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Species: Pachycondyla stigma

Classification:
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Distribution:

USA (Florida) to northern Argentina, widespread in Caribbean, oceanic islands throughout the tropics, New Guinea, Indonesia. Costa Rica: common in wet lowland habitats, including mangroves, usually in open or disturbed areas.

Biology:

Natural History:

Pachycondyla stigma is well-known as a tramp species found throughout the world in the tropics. It is very widespread, and is able to colonize remote oceanic islands. It is extremely generalized with respect to nesting sites and habitats. I have collected it in mangrove swamps, banana plantations, and mature rainforest. It usually nests in dead wood or under loose bark. Nests may occur at ground level, in the low arboreal zone, or in the canopy. Colonies are small and inconspicuous.

This nest observation is from Corcovado National Park: In canopy of tall Licania (Chrysobalanaceae) tree. Nesting in rotten wood protruding from a knothole. The material was humus-like, covered with moss. The nest was in the form of small, inter-connected chambers, each about the size and shape of half a peanut shell, containing 5-10 larvae of varying sizes, some with 3-4 pupae.

References:

Fabricius, J. C. 1804. Systema Piezatorum secundum ordines, genera, species, adjectis synonymis, locis, observationibus, descriptionibus. Brunswick: C. Reichard, xiv + 15-439 + 30pp. Ants - p. 395-428.

Roger, J. 1863. Die neu aufgefuehrten Gattungen und Arten meines Formiciden-Verzeichnisses nebst Erganzung einiger frueher gegebenen Beschreibungen. Berl. Entomol. Z. 7:131-214.

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 2 times found in epiphytic root mat, 2 times found in floor litter, 1 times found in u. bark in cacao plantation, 1 times found in log & leaf mold, 1 times found in banana stump hole mold, 1 times found in log-bark & root mat, 1 times found in basal treehole, 1 times found in mold litter, 1 times found in cloud forest litter, 1 times found in palm stump, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods or in the following microhabitats: 21 times Berlese, 4 times Berlese, leaf litter, 1 times under corticals, 1 times Berlese, fibrous center of decayed palm log, 1 times Berlese, rotted logs, 88 lb, 81 liters, 1 times Berlese, streambed litter, 1 times debris on dirt road, 1 times flight intercept trap, 1 times from termite nest T-2320, 0 times nest T-6071, 1 times under bark of fermenting log, ...

Elevations: collected from 30 - 1219 meters, 410 meters average

Type specimens:

(-1 examples)



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