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Genus: Cephalotes   Latreille, 1802 

Classification:

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2016)

Extant: 119 species

Fossil: 16 species

Cephalotes Latreille, 1802b: 357 . Type-species: Formica atrata, by monotypy. AntCat AntWiki

Taxonomic history

[Type-species not Formica cephalotes, unjustified subsequent designation by Wheeler, 1911g PDF: 160; corrected by Wheeler, 1913a PDF: 78.].
Cephalotes in Myrmicinae, Cryptocerini: Emery, 1914e: 42; Forel, 1917 PDF: 246; Wheeler, 1922: 665; Emery, 1924f: 303; all subsequent authors to 1949, and Dlussky & Fedoseeva, 1988: 79 (anachronism).
Cephalotes in Myrmicinae, Cephalotini: Smith, 1949c PDF: 19; Kempf, 1951 PDF: 105; all subsequent authors except the above.
Cephalotes as junior synonym of Cryptocerus: Fabricius, 1804 PDF: 419.
Genus Cephalotes references
Smith, 1853Smith, F. 1853 ("1854"). Monograph of the genus Cryptocerus, belonging to the group Cryptoceridae - family Myrmicidae - division Hymenoptera Heterogyna. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London (2)2:213-228. [1853-12-26] PDF 128678: 215 (diagnosis); Smith, 1858aSmith, F. 1858a. Catalogue of hymenopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. Formicidae. London: British Museum, 216 pp. [1858-03-27] PDF 128685: 187 (diagnosis); Roger, 1863bRoger, J. 1863b. Verzeichniss der Formiciden-Gattungen und Arten. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 7(Beilage):1-65. [1863-06] 128094: 38 (catalogue); Mayr, 1863aMayr, G. 1863a. Formicidarum index synonymicus. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 13:385-460. [1863] PDF 127213: 405 (catalogue); Mayr, 1865Mayr, G. 1865. Formicidae. In: Novara Expedition 1865. Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte "Novara" um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859. Zoologischer Theil. Bd. II. Abt. 1. Wien: K. Gerold's Sohn, 119 pp. [1865-12-14] PDF 127193: 25 (diagnosis); Dalla Torre, 1893Dalla Torre, K. W. 1893. Catalogus Hymenopterorum hucusque descriptorum systematicus et synonymicus. Vol. 7. Formicidae (Heterogyna). Leipzig: W. Engelmann, 289 pp. [1893] PDF 124002: 140 (catalogue); Santschi, 1920fSantschi, F. 1920f. Nouvelles fourmis du genre Cephalotes Latr. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 1920:147-149. [1920-07-20] PDF 128324: 149 (species key); Wheeler, 1922Wheeler, W. M. 1922. Ants of the American Museum Congo expedition. New York: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 1139. 133015: 665 (Cryptocerus subgenera, key); Emery, 1924fEmery, C. 1924f ("1922"). Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [concl.]. Genera Insectorum 174C:207-397. [1924-06-24] 124769: 303 (diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1924fEmery, C. 1924f ("1922"). Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [concl.]. Genera Insectorum 174C:207-397. [1924-06-24] 124769: 304 (Zacryptocerus diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1924fEmery, C. 1924f ("1922"). Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [concl.]. Genera Insectorum 174C:207-397. [1924-06-24] 124769: 305 (Cryptocerus diagnosis, subgenera key, catalogue); Emery, 1924fEmery, C. 1924f ("1922"). Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [concl.]. Genera Insectorum 174C:207-397. [1924-06-24] 124769: 306 (Cephalotes (Paracryptocerus) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1924fEmery, C. 1924f ("1922"). Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [concl.]. Genera Insectorum 174C:207-397. [1924-06-24] 124769: 308 (Cephalotes (Cryptocerus) diagnosis, catalogue); Emery, 1924fEmery, C. 1924f ("1922"). Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Myrmicinae. [concl.]. Genera Insectorum 174C:207-397. [1924-06-24] 124769: 311 (Cephalotes (Cyathocephalus) diagnosis, catalogue); Smith, 1947aSmith, M. R. 1947a. Ants of the genus Cryptocerus F., in the United States. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 49:29-40. [1947-01-15] PDF 128803: 29 (U.S.A. species key); Creighton, 1950aCreighton, W. S. 1950a. The ants of North America. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 104:1-585. [1950-04] PDF 123910: 296 (North America species key); Kempf, 1951Kempf, W. W. 1951. A taxonomic study on the ant tribe Cephalotini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Revista de Entomologia (Rio de Janeiro) 22:1-244. [1951-12-31] PDF 126296: 107 (diagnosis, revision, key); Kempf, 1951Kempf, W. W. 1951. A taxonomic study on the ant tribe Cephalotini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Revista de Entomologia (Rio de Janeiro) 22:1-244. [1951-12-31] PDF 126296: 127 (Eucryptocerus species revision, key); Kempf, 1951Kempf, W. W. 1951. A taxonomic study on the ant tribe Cephalotini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Revista de Entomologia (Rio de Janeiro) 22:1-244. [1951-12-31] PDF 126296: 134 (Zacryptocerus species revision, key); Kempf, 1951Kempf, W. W. 1951. A taxonomic study on the ant tribe Cephalotini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Revista de Entomologia (Rio de Janeiro) 22:1-244. [1951-12-31] PDF 126296: 143 (Hypocryptocerus species revision, key); Kempf, 1951Kempf, W. W. 1951. A taxonomic study on the ant tribe Cephalotini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Revista de Entomologia (Rio de Janeiro) 22:1-244. [1951-12-31] PDF 126296: 153 (Paracryptocerus species revision, key); Kempf, 1952Kempf, W. W. 1952. A synopsis of the pinelii-complex in the genus Paracryptocerus (Hym. Formicidae). Studia Entomologica 1:1-30. [1952-05-15] PDF 126297: 5 (Paracryptocerus pinellii complex revision, key); Kempf, 1958aKempf, W. W. 1958a. New studies of the ant tribe Cephalotini (Hym. Formicidae). Studia Entomologica (n.s.)1:1-168. [1958-01-31] 126305: 10 (Argentina Paracryptocerus species key); Kempf, 1958aKempf, W. W. 1958a. New studies of the ant tribe Cephalotini (Hym. Formicidae). Studia Entomologica (n.s.)1:1-168. [1958-01-31] 126305: 64 (Paracryptocerus subgenera, key); Kempf, 1958aKempf, W. W. 1958a. New studies of the ant tribe Cephalotini (Hym. Formicidae). Studia Entomologica (n.s.)1:1-168. [1958-01-31] 126305: 66 (Paracryptocerus (Harnedia) species revision, key); Kempf, 1958aKempf, W. W. 1958a. New studies of the ant tribe Cephalotini (Hym. Formicidae). Studia Entomologica (n.s.)1:1-168. [1958-01-31] 126305: 145 (Paracryptocerus (Cyathomyrmex) species revision, key); Kempf, 1960fKempf, W. W. 1960f. Miscellaneous studies on Neotropical ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Studia Entomologica (n.s.)3:417-466. [1960-12-20] 126323: 443 (addition to 1958 key); Snelling, 1968aSnelling, R. R. 1968a. Taxonomic notes on some Mexican cephalotine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Contributions in Science (Los Angeles) 132:1-10. [1968-02-20] PDF 128884: 9 (Cephalotes wheeleri complex, key); Kempf, 1972bKempf, W. W. 1972b. Catálogo abreviado das formigas da região Neotropical. Studia Entomologica 15:3-344. [1972-08-25] PDF 126357: 75, 107, 120, 175, 259 (Neotropical Cephalotes, Eucryptocerus, Hypocryptocerus, Paracryptocerus, Zacryptocerus catalogues); Kempf, 1974aKempf, W. W. 1974a. Taxonomic and faunistic notes on some Neotropical Cephalotini ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 18:67-76. [1974-08-15] PDF 126366: 73 (Paracryptocerus pinelii group, key); Smith, 1979Smith, D. R. 1979. Superfamily Formicoidea. Pp. 1323-1467 in: Krombein, K. V.; Hurd, P. D.; Smith, D. R.; Burks, B. D. (eds.) 1979. Catalog of Hymenoptera in America north of Mexico. Volume 2. Apocrita (Aculeata). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, pp. i-xvi, 1199-2209. [1979] 128659: 1402 (North America catalogue); Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990Hölldobler, B.; Wilson, E. O. 1990. The ants. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, xii + 732 pp. 122852: 13 (synoptic classification); Brandão, 1991Brandão, C. R. F. 1991. Adendos ao catálogo abreviado das formigas da região Neotropical (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 35:319-412. [1991-08-31] PDF 122994: 337, 343, 383 (catalogue); Bolton, 1994Bolton, B. 1994. Identification guide to the ant genera of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 222 pp. [1994-07-25] 122834: 105 (synoptic classification); Bolton, 1995aBolton, B. 1995a. A taxonomic and zoogeographical census of the extant ant taxa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Natural History 29:1037-1056. [1995-08] PDF 122859: 1048 (census); Bolton, 1995bBolton, B. 1995b. A new general catalogue of the ants of the world. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 504 pp. [1995-10] 122860: 140, 189, 424 (catalogue); De Andrade & Baroni Urbani, 1999De Andrade, M. L.; Baroni Urbani, C. 1999. Diversity and adaptation in the ant genus Cephalotes, past and present. Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde. Serie B (Geologie und Paläontologie) 271:1-889. [1999-05] 131021: 736 (diagnosis, all species revision, key); Price, Powell, Kronauer, Tran, Pierce & Wayne, 2014Price, S. L.; Powell, S.; Kronauer, D. J. C.; Tran, L. A. P.; Pierce, N. E.; Wayne, R. K. 2014. Renewed diversification is associated with new ecological opportunity in the Neotropical turtle ants. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 27:242-258. PDF 142557: 244 (phylogeny).

Taxon Page Images:



Cephalotes varians. A soldier ant blocks the nest entrance with her head- visible as a broad disk- while a second soldier walks by. Competition for limited nesting sites is fierce, and soldiers prevent other ant species from usurping their territory. Florida Keys, USA.
Image © Alex Wild.

Overview:

Cephalotes is a very distinctive genus of over 130 species immediately identifiable by the bimorphic or polymorphic worker caste, heavily armored cuticle, flattened head, deeply excavated antennal scrobes capable of receiving the entire antennae, large eyes situated at the apex of the antennal scrobe, and apedunculate petiole. The genus is restricted to the New World tropics and subtropics, with three species extending their range into the southern United States: C. varians (Florida), C. texanus (Texas), C. rowheri (southern Arizona). Cephalotes was revised by De Andrade & Baroni Urbani (1999), who proposed the ecological success of the genus is owed to the following traits: 1) frequent polyandry, 2) a diet based largely on a very abundant resource like pollen, 3) nesting in pre-existing plant cavities, 4) appearance (among most species) of a separate caste of soldiers devoted essentially to the defense of the nest, 5) a high frequency of spontaneous mutation, and 6) a morphology particularly suitable to passive defense.

Distribution:


Nearctic Region: Arizona, Florida, New Mexico, Texas
Neotropical Region: Argentina, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, United States Virgin Islands, Uruguay, Venezuela

References:

De Andrade, M.L. & Baroni Urbani, C. (1999) Diversity and adaptation in the ant genus Cephalotes, past and present. Stuttg. Beitr. Naturkd. Ser. B (Geol. Palaontol.), 271, 1-889.

Taxon Page Author History

On 2013-08-22 04:14:44 Zach Lieberman modified Images
On 2013-08-22 04:13:05 Zach Lieberman modified Images
On 2012-06-14 13:43:57 Eli Sarnat modified References
...

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

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