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Species: Tetramorium caespitum   (Linnaeus, 1758) 

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See Also:

Tetramorium caespitum_cf, Tetramorium caespitum_cf01, Tetramorium caespitum_cf_b, Tetramorium caespitum_cf_cr01, Tetramorium caespitum_cf_cr02, Tetramorium caespitum_cf_cr03, Tetramorium caespitum_cf_e, Tetramorium caespitum_cf_gr01, Tetramorium caespitum_cf_gr02, Tetramorium caespitum_cf_gr03, Tetramorium caespitum_cf_gr04, Tetramorium caespitum_cf_gr06, Tetramorium caespitum_cf_gr07, Tetramorium caespitum_cf_gr10, Tetramorium caespitum_cf_gr11, Tetramorium caespitum_cf_gr21, Tetramorium caespitum_cf_gr22, Tetramorium caespitum_cf_gr23, Tetramorium caespitum_cf_gr24, Tetramorium caespitum_cf_gr25, Tetramorium caespitum_cf_gr26, Tetramorium caespitum_cf_gr27, Tetramorium caespitum_cf_spd, Tetramorium caespitum_cf_spe, Tetramorium caespitum annauensis, Tetramorium caespitum barabense, Tetramorium caespitum biroi, Tetramorium caespitum brevinodis, Tetramorium caespitum caespitomoravicum, Tetramorium caespitum chinensis, Tetramorium caespitum coeleste, Tetramorium caespitum ernesti, Tetramorium caespitum flavidula, Tetramorium caespitum flavidulum, Tetramorium caespitum fortunatarum, Tetramorium caespitum fusciclava, Tetramorium caespitum fusciclavum, Tetramorium caespitum geei, Tetramorium caespitum haltrichi, Tetramorium caespitum hammi, Tetramorium caespitum himalayanum, Tetramorium caespitum immigrans, Tetramorium caespitum japonicum, Tetramorium caespitum juba, Tetramorium caespitum judas juba, Tetramorium caespitum ladismithensis, Tetramorium caespitum nitidiusculum, Tetramorium caespitum oxyomma, Tetramorium caespitum pallidum, Tetramorium caespitum palmense, Tetramorium caespitum penninum, Tetramorium caespitum picta, Tetramorium caespitum plana, Tetramorium caespitum pullum, Tetramorium caespitum punicum specularis, Tetramorium caespitum reticuliventre, Tetramorium caespitum romana, Tetramorium caespitum rufitarsis, Tetramorium caespitum sarkissiani, Tetramorium caespitum schultzei, Tetramorium caespitum semilaeve ernesti, Tetramorium caespitum semilaeve romana, Tetramorium caespitum striaticeps, Tetramorium caespitum striatis, Tetramorium caespitum szaboi, Tetramorium caespitum tenuicornis, Tetramorium caespitum tsushimae coeleste, Tetramorium caespitum tsushimaeum pullum, Tetramorium caespitum typicum

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2015)

6 subspecies

Formica caespitum Linnaeus, 1758 PDF: 581 (w.) EUROPE. Palearctic. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

Latreille, 1798: 50 (q.m.); Mayr, 1861 PDF: 62 (q.m.); Wheeler & Wheeler, 1954d PDF: 445 (l.); Hauschteck, 1961 PDF: 221 (k.); Imai, 1966b PDF: 119 (k.).
Combination Manica: Jurine, 1807: 279; in Tetramorium: Mayr, 1855 PDF: 426.
Senior synonym of Tetramorium fuscula: Smith, 1851 PDF: 118.
, Radchenko, 2007 PDF}: 31; of Tetramorium modesta Foerster: Curtis, 1854: 215; Mayr, 1855 PDF: 426; of Tetramorium fusca: Dalla Torre, 1893 PDF}: 132; of Tetramorium transversinodis: Brown, 1949a PDF}: 47; of Tetramorium immigrans: Bolton, 1979 PDF: 171; of Tetramorium himalayanum, Tetramorium indocile, Tetramorium transbaicalense: Radchenko, 1992b PDF: 50; of Tetramorium hammi: Bolton, 1995b: 405; of Tetramorium jiangxiense: Wu & Wang, 1995a: 82; of Tetramorium fusciclavum: Sanetra, Güsten & Schulz, 1999 PDF: 320.
See also: Emery, 1909f: 697; Bondroit, 1918 PDF: 107; Emery, 1925a PDF: 177; Baroni Urbani, 1971c PDF: 135; Kutter, 1977c: 157; Arnol'di & Dlussky, 1978: 544; Smith, 1979: 1400; Collingwood, 1979 PDF: 84; Cammaerts, Pasteels, et al. 1985: 109; Kupyanskaya, 1990a: 151; López, 1991a: 31; López, 1991b: 73; López, et al. 1992: 169; Radchenko, Czechowski & Czechowska, 1998: 108.


Holarctic, America to Japan, North Africa to North Europe including British Isles


Prefers grassland, especially steppe and rock steppe, also urban. Nests in soil, under rocks and in small loam hills.

Observation by J. Longino, 22 Mar 2012. This observation relates to whichever cryptic species of this complex inhabits Salt Lake City, Utah. The city has massive battles on the sidewalks. The first warm day of the season, above 15C, was on 15 Mar and I saw the first battle. Sometimes these battles seem to be a matter of grappling only, with very few casualties. But today was different. At 6:00pm I saw a mass of workers on the sidewalk. They were in a roughly circular patch over a sidewalk crack, a dense mass of grappling workers several ants deep, the circular mass around 20cm dia. A column of workers extended from the mass, about 1.5m long, through the grass at the side of the sidewalk to another crack. I returned at 7:30pm and found a triangular patch of more thinly spread workers, in an area of about 400 square cm. There was a low density of live workers, but most of the layer was dead workers, most of them dismembered. I counted the number of dead workers in a 2x2cm patch, got 60 workers, an estimated 6000 dead workers in the patch.



Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Scientific Name Status Publication Pages ModsID GoogleMaps
Tetramorium caespitum   Güsten, R., Schulz, A. & Sanetra, M., 2006, Redescription of Tetramorium forte Forel, 1904 (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae), a western Mediterranean ant species., Zootaxa 1310, pp. 1-35: 27, (download) 27 21095
Tetramorium caespitum   Forel, A., 1904, Note sur les fourmis du Musée Zoologique de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences à St. Pétersbourg., Yezhegodnik Zoologicheskogo Muzeya Imperatorskoi Akademii Nauk 8, pp. 368-388: 4, (download) 4 3994
Tetramorium caespitum   Bolton, B., 1979, The ant tribe Tetramoriini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The genus Tetramorium Mayr in the Malagasy region and in the New World., Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomology 38, pp. 129-181: 171, (download) 171 6435
Tetramorium caespitum   Güsten, R., Schulz, A. & Sanetra, M., 2006, Redescription of Tetramorium forte Forel, 1904 (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae), a western Mediterranean ant species., Zootaxa 1310, pp. 1-35: 28, (download) 28 21095
Tetramorium caespitum   Collingwood, C. A., 1979, The Formicidae (Hymenoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark., Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 8, pp. 1-174: 84-85, (download) 84-85 6175
Tetramorium caespitum   Mayr, G., 1862, Myrmecologische Studien., Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 12, pp. 649-776: 740, (download) 740 4445
Tetramorium caespitum   Emery, C., 1893, Voyage de M. Ch. Alluaud aux iles Canaries. Formicides., Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 62, pp. 81-88: 84, (download) 84 3764
Tetramorium caespitum   Güsten, R., Schulz, A. & Sanetra, M., 2006, Redescription of Tetramorium forte Forel, 1904 (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae), a western Mediterranean ant species., Zootaxa 1310, pp. 1-35: 29, (download) 29 21095
Tetramorium caespitum   Forel, A., 1890, Fourmis de Tunisie et de l'Algérie orientale., Annales de la Societe Entomologique de Belgique, Comptes-rendus des Seances 34, pp. 61-76: 75, (download) 75 3926
Tetramorium caespitum   Ward, P. S., 2005, A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 936, pp. 1-68: -1, (download) -1 21008
Tetramorium caespitum   Emery, C., 1884, Materiali per lo studio della fauna Tunisina raccolti da G. e L. Doria. III. Rassegna delle formiche della Tunisia., Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale Giacomo Doria (Genova) 21, pp. 373-386: 380, (download) 380 3743

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 0 times found in Unknown, 0 times found in heathlands, 0 times found in dry grassland, 0 times found in Anthropogenic, 0 times found in dunes & inland dunes, 0 times found in Forest, 0 times found in Rocks (rocky-calcareous grasslands), 0 times found in shrubs, 0 times found in Wet grassland, 9 times found in urban, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods or in the following microhabitats: 0 times Pitfall trap, 0 times Manual catch, 30 times search, 0 times Malaise trap, 13 times hand collecting, 0 times Color trap, 0 times light trap, 1 times Under rock, 0 times Grassy mound, 1 times mixed, 0 times In house, ...

Elevations: collected from 5 - 1870 meters, 644 meters average

Type specimens: Lectotype of Tetramorium caespitum immigrans: casent0913997; syntype of Tetramorium caespitum hammi: casent0901252; syntype of Tetramorium caespitum himalayanum: casent0913996; syntype of Tetramorium caespitum himalayanum: casent0904814

(-1 examples)

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