. Stuttgart: Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 355 pp. [1985] 125570: 274 (Germany species key); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1986gWheeler, G. C.; Wheeler, J. 1986g. The ants of Nevada. Los Angeles: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, vii + 138 pp. [1986] PDF 129925: 76 (U.S.A., Nevada species key); Nilsson & Douwes, 1987Nilsson, O.; Douwes, P. 1987. Norrländska myror med bestämningstabell till arbetarna. Natur i Norr 6:49-90. 127531: 74 (Norway species key); Agosti & Collingwood, 1987bAgosti, D.; Collingwood, C. A. 1987b. A provisional list of the Balkan ants (Hym. Formicidae) with a key to the worker caste. II. Key to the worker caste, including the European species without the Iberian. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 60:261-293. [1987-12-15] PDF 122149: 285 (Balkans species key); Gösswald, 1989Gösswald, K. 1989. Die Waldameise. Band 1. Biologische Grundlagen, Ökologie und Verhalten. Wiesbaden: AULA-Verlag, xi + 660 pp. [1989] 125572: 49 (Formica rufa group taxonomy); Agosti & Bolton, 1990bAgosti, D.; Bolton, B. 1990b. New characters to differentiate the ant genera Lasius F. and Formica L. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Entomologist's Gazette 41:149-156. [1990-09-30] PDF 122147: 149 (characters); Wu, 1990Wu, J. 1990. Taxonomic studies on the genus Formica L. of China (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). [In Chinese.]. Forest Research 3:1-8. [1990-02] PDF 130478: 4 (China species key); Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990Dlussky, G. M.; Soyunov, O. S.; Zabelin, S. I. 1990. Ants of Turkmenistan. [In Russian.]. Ashkabad: Ylym Press, 273 pp. PDF 124151: 138 (Turkmenistan species key); Kupyanskaya, 1990aKupyanskaya, A. N. 1990a. Ants of the Far Eastern USSR. [In Russian.]. Vladivostok: Akademiya Nauk SSSR, 258 pp. [1990-09-13>] 126604: 174 (Far Eastern Russia species key); Morisita, Kubota, Onoyama, et al., 1991: 31 (Japan species key); Atanasov & Dlussky, 1992: 255 (Bulgaria species key); Agosti, 1994bAgosti, D. 1994b. The phylogeny of the ant tribe Formicini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with the description of a new genus. Systematic Entomology 19:93-117. [1994-08-01] PDF 122144: 106 (diagnosis, review of genus); Radchenko, 1994bRadchenko, A. G. 1994b. Identification table for the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of southern Siberia. [In Russian.]. Pp. 95-118 in: Kotenko, A. G. (ed.) 1994. Hymenopterous insects of Siberia and the Far East. [In Russian.]. Trudy Zapovednika "Daurskii" 3:1-147. [1994-06-10>] 127961: 112 (South Siberia species key); Arakelian, 1994Arakelian, G. R. 1994. Fauna of the Republic of Armenia. Hymenopterous insects. Ants (Formicidae). [In Russian.]. Erevan: Gitutium, 153 pp. [1994-06-20>] PDF 122300: 89 (Armenia species key); Bolton, 1994Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. [1994-07-25] 122834: 50 (synoptic classification); Bolton, 1995aBolton, B. 1995a. A taxonomic and zoogeographical census of the extant ant taxa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Natural History 29:1037-1056. [1995-08] PDF 122859: 1049 (census); Bolton, 1995bBolton, B. 1995b. A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 504 pp. [1995-10] 122860: 190 (catalogue); Douwes, 1995Douwes, P. 1995. Sveriges myror. Entomologisk Tidskrift 116:83-99. [1995-11] 124392: 94 (Sweden species key); Kupyanskaya, 1995: 353 (Far Eastern Russia species key); Wu & Wang, 1995aWu, J.; Wang, C. 1995a. The ants of China. [In Chinese.]. Beijing: China Forestry Publishing House, x + 214 pp. [1995-06] 130487: 138 (China species key); Seifert, 1996BSeifert, B. 1996B. Ameisen beobachten, bestimmen. Augsburg: Naturbuch Verlag, 351 pp. [1996-12-31] 132274: 201 (Central Europe species key); Skinner & Allen, 1996Skinner, G. J.; Allen, G. W. 1996. Ants. Naturalists' Handbook 24. Slough: Richmond Publishing Co., ii + 83 pp. [1996] 132350: 41 (Britain species key); Collingwood & Prince, 1998Collingwood, C.; Prince, A. 1998. A guide to ants of continental Portugal (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Boletim da Sociedade Portuguesa de Entomologia. Suplemento 5:1-49. [1998-07] 130938: 25 (Portugal species key); Tinaut & Martínez-Ibañez, 1998DTinaut, A.; Martínez-Ibañez, D. 1998D. Taxonomy and distribution of Formica dusmeti Emery, 1909 and of F. frontalis Santschi, 1919 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Graellsia 54:31-41. [1998-12-31] PDF 132456: 36 (Iberian Peninsula Formica rufa, Formica sanguinea & Formica exsecta groups, key); Seifert, 2000ASeifert, B. 2000A. A taxonomic revision of the ant subgenus Coptoformica Mueller, 1923 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Zoosystema 22:517-568. [2000-09-29] PDF 132278: 563 (Palaearctic Formica (Coptoformica) species key); Czechowski, Radchenko & Czechowska, 2002Czechowski, W.; Radchenko, A.; Czechowska, W. 2002. The ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Poland. Warsaw: Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 200 pp. PDF 130994: 148 (Poland species key); Chang & He, 2002AChang, Y.-D.; He, D.-H. 2002A. Taxonomic study of genus Formica L. from Northwest China with descriptions of nine new species and four new records (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae). [In Chinese.]. Zoological Research 23:49-60. [2002-02-23] PDF 130905: 51 (northwest China species key); Seifert, 2002Seifert, B. 2002. A taxonomic revision of the Formica cinerea group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Abhandlungen und Berichte des Naturkundemuseums Görlitz 74(2):245-272. [2002] PDF 132267: 267 (Formica cinerea group revision key); Mackay & MacKay, 2002Mackay, W.; MacKay, E. 2002. The ants of New Mexico (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 400 pp. [2002-12] PDF 131795: 277 (U.S.A., New Mexico species key); Bolton, 2003Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and classification of Formicidae. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 71:1-370. [2003-11-10] PDF 130789: 127 (synopsis); Radchenko, 2005BRadchenko, A. 2005B. Monographic revision of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of North Korea. Annales Zoologici (Warsaw) 55:127-221. [2005-06-30] PDF 132056: 188 (North Korea species key); Seifert, 2007Seifert, B. 2007. Die Ameisen Mittel- und Nordeuropas. Tauer: lutra Verlags- und Vertriebsgesellschaft, 368 pp. [2007-04] 132271: 176 (North and Central Europe species key); Trager, MacGown & Trager, 2007Trager, J. C.; MacGown, J. A.; Trager, M. D. 2007. Revision of the Nearctic endemic Formica pallidefulva group. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 80:610-636. [2007-09] 132484: 627 (Formica pallidefulva group key); Dlussky, 2008ADlussky, G. M. 2008A. Ants of the tribe Formicini (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from late Eocene amber of Europe. [In Russian.]. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal 2008(5):45-59. PDF 131120: 57 (Europe Eocene amber species key); Terayama, 2009Terayama, M. 2009. A synopsis of the family Formicidae of Taiwan (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Research Bulletin of Kanto Gakuen University. Liberal Arts 17:81-266. [2009] PDF 132431: 224 (Taiwan species key); Seifert & Schultz, 2009BSeifert, B.; Schultz, R. 2009B. A taxonomic revision of the Formica rufibarbis Fabricius, 1793 group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecological News 12:255-272. [2009-09] PDF 132293: 258 (Formica rufibarbis group key); Czechowski, Radchenko, et al. 2012: 371 (Poland species key); Dlussky & Putyatina, 2014Dlussky, G. M.; Putyatina, T. S. 2014. Early Miocene ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) from Radoboj, Croatia. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen 272(3):237-285. [2014-06] PDF 142608: 254 (Croatian Miocene species, revision); Dlussky, Rasnitsyn & Perfilieva, 2015Dlussky, G. M.; Rasnitsyn, A. P.; Perfilieva, K. S. 2015. The ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Bol’shaya Svetlovodnaya (Late Eocene of Sikhote-Alin, Russian Far East). Caucasian Entomological Bulletin 11(1):131-152. [2015-08-31] PDF 142813 (diagnosis for fossil imprints).

Distribution:


Eurasian Region: Afghanistan, Albania, Alicante, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Balearic Islands, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Channel Islands, China, Crete, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Guernsey, Hungary, Iran, Ireland, Isle of Man, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Netherlands, North Korea, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Uzbekistan
Nearctic Region: Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Arizona, Arkansas, Baja California, British Columbia, California, Canada, Colorado, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, iowa, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming
Neotropical Region: Costa Rica, Honduras, Mexico
Pacific Islands Region: Indonesia
South East Asia Region: India, Myanmar, Nepal, Taiwan

Taxon Page Author History

On 2013-08-22 05:51:33 Zach Lieberman modified Images

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Formica   Smith, F., 1851, List of the specimens of British animals in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. - Hymenoptera Aculeata., London: British Museum: 4, (download) 4 8200
Formica   Jerdon, T. C., 1851, A catalogue of the species of ants found in southern India., Madras Journal of Literature and Science 17, pp. 103-127: 119, (download) 119 4764
Formica   Collingwood, C. A., 1979, The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark., Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 8, pp. 1-174: 111-120, (download) 111-120 6175
Formica   Smith, F., 1851, List of the specimens of British animals in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. - Hymenoptera Aculeata., London: British Museum: 1, (download) 1 8200
Formica   Ward, P. S., 2005, A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 936, pp. 1-68: -1, (download) -1 21008
Pheidole megacephala   Emery, C., 1915, Les Pheidole du groupe megacephala (Formicidae)., Revue de Zoologie Africaine 4, pp. 223-250: 235, (download) 235 3875
Formica   Nylander, W., 1846, Adnotationes in monographiam formicarum borealium Europae., Acta Societatis Scientiarum Fennicae 2, pp. 875-944: 892-894, (download) 892-894 4277
Formica   Ward, P. S., 2005, A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 936, pp. 1-68: 29, (download) 29 21008
Formica   Förster, A., 1850, Hymenopterologische Studien. 1. Formicariae., Aachen: Unknown Publisher: 9, (download) 9 8138
Formica   Jerdon, T. C., 1851, A catalogue of the species of ants found in southern India., Madras Journal of Literature and Science 17, pp. 103-127: 103, (download) 103 4764

(-1 examples)



See something amiss? Send us an email.
Enlarge Map