Welcome to the new AntWeb!

We here at AntWeb have been busy working on our newest (and most ambitious) version of the site - and there are lots of great new things! Which means there are lots of changes (don't worry, they're all for the best).

And we've put together a handy little guide to show you all the new features and enhancements - why don't you have a quick look to check out all the new features and enhancements?

No thanks
Current View: Global: All Antweb
Change View
Cite this page

Citing AntWeb

X

To cite this page, please use the following:

· For print: . Accessed

· For web:

Species: Oecophylla longinoda

Classification:
Download Data

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2014)

See Also:

Oecophylla longinoda annectens, Oecophylla longinoda claridens, Oecophylla longinoda fusca, Oecophylla longinoda rubriceps, Oecophylla longinoda rufescens, Oecophylla longinoda taeniata, Oecophylla longinoda textor

Distribution:

Reference for Kenya if not type: Santschi 1914b

Notes:

Caste of types: (w)

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Santschi, F., 1928:
[[ worker ]]. - D'un roux ferrugineux legerement plus fonce que le type; le gastre un peu plus brunatre. Differe surtout du type par ses mandibules d'un jaune roussatre beaucoup plus clair que la tete et comme les appendices y compris le scape qui est concolore.
[[ queen ]]. - - Taille de la [[ queen ]] type dont elle differe par la couleur d'un vert plus tendre, comme chez smaragdina , tandis que chez longinoda le vert est plus sombre, surtout sur le gastre. Chez claridens le bord des segments n'est pas obscurci mais plutot un peu roussatre. Le milieu de l'epistome, l'aire centrale et les angles posterieurs de la tete, trois bandes bordant les sillons du mesonotum, sutures thoraciques pedicule du petiole et appendices d'un jaune roussatre plus clair que chez le type. Aile longue de 15 mm.
Cote d'Ivoire: Grand Bassam (Lohier leg.).
[[ worker ]]. - Differe du type en ce qu'elle est un peu plus foncee, roux brunatre ou brun roussatre ou meme brunatre. Elle differe alors de fusca Em. par ses mandibules brunes et non noires, de annectens par son scape concolore avec le bout seul plus clair tandis qu'il a sa partie renflee plus ou moins rembrunie chez annectens . Fait transition entre cette variete et le type.
[[ queen ]]. - Aussi grande que annectens mais plus roussatre. La base des mandibules nullement rembrunie et les scapes obscurcis seulement dans leur moitie ou leurs deux tiers basais. Differe de textor Sants.
par ses segments du gastre bordes de brunatre (tout l'insecte est roussatre chez textor ). Longue de ii a- 12 mm. Gastre large de 5 mm. Ailes anterieures longues de 17 mm. Petiole large, les angles accuses.
Congo francais: Brazzaville (A. Weiss) [[ worker ]] [[ queen ]] types. - Cameroun: Molundu. - Congo Belge: Dungu (Hutereau); - Yambata (DiGiORGi).
Cette espece a ete trouvee avec une [[ queen ]] de Crematogaster (Nematocrema) stadelmanni Mayr dont le mimetisme est assez marque, Est-il fortuit ou l'effet d'une relation biologique?

Wheeler, W. M., 1922:
Plate XX, Figures 1 and 2; Text Figures 58 and 59
Faradje, [[worker]], [[queen]], [[male]]; Malela, [[worker]]; San Antonio, [[worker]] (Lang and Chapin); Katala, [[worker]]; Leopoldville, [[worker]] (J.Bequaert).
The following differences between this species and smaragdina may be noted. In the worker the polymorphism is greater, for not only do the individuals of the same colony show a greater range in size (from 3 to 9 mm.) but the minimae differ more from the mediae and maximae in the shape of the thorax and petiole. The head of the worker longinoda is distinctly more triangular than that of smaragdina , being broader behind, with less convex sides; the eyes are distinctly larger, the mandibles shorter, the clypeus more nearly subcarinate behind, its anterior border sometimes feebly and sinuately emarginate in the middle, the pronotum less convex, the petiole decidedly stouter, more thickened behind, with the stigmata much less prominent when the segment is viewed from above and its ventral surface much more convex anteriorly on the ventral side, when viewed in profile. The sculpture, pilosity, and color are very similar in the two species, but in longinoda the integument is more decidedly opaque, the mandibles are somewhat more coarsely striated, always darker, being concolorous with the posterior portion of the head, at least in the large workers and especially in the dark varieties. The transverse furrow on the second and succeeding gastric segments just behind the anterior border is more pronounced in longinoda .
The female of this species measures 12 to 14 mm. (wings 16 mm.) and is, therefore, distinctly smaller than the corresponding sex of smaragdina , which measures 15 to 17 mm. (wings 18 to 19 mm.). The body of the African species is much more opaque throughout, the wing-veins more the typical form of the species. I am unable to say, therefore, whether Oe. smaragdina , actually occurs on the African continent.
According to Emery, longinoda is the most primitive of the existing forms of Oecophylla , because most closely allied to Oe. sicula , which he described from the Miocene amber of Sicily. In the Baltic amber I have recognized two species of the genus, Oe. brischkei Mayr and brevinodis Wheeler . As the latter name is preoccupied by brevinodis Andre , which was based, as I have shown, on the minima worker of longinoda , I suggest that the fossil species be called crassinoda (new name). In the shape of the petiole both of the Baltic amber forms, being of Lower Oligocene age and therefore older than sicula , are also more like longinoda , and especially its smaller workers, than the Oriental smaragdina .
Plate XX, Figures 1 and 2; Text Figures 58 and 59
Faradje, [[worker]], [[queen]], [[male]]; Malela, [[worker]]; San Antonio, [[worker]] (Lang and Chapin); Katala, [[worker]]; Leopoldville, [[worker]] (J.Bequaert).
The following differences between this species and smaragdina may be noted. In the worker the polymorphism is greater, for not only do the individuals of the same colony show a greater range in size (from 3 to 9 mm.) but the minimae differ more from the mediae and maximae in the shape of the thorax and petiole. The head of the worker longinoda is distinctly more triangular than that of smaragdina , being broader behind, with less convex sides; the eyes are distinctly larger, the mandibles shorter, the clypeus more nearly subcarinate behind, its anterior border sometimes feebly and sinuately emarginate in the middle, the pronotum less convex, the petiole decidedly stouter, more thickened behind, with the stigmata much less prominent when the segment is viewed from above and its ventral surface much more convex anteriorly on the ventral side, when viewed in profile. The sculpture, pilosity, and color are very similar in the two species, but in longinoda the integument is more decidedly opaque, the mandibles are somewhat more coarsely striated, always darker, being concolorous with the posterior portion of the head, at least in the large workers and especially in the dark varieties. The transverse furrow on the second and succeeding gastric segments just behind the anterior border is more pronounced in longinoda .
The female of this species measures 12 to 14 mm. (wings 16 mm.) and is, therefore, distinctly smaller than the corresponding sex of smaragdina , which measures 15 to 17 mm. (wings 18 to 19 mm.). The body of the African species is much more opaque throughout, the wing-veins more heavily bordered with dark brown, and the transverse bands at the bases of the second and following gastric segments are broader, darker, and more sharply marked off from the remainder of the segments. The green portions of the typical longinoda female are slightly more olivaceous and less pea-green, and the basal bands of the gaster are more exposed and brownish; the appendages are more brownish.
The male longinoda is scarcely smaller than that of smaragdina , and measures 6 to 6.5 mm., but the head, thorax, and petiole are darker and more blackish; the head is decidedly broader, especially behind, the mandibles, petiole, antennal scapes, and wings are decidedly shorter and the integument is less shining.
Fig. 58. Oecophylla longinoda (Latreille) , a, body of worker major in profile; b, head of same: c, body of worker minima in profile; d, head of same.
The workers of the various subspecies and varieties of the two species may be separated by means of the following key.
1. Petiole very slender, its stigmata seen from above very prominent, its ventral surface nearly straight or very feebly convex in profile ( smaragdina )....2.
Petiole stouter and higher, its stigmata seen from above not prominent, its ventral surface strongly convex in profile ( longinoda )..................7.
2. Body ferruginous or testaceous.........................................3.
Gaster and sometimes the head pea-green, head more rounded and less truncated behind; size smaller, petiole somewhat shorter (Queensland, New Guinea, Islands Aru and Key).................subspecies virescens (Fabricius) .
3. Integument opaque or subopaque.......................................4.
Integument more or less distinctly shining..............................5.
4. Color ferruginous (India, Ceylon, Cochin China, Indonesia). smaragdina (typical).
Smaller and more testaceous, mesonotum and petiole a little narrower (Java). variety gracilior Forel.
5. Large forms, integument slightly shining (Papua, Philippines, Melanesia). subspecies subnitida Emery. Smaller forms, integument more shining................................6.
6. Body very shining and slender, color testaceous, head rather elongate (Island of Batjan)..................................... variety gracillima Emery.
Less shining and less slender, head shorter (Celebes). variety selebensis Emery.
7. Ferruginous or testaceous throughout...................................8.
Brown or black........................................................9.
8. Color ferruginous (West Africa)........................ longinoda (typical).
Color paler, more testaceous, petiole shorter, head slightly broader, apical tooth
of mandibles shorter (Zanzibar)............... variety textor (Santschi). 9. At least the thorax and mandibles black................................10.
Body rather uniformly brown (Belgian Congo). variety annectens , new variety .
10. Head dull red, gaster often brownish (Belgian Congo).. variety rubriceps (Forel).
Head and gaster black or dark brown (Belgian Congo, Nigeria, Liberia, Cameroon, Spanish Guinea)................... variety fusca (Emery).
Oe. fusca was originally described by Emery as an independent species, but Forel reduced it to subspecific rank on finding the variety rubriceps , which shows some color variation in the direction of the typical longinoda . The discovery of another variety, annectens described below, connecting rubriceps and longinoda is additional evidence that fusca cannot be maintained as a species. In my opinion it is merely an extreme melanic variety, for I am unable to detect in it any morphological characters of even subspecific value. All of the varieties of longinoda are equally polymorphic in the worker caste and the smallest individuals all agree with the description of Andre's brevinodis , except in color.
The ethological observations of Chun1 and Father Kohl2 refer to this species.
Mr. Lang's photographs reproduced on Pl. XX, figs. 1 and 2, show two of the nests of the typical longinoda from Malela, consisting of the leaflets of a bush skillfully folded and united with the white silk spun by the young larvae. He found that the nests of longinoda and its varieties are most often constructed on bushes and are sometimes only a few feet from the ground. Text Fig. 59 shows a nest of this ant placed in a coffee tree at Avakubi. The habits seem to be the same in all essential particulars as those of smaragdina .
Worker very similar to the typical form but brown instead of ferruginous, the gaster sometimes slightly darker than the remainder of the body. Mandibles, except in the small workers, darker brown than the front, cheeks, and clypeus. Incrassated tips of antennal scapes with a dark brown spot; funiculi, knees, tarsi, and tips of tibiae pale yellow; pulvilli black.
Female brown, instead of green and brown like the typical longinoda , with darker brown markings on the thorax. Second and following gastric segments with the basal bands velvety black, so that the gaster is distinctly fasciate. Funiculi, tips of scapes, tibiae, tarsi, and vertex paler, more reddish brown. Wings slightly darker than in the typical form, with deeper brown margins to the veins.
Male darker brown than the worker. Mandibles, antennae, tarsi, and articulations of legs brownish yellow; last tarsal joint black. Wings distinctly paler than in the female.
Described from long series of specimens from the following places: Avakubi (type locality), [[worker]], [[queen]], [[male]]; Stanleyville, [[worker]]; Niangara, [[worker]] (Lang and Chapin); Malela, [[worker]] (J. Bequaert).
Worker black or dark brown, the head dull, blood red, often darker laterally and posteriorly, tips of antennal funiculi and second to fourth tarsal joints pale brownish yellow. Gaster in specimens from some colonies brown, the posterior margins of the segments paler.
Female dark brown, almost black, the gaster very little paler, the bands at the bases of the segments velvety black; tarsi and tips of funiculi pale brown. Wings even darker than in the variety annectens .
Male black; mandibles, legs, and funiculi piceous; wings paler than in the female but darker than in the male annectens .
Described from many specimens from two colonies taken at Stanleyville(Lang and Chapin). The workers of one colony agree closely with Forel's description of the types from the Belgian Congo in having the gaster nearly or quite concolorous with the thorax, and some of the larger specimens are scarcely distinguishable from the variety fusca ; the workers of the other colony have the gaster rather pale brown and, therefore, connect the variety with annectens , which seems to be a more stable form than rubriceps .
Worker differing from rubriceps only in having the head entirely black or dark brown, though sometimes with a reddish tinge above. Mandibles black, with dark brown teeth. Large workers have the clypeal border very feebly sinuate in the middle and the surface just behind it with a faint longitudinal impression. The smallest workers are a little paler, with paler mandibles, but in the structure of the thorax and petiole precisely like the corresponding phase of the other forms of the species.
Female like that of rubriceps , but perhaps a shade darker.
Male indistinguishable from the male of rubriceps , except that the erect white hairs on the dorsal surface of the head, thorax, and gaster are distinctly longer and more abundant.
Redescribed from specimens taken at Stanleyville and Garamba (Lang and Chapin). There is also a worker of this variety from Monrovia, Liberia, (J. Morris) in my collection.

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 1 times found in mature palm forest, 1 times found in coastal evergreen forest, 2 times found in primary forest, 2 times found in Rainforest, 1 times found in coastal lowland rainforest, 1 times found in montane rainforest, 1 times found in rainforest canopy

Collected most commonly using these methods or in the following microhabitats: 1 times search, 2 times pitfall trap, 1 times Sweep

Elevations: collected from 10 - 1300 meters, 490 meters average

Type specimens: syntype of Oecophylla brevinodis: casent0913754

(-1 examples)



See something amiss? Send us an email.
Enlarge Map