Kauai, Oahu, Maui and Hawaii
Introduced species (Martinez, 1996).
(Dutch vernacular name: indodikkop)
Worker. Length 2 lines. - Ferruginous: the flagellum, legs, metathorax, and nodes of the abdomen, pale rufo-testaceous.
Head very largely developed, oblong, narrowest in front, deeply emarginate behind; the lateral angles rounded, and with a central channel extending to the base of the clypeus; the head is covered with fine elevated carinae, between which are fine transverse reti- culations; the carinae are wide apart on the sides of the face, but much closer in the middle. The thorax finely roughened, with two short, erect, acute spines on the metathorax. Abdomen ovate; the extreme base pale rufo-testaceous.
This species closely resembles the Pheidole pusilla ; the small worker is not more than a line in length, very smooth and shining, pale rufo-testaceous, with the abdomen fuscous; the legs and antennae are more elongate than in the larger form, and the head is of ordinary size.
Eguchi, K., 2008:
Pheidole fervens F. Smith , 1858: 176. Ogata 1982: 197 (description of male), Eguchi 2001b: 53-55 (redescription of major & minor), Eguchi 2004: 197-198 (taxonomic remarks). Syntypes: 1 major & 2 minors, "SING 33" [Singapore], BMNH, examined.
Pheidole cavannae Emery , 1887: 464. Emery 1914: 401 (as subspecies of P. oceanica ), Wilson & Taylor 1967: 45 (junior synonym offervens). Syntype(s): major, New Caledonia, not examined.
Pheidole javana Mayr , 1867: 98. Wilson & Taylor 1967: 45 (junior synonym of fervens ), Eguchi 2004: 197 (lectotype designation). Lectotype: major: "Batavia" [Jakarta, Java], NHMW, examined; paralectotypes: 2 majors, same data as lectotype, NHMW, examined.
Pheidole (Pheidole) oceanica var. nigriscapa Santschi , 1928a: 48. Wilson & Taylor 1967: 45 (junior synonym of fervens ). Syntype: 1 minor, "SAMOAN IS. Apia. 3.iii.24. P.A.Buxton. 627.", NHMB, examined; syntype(?): 1 major, "Apia, Samoa oct 1911. (leg. H. Swole)", NHMB, examined.
Pheidole oceanica subsp. nigriscapa var. tahitiana Santschi , 1928b: 516 (unavailable name). Wilson & Taylor 1967: 45 (material referable to P. fervens ). Material referable to this form: minor, Tahiti, not examined.
Pheidole amia Forel , 1912a: 60-61. Bolton 1995: 316 (catalogue), Eguchi 2004: 197 (lectotype designation, junior synonym of fervens ). Lectotype: major, "Takao Formosa Sauter XI 7-0" [= Kaohsiung, Taiwan], MHNG, examined; paralectotypes: 3 minors, "Takao Formosa (Sauter) 26", MHNG, examined.
Pheidole javana var. desucta Wheeler , 1929a: 2. Eguchi 2001b: 53 (lectotype designation, junior synonym offervens). Lectotype: major, "Back Liang, China", MCZC co-type 20659, examined; paralectotypes: 1 major, 2 minors & 3 queens, same data as lectotype, MCZC co-type 20659, examined.
Pheidole javana var. dharmsalana Forel , 1902: 184, 198. Eguchi 2004: 198 (lectotype designation, junior synonym of fervens ). Lectotype: major, "Dharmsala" [India], MHNG, examined; paralectotypes: 2 minors, same data as lectotype, MHNG, examined.
Pheidole javana var. dolenda Forel , 1912a: 60. Eguchi 2004: 198 (lectotype designation, junior synonym of fervens ). Lectotype: major, "Akau, Formosa", MHNG, examined; paralectotypes: 1 major & 3 minors, same data as lectotype, MHNG, examined.
Pheidole javana var. soror Santschi , 1937b: 369. Eguchi 2004: 198 (lectotype designation, junior synonym offervens). Lectotype: major, "Hokuto Formose K. Sato 731" [= Taiwan], NHMB, examined; paralectotypes: 4 minors, same data as lectotype, NHMB, examined.
Pheidole nodus st. azumai Santschi , 1941: 274. Eguchi 2004: 198 (lectotype designation, junior synonym of fervens ). Lectotype: major, "Japon. Osaka Tennooji 26II39 M. Azuma." [= Tennooji, Osaka, Japan], NHMB, examined; paralectotypes: 2 minors, same data as holotype, NHMB, examined.
Solenopsis pungens F. Smith , 1861: 48-49. Donisthorpe 1932: 469 (combination in Pheidologeton ), Bolton1995: 328 (combination in Pheidole ), Eguchi 2004: 198 (lectotype designation, junior synonym of fervens ). Lectotype: major, "Menado" [= Menado Sulawesi, Indonesia], OXUM, examined; paralectotypes: 1 major, same data as lectotype, OXUM, examined; 1 minor, "Men. 18." [= Menado Sulawesi, Indonesia], OXUM, examined.
Type material of P. javana var. pectinata Stitz , 1912: 504 (type locality: Seram I., Indonesia) has not yet been examined by me, and its status is still unsettled in the present study.
Other material examined: Mainland Japan: Kagoshima: Toso, Kagoshima City [T. Akiyama's colony: 021105-1]. Ryukyus: Okinoerabu-jima I.: Azufu, [Litter shift-3 (A. Shimono)]; Iriomote-jima I. [K. Eguchi's colony 96-JPN-001, -003]. Taiwan: Nantou: Hori [S. Kubota's sample: 81-A-T16]; Kaohsiung: Meishankou [S. Kubota's sample: 80-E-K6]. S. China: Macau: Taipa I. [Eg99-MAC-01, -02], Hac-Sa, Coloane I. [K. Eguchi]; Hong Kong: Victoria Park, Hong Kong I. [K. Eguchi]. Vietnam: Thai Nguyen: My Yen Commune Forest (edge of secondary forest), 21°35'N, 105°36'E, Na Hau Village [Eg01-VN-143, -149, -150]; Ha Noi: urban area [T.V. Bui's colony: BTV04-HN-01, -14, -15, -16]. Thailand: Bangkok: Campus of Kasetsart Univ. [Eg01- TH-583, -584], Bang Khean Distr. (residential area) [TH03-SKY-103]; Chanthaburi: Yay-am Dist. [Eg01-TH- 66B]. E. Malaysia: Sabah: Tawau Hills Park [Eg96-BOR-009, -021]; Sarawak: Niah N.P. [Sk. Yamane]. Indonesia: W. Sumatra: Maninjau, [SNS col.], Sako, nr. Tapan [SNS col.], Sukarami, Padang [M. Kawamura's colony: 9/28a (1999)], Ulu Gadut, nr. Padang [SNS col.]; W. Java: Bogor [M. Kawamura's colony: 153 (1998)]; E. Java: Air Panas Cargar, 1600 m alt., Bumiaji, Batu [JV02/03-SKY-71, -72, -73, -75, -80], Sumberbrantas, 1600 m alt., Tulungrejo, Batu [F. Yamane]. Philippines: Palawan: Pupok, Napsan, in a cottage [H. Fukuda]. Tonga: Eua Is.: Eua Forest Res. [J. Wetterer]. Samoa: Apia [H. Swole, NHMB]. USA: California: Los Angeles[M.J. Martinez, MCZC].
Worker measurements & indices: Major (n=5). - HL 1.31-1.56 mm; HW 1.22-1.44 mm; CI 92-97; SL 0.84-0.95 mm; SI 66-70; FL 1.12-1.27 mm; FI 88-94.
Minor (n=5). - HL 0.65-0.73 mm; HW 0.54-0.60 mm; CI 81-84; SL 0.77-0.87 mm; SI 138-153; FL 0.81-0.93 mm; FI 149-163.
Major. - Head in lateral view not or hardly impressed on vertex; posterior concavity of head in full-face view usually shallow; frons and anterior part of vertex rugose longitudinally; posterior part of vertex and dorsal face of vertexal lobe rugoso-reticulate, with interspaces weakly punctured; frontal carina conspicuous; antennal scrobe inconspicuous or shallowly impressed; clypeus without a median longitudinal carina; median and submedian processes of hypostoma absent or present but inconspicuous; lateral processes conspicuous; antenna with a 3-segmented club; maximal diameter of eye almost as long as or shorter than antennal segment X. Promesonotal dome in dorsal view largely smooth, or sparsely sculptured with weak transverse rugulae, in lateral view with a low to conspicuous mound on its posterior slope; humerus not produced; the dome much narrower at the humeri than at the bottom; mesopleuron, metapleuron and lateral face of propodeum well punctured, sometimes overlain with weak rugulae; propodeal spine narrowly based, usually slightly curved apically. Petiole longer than postpetiole (excluding helcium); postpetiole not massive. First gastral tergite smooth and shining entirely, or sometimes shagreened around its articulation with postpetiole.
Minor. - Frons and vertex smooth and shining, or rarely shagreened or very weakly rugoso-punctate; area between antennal insertion and eye weakly rugoso-punctate; preoccipital carina conspicuous dorsally and laterally; median part of clypeus smooth, without a median longitudinal carina; antenna with a 3-segmented club; scape extending far beyond posterolateral margin of head; maximal diameter of eye much shorter than antennal segment X. Promesonotal dome largely smooth and shining, but sometimes weakly rugoso-punctate dorsolaterally, in lateral view with a low or inconspicuous mound on its gentle posterior slope; humerus of the dome in dorsal-oblique view not produced; mesopleuron, metapleuron and lateral face of propodeum well punctured; propodeal spine elongate-triangular, directing upward. Petiole (a little) longer than postpetiole (excluding helcium); postpetiole not massive.
Recognition: This medium-sized species with general habitus is similar to Pheidole binghamii Forel , P. elongicephalasp.n. , P. indica Mayr , P. ochraceasp.n. and P. plagiaria F. Smith among Indo-Chinese species. P. fervens is well separated from P. indica which has the following characteristics: eye relatively large (maximal diameter of eye much longer than antennal segment X in the major, and as long as or a little longer than X in the minor); in the major propodeal spine is relatively broadly based (see Eguchi 2004).
Posterior margin of head in full-face view is more deeply and narrowly concave in the major of P. binghamii , P. elongicephala and P. ochracea than in that of P. fervens , and sculpture on dorsum of vertexal lobe is usually stronger in the major of the former three.
The major of P fervens is separated from that of P. plagiaria which has the following characteristics: posterior margin of head in full-face view deeply concave; the rugulae running almost transversely along posterior margin of vertexal lobe.
Distribution & bionomics: Known from N. Vietnam, Manchurian subregion (southern part only), Oriental region, Austro-Malayan subregion, W. Pacific and West coast of N. America. In the Indo-Malayan subregion this species is one of the prevailing Pheidole species in semiurban and rural areas.
Ward, P. S., 2005:
I [introduced species]