Welcome to the new AntWeb!

We here at AntWeb have been busy working on our newest (and most ambitious) version of the site - and there are lots of great new things! Which means there are lots of changes (don't worry, they're all for the best).

And we've put together a handy little guide to show you all the new features and enhancements - why don't you have a quick look to check out all the new features and enhancements?

No thanks
Current View: Global: All Antweb
Change View
Cite this page

Citing AntWeb

X

To cite this page, please use the following:

· For print: . Accessed

· For web:

Genus: Formica   Linnaeus, 1758 

Classification:

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2014)

Extant: 175 species, 25 subspecies

Fossil: 55 species, 1 subspecies

Formica Linnaeus, 1758 PDF: 579 . Type-species: Formica rufa, by subsequent designation of Curtis, 1839: 752. AntCat AntWiki

Taxonomic history

Formica in Camponotinae: Forel, 1878c PDF: 373 [Camponotidae]; Emery & Forel, 1879a: 450 [Camponotidae]; Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF}: 192.
Formica in Camponotinae, Camponotini: Forel, 1886h PDF: 205.
Formica in Formicinae, Formicini: Ashmead, 1905c PDF: 384; Bondroit, 1918 PDF: 41; Wheeler, 1922: 699; Emery, 1925d PDF: 241; all subsequent authors except the following.
Formica in Formicinae, Formica genus group: Agosti, 1991 PDF: 295.
Genus Formica references
Mayr, 1855 PDF: 300 (diagnosis, Austria species key); Smith, 1858a PDF: 1 (diagnosis); Mayr, 1861 PDF: 46 (Europe species key); Roger, 1863b: 12 (catalogue); Mayr, 1863a PDF: 410 (catalogue); Mayr, 1865: 8 (diagnosis); Forel, 1874 PDF: 51 (Switzerland species key); Forel, 1878c PDF: 373 (diagnosis); André, 1882b: 176 (Europe & Algeria species key); Cresson, 1887 PDF: 255 (U.S.A. catalogue); Provancher, 1887: 232 (Canada species key); Nasonov, 1889: 61 (Russia species key); Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF: 192 (catalogue); Emery, 1893k PDF: 643 (North America species key); Forel, 1894c PDF: 402 (India species key); Bingham, 1903 PDF: 334 (India species key); Ruzsky, 1905b: 318 (Russian Empire species key); Wasmann, 1906 PDF: 8 (Luxemburg species key); Emery, 1909b: 180 (Palaearctic species key); Bondroit, 1910 PDF: 482 (Belgium species key); Wheeler, 1913i PDF: 387 (subgenera, species groups, all species keys); Stitz, 1914: 88 (Central Europe species key); Donisthorpe, 1915f: 244 (Britain species key); Emery, 1916a PDF: 257 (Italy species key); Wheeler, 1916r: 594 (U.S.A., Connecticut species key); Bondroit, 1917a: 174 (France Formica rufa group, key); Bondroit, 1918 PDF: 41 (France & Belgium species key); Wheeler, 1922: 699 (subgenera key); Emery, 1925d PDF: 241 (diagnosis, subgenera key, catalogue); Emery, 1925d PDF: 244 Formica (Neoformica) diagnosis, catalogue; Emery, 1925d PDF: 245 Formica (Serviformica) diagnosis, catalogue; Emery, 1925d PDF: 251 Formica (Formica) diagnosis, catalogue; Emery, 1925d PDF: 258 Formica (Raptiformica) diagnosis, catalogue; Lomnicki, 1925a PDF: 171 (Poland species key); Kuznetsov-Ugamsky, 1926c PDF: 93 (Turkestan species key); Karavaiev, 1927d: 282 (Ukraine species key); Donisthorpe, 1927c: 284 (Britain species key); Arnol'di, 1933a: 603 (Russia species key); Karavaiev, 1936: 220 (Ukraine species key); Menozzi, 1939a PDF: 321 (Himalaya & Tibet species key); Stitz, 1939: 306 (Germany species key); Creighton, 1940a PDF: 1 (North America Formica rufa subspecies key); Kratochvíl, 1941b: 103 (Central Europe species key); Novák & Sadil, 1941 PDF: 103 (Central Europe species key); Cole, 1942 PDF: 375 (U.S.A., Utah species key); Holgersen, 1943c: 175 (Norway species key); Holgersen, 1944a: 200 (Norway species key); Buren, 1944a PDF: 299 (U.S.A., Iowa species key); Boven, 1947: 187 (Belgium species key); Creighton, 1950a PDF: 456 (North America species key); Chapman & Capco, 1951 PDF: 197 (Asia checklist); Yarrow, 1954a PDF: 229 (Britain Formica fusca group); Yarrow, 1955a PDF: 29 (Britain Formica rufa group, key); Wilson & Brown, 1955 PDF: 108 (Formica sanguinea & Formica neogagates groups, synopsis); Boven, 1959: 12 (Netherlands species key); Betrem, 1960b: 75 (Formica rufa group, key); Gregg, 1963: 498 (U.S.A., Colorado species key); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1963: 205 (U.S.A., North Dakota species key); Cotti, 1963: 1 (Formica rufa group, bibliography 1930-61); Dlussky, 1964 PDF: 1026 (former U.S.S.R. Formica (Coptoformica) species key); Collingwood, 1964b PDF: 109 (Britain species key); Brown, 1965d PDF: 181 (Formica integra subgroup); Dlussky, 1965a PDF: 15 (Mongolia and Tibet species key); Dlussky, 1967a PDF: 39 (Palaearctic species key); Dlussky, 1967b PDF: 80 (*Baltic Amber species key); Bernard, 1967a PDF: 285 (diagnosis, Western Europe species key); Buren, 1968a PDF: 36 (Nearctic Formica sanguinea group species key); Boven, 1970b: 34 (Netherlands species key); Dlussky & Pisarski, 1971 PDF: 145 (Poland species key); Francoeur, 1973 PDF: 272 (Nearctic Formica fusca group, revision, key); Bolton & Collingwood, 1975: 6 (Britain species key); Tarbinsky, 1976 PDF: 177 (Kyrghyzstan species key); Boven, 1977 PDF: 94 (Belgium species key); Kutter, 1977c: 236 (Switzerland species key); Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978: 552 (former European U.S.S.R. species key); Collingwood, 1978 PDF: 93 (Iberian Peninsula species key); Collingwood, 1979 PDF: 112 (Fennoscandia & Denmark species key); Smith, 1979: 1448 (North America catalogue); Douwes, 1979 PDF: 187 (Formica rufa group systematics); Kupyanskaya, 1980 PDF: 95 (Far Eastern Russia species key); Allred, 1982: 446 (U.S.A., Utah species key); Kupyanskaya, 1984: 103 (Far Eastern Russia Formica truncorum complex, key); Snelling & Buren, 1985 PDF: 71 (Nearctic Formica sanguinea group, key); Gösswald, 1985: 274 (Germany species key); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1986g PDF: 76 (U.S.A., Nevada species key); Nilsson & Douwes, 1987: 74 (Norway species key); Agosti & Collingwood, 1987b PDF: 285 (Balkans species key); Gösswald, 1989: 49 (Formica rufa group taxonomy); Agosti & Bolton, 1990b PDF: 149 (characters); Wu, 1990 PDF: 4 (China species key); Dlussky, Soyunov & Zabelin, 1990 PDF: 138 (Turkmenistan species key); Kupyanskaya, 1990a: 174 (Far Eastern Russia species key); Morisita, Kubota, Onoyama, et al., 1991: 31 (Japan species key); Atanasov & Dlussky, 1992: 255 (Bulgaria species key); Agosti, 1994b PDF: 106 (diagnosis, review of genus); Radchenko, 1994b: 112 (South Siberia species key); Arakelian, 1994 PDF: 89 (Armenia species key); Bolton, 1994: 50 (synoptic classification); Bolton, 1995a PDF: 1049 (census); Bolton, 1995b: 190 (catalogue); Douwes, 1995: 94 (Sweden species key); Kupyanskaya, 1995: 353 (Far Eastern Russia species key); Wu & Wang, 1995a: 138 (China species key); Seifert, 1996B: 201 (Central Europe species key); Skinner & Allen, 1996: 41 (Britain species key); Collingwood & Prince, 1998: 25 (Portugal species key); Tinaut & Martínez-Ibañez, 1998D PDF: 36 (Iberian Peninsula Formica rufa, Formica sanguinea & Formica exsecta groups, key); Seifert, 2000A PDF: 563 (Palaearctic Formica (Coptoformica) species key); Czechowski, Radchenko & Czechowska, 2002 PDF: 148 (Poland species key); Chang & He, 2002A PDF: 51 (northwest China species key); Seifert, 2002 PDF: 267 (Formica cinerea group revision key); Mackay & MacKay, 2002 PDF: 277 (U.S.A., New Mexico species key); Bolton, 2003 PDF: 127 (synopsis); Radchenko, 2005B PDF: 188 (North Korea species key); Seifert, 2007: 176 (North and Central Europe species key); Trager, MacGown & Trager, 2007: 627 (Formica pallidefulva group key); Dlussky, 2008A PDF: 57 (Europe Eocene amber species key); Terayama, 2009 PDF: 224 (Taiwan species key); Seifert & Schultz, 2009B PDF: 258 (Formica rufibarbis group key); Czechowski, Radchenko, et al. 2012: 371 (Poland species key); Dlussky & Putyatina, 2014 PDF: 254 (Croatian Miocene species, revision)

Taxon Page Images:



Formica obscuripes mound ants gather honeydew from aphids. Sagehen Creek, California, USA.
Image © Alex Wild.

Taxon Page Author History

On 2013-08-22 05:52:04 Zach Lieberman modified Images
On 2013-08-22 05:51:33 Zach Lieberman modified Images

(-1 examples)



See something amiss? Send us an email.
Enlarge Map