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Species: Formica pallidefulva   Latreille, 1802 

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Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2017)

Formica pallidefulva Latreille, 1802a: 174 (w.) U.S.A. Nearctic. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

Mayr, 1866b PDF: 889 (q.); Emery, 1893k PDF: 657 (m.).
Combination in Formica (Neoformica): Wheeler, 1913a PDF: 82.
See also: Wheeler, 1913i PDF: 548.


Nearctic Region: Alabama, Arkansas, Canada, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North America, North Carolina, Ohio, Ontario, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, United States, Utah, Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming
Neotropical Region: Americas

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Treatment Citation: Trager, J. C., MacGown, J. A. & Trager, M. D., 2007, Revision of the Nearctic endemic Formica pallidefulva group., Advances in ant systematics (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): Homage to E. O. Wilson - 50 years of contributions. (Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 80), pp. 610-636

Formica pallidefulva LatreilleHNS

Figures 4 a, 5 a, 6 a

FormicaHNS pallide-fulva Latreille, 1802 [Types not seen, supposedly type-compared material in MCZ examined]

Formica schaufussi MayrHNS, 1886 [Lectotype designated, labelled N. Amer. / Schauf. " (NHWC)] Syn. nov.

Formica pallidefulva subsp. nitidiventris EmeryHNS, 1893 [Type examined.]310 B Wokland (?). D. C. with Polyergus lucidusHNS. Paratype. Formica nitidiventris A. F.HNS 1968] Syn. nov.

Formica pallidefulva subsp. fuscata EmeryHNS, 1893. [Lectotype examined.]Beatty PA. No. 314.

LECTOTYPE Formica pallidefulva fuscataHNS A. F. 1968. Synonymy, under nitidiventrisHNS, by Creighton, 1950: 551.

Formica pallidefulva var. succinea WheelerHNS, W. M. 1904 [Syntypes examined] Four workers on one pin, Bee Creek. Travis Co. TEX. XI. 9.02 M. C. Z. Type 5 - 8 8844 var. succineaHNS Wheeler. Synonymy by Creighton, 1950: 550.

Formica (Neoformica) pallidefulvaHNS: Wheeler, W. M., 1913 b [Vouchers examined] (MCZ)

Formica (Neoformica) pallidefulva subsp. delicata ColeHNS, 1938 [Syntypes examined] 24 workers on 8 pins. Ten Sleep WY 9 / 31 A. C. Cole. Synonymy, under nitidiventrisHNS, by Creighton, 1950: 551.

Formica (Neoformica) pallidefulvaHNS: Creighton, 1950, in part [Vouchers examined] (MCZ, LACM)

Formica (Neoformica) pallidefulva subsp. nitidiventrisHNS: Creighton, 1950, in part [Vouchers examined] (MCZ, LACM)


Worker Includes conventional reddish or brownish yellow F. pallidefulvaHNS, as well as darker populations known as F. p. nitidiventrisHNS and its synonyms F. p. fuscataHNS and F. p. delicataHNS. This is the shiniest FormicaHNS of this group (though smaller workers of F. biophilicaHNS and some series of F. incertaHNS are also quite shiny). The mesosoma often lacks either appressed pubescence or erect pilosity, or has relatively few, short, erect macrochaetae (Fig. 6 a). Pubescence, even on gaster, short and sparse (Fig. 4 a). Sculpture faint to nearly smooth, best developed (to the point of slightly weakening the sheen) in the northeastern part of the range, where the form fuscataHNS occurs. The gaster appears more voluminous than in other members of the group, and is quite shiny, as reflected in the name nitidiventrisHNS. Color is highly variable, generally uniform dark brown in Canada and New England, the Black Hills and western mountain areas, and concolorous coppery yellow or weakly bicolored (gaster a little browner) in the deep South. Various intermediate conditions occur in a broad band of territory from southern Missouri and northern Arkansas, across the upper South to the foothills of the southern Appalachians in Georgia and the Carolinas, and occasionally elsewhere. The transition area between typical pallidefulvaHNS and typical nitidiventrisHNS is a 300 - mile wide band straddling the Mason-Dixon Line. In it, one may occasionally find single-queen colonies containing nearly the full range of color variation. The extreme color forms are weakly distinguished morphometrically, with far northern populations having slightly shorter scapes, but the variation is clinal through the zone of transition (mean SI = 143.08 in the South, 140.94 in transition zone, 139.68 in the North).

Queen Color, gastral pubescence and shininess like the workers, with the usual differences in size. Sculpture very faint; pubescence short and sparse; pilosity sparse; wings, when present, clear to amber. Mesoscutum lacking the three dark spots characteristic of incertaHNS queens, or these weakly distinct.

Male Pubescence sparse; surface more shining than other species; rarely concolorous dark brown (in those colonies with the most uniformly dark workers), most commonly in north and Rocky Mountains and clinal transition zone with head and gaster blackish and mesosoma a little lighter to clear yellowish brown; in south and Great Plains, concolorous honey-red or with only the head notably darker; wings clear to amber-colored.


Most, if not all records of pallidefulvaHNS within the northern part of its range, where the color form nitidiventrisHNS occurs, are usually F. biophilicaHNS or occasionally are lighter color morphs of F. incertaHNS. The short, sparse, gastral pubescence, lack or sparseness of pilosity on the mesosomal dorsum, and the short, straight and flattened gastral pilosity of F. pallidefulvaHNS is distinctive for this species in any of its color variants. The difference in SI strongly discriminates this species from F. incertaHNS (Table 1). The setal characteristics, the shininess and globulous gaster of this species were expressly mentioned by Latreille (1802) in his original Latin description. Among the species in the group, F. pallidefulvaHNS is the only one to frequently lack detectable macrochaetae on the pronotum (34 of 57 specimens) and propodeum (33 of 57 specimens). When mesosomal dorsal pilosity is present in F. pallidefulvaHNS, the macrochaetae average shorter than in other species and are usually most numerous on the mesonotum rather than on the pronotum or on the propodeum (Table 1). Bright-colored southern F. pallidefulvaHNS may be distinguished from less pilose nanitic and small workers of F. biophilicaHNS by the nearly perfectly rounded propodeum and straight, flattened gastral macrochaetae of F. pallidefulvaHNS (versus often faintly right-angular propodeum and narrowly curviconical gastral macrochaetae in F. biophilicaHNS).


This name was coined by Latreille from the Latin adjectives pallidus plus fulvus meaning pale reddish yellow. This neatly describes the southern, lighter colored variants of this species. Northeastern, Midwestern and western mountain populations of this species are predominantly of darker, black-coffee-brown coloration, but even in these locations many individuals and colonies are bicolored and some may have coloring closer to that of southern populations.


Abundant and certainly the most widely distributed species of the group, F. pallidefulvaHNS occurs farther north, west and south than others in the group, except that F. archboldiHNS perhaps extends farther south in Florida. F. pallidefulvaHNS occurs throughout the eastern United States and southeastern Canada, then west across the US Great Plains to the lower-elevation Rocky Mountains from Wyoming to New Mexico. F. pallidefulvaHNS also has considerable habitat latitude. This ant lives in a variety of native and anthropogenic plant communities and soil types, including dry-mesic to mesic grasslands, woodlands and forests, thickets, lawns, campuses and parks. It is most abundant in mesic, wooded or partially wooded areas, from city parks to closedcanopy forests. In the lower rainfall areas of the Great Plains, it is uncommon and probably restricted to riparian woodlands (Milford, 1999). In the Rocky Mountains, it occurs at lower elevations in meadows, mixed mesophytic forests and in parks and suburbs. F. pallidefulvaHNS does not occur in bogs, wet meadows or fens, where it is replaced, in the South by F. biophilicaHNS and in the North by other FormicaHNS species outside the pallidefulva-group such as F. montanaHNS, F. glacialisHNS Wheeler, and others.


(CANADA) ONTARIO: Lambton; Lowick; QUEBEC: Chateauguay. (UNITED STATES) ALABAMA: Baldwin; Bibb; DeKalb; Lawrence; Morgan; Tuscaloosa; ARKANSAS: Logan; Washington; COLORADO: Boulder; DELAWARE: Kent; FLORIDA: Alachua; Brevard; Clay; Highlands; Liberty; GEORGIA: Clarke; Floyd; ILLINOIS: Tazewell; IOWA: Emmet; Johnson; Winneshiek; KANSAS: Douglas; Reno; Wallace; KENTUCKY: Nelson; MARYLAND: Allegany; Anne Arundel; Kent; Prince Georges; MASSACHUSETTS: Barnstable; MICHIGAN: Calhoun; Livingston; MISSISSIPPI: Alcorn; Chickasaw; Itawamba; Lafayette; Lee; Lowndes; Oktibbeha; Panola; Pontotoc; Tishomingo; Webster; Winston; MISSOURI: Audrain; Franklin; Johnson; Lincoln; Ste. Genevieve; St. Louis; NEBRASKA: Hall; Dawson; NEW MEXICO: Colfax; Otero; Rio Arriba; Union; NEW YORK: Orange; Suffolk; NORTH CAROLINA: Yancey; OHIO: Franklin; Sandusky; OKLAHOMA: Latimer; PENNSYLVANIA: Alegheny; Indiana; SOUTH CAROLINA: Anderson; Charleston; SOUTH DAKOTA: Jones; Pennington; TEXAS: Bastrop; Cass; Culberson; Hemphill; VIRGINIA: Montgomery; WYOMING: Crook; Washakie.


Nests of F. pallidefulvaHNS may be located in bare soil of grassland and forest footpaths, beneath leaf litter, under small diameter (<10 cm) fallen tree limbs, or under bark of a decomposing stump. Less often the nest occupies a larger, punky, rotten log, especially during late spring when the sexual brood is being reared. F. pallidefulvaHNS is the only species in this group which normally inhabits closed-canopy mesic forests and which commonly nests in rotting wood. In non-wooded settings F. pallidefulvaHNS may build a small mound nestled in or beside a grass clump.

In the northern and Rocky Mountain parts of its range, at least, the dark brown form of F. pallidefulvaHNS is the host to the slavemaker Polyergus lucidus montivagusHNS Wheeler. We have seen F. pallidefulvaHNS with this slavemaker in colonies from Long Island, southern Ontario, central Illinois, northern Missouri and Rocky Mountain foothill locales in Colorado and New Mexico. We have seen specimens that look like this PolyergusHNS in the South (northern Mississippi) and we suspect it uses the reddish, southern form of F. pallidefulvaHNS there, but have not yet been able to confirm this with a nest collection. Formica creightoniHNS raids this ant in northern Missouri oak woodlands, where its usual F. neogagatesHNS group hosts are lacking. F. pallidefulvaHNS is the most frequent of the many hosts of F. pergandeiHNS in Midwest woodlands and savannas.

In the lawns and gardens of the St. Louis, Missouri, area, F. pallidefulvaHNS is among the native ants most sensitive to subterranean invasion and extermination by the introduced and rapidly spreading invasive ant Tetramorium tsushimaeHNS (Steiner et al., 2006). However, throughout much of the Southeast, F. pallidefulvaHNS often manages to coexist with low-density Solenopsis invicta BurenHNS, Solenopsis richteri ForelHNS, and Solenopsis richteriHNS invictaHNS populations.

Occasionally, workers and sexuals become covered with a mite (Oplitis sp.?) that reduces their energy level and may cause the demise of the colony. In eastern Missouri, F. pallidefulvaHNS colonies are commonly raided by the slavemaker / ant-predator F. rubicunda EmeryHNS, which uses F. pallidefulvaHNS as prey only ( F. rubicundaHNS enslaves only F. subsericeaHNS). When nesting in rotting wood, F. pallidefulvaHNS colonies may sometimes be pillaged by pileated woodpeckers. F. pallidefulvaHNS often gathers honeydew beneath hemipteran-infested plants or from their leaf surfaces, but they have not often been observed to gather honeydew directly from the hemipterans. Furthermore, F. pallidefulvaHNS makes little effort to defend hemipterans, in contrast to F. incertaHNS and F. archboldiHNS, which often tend and defend them.

Sexuals are present in the nests as early as April in Florida, but not until July in New England and Canada. Males were observed to gather around the nest entrance around sunset in Florida, and males are often lured to lights (but winged females are not) throughout the range. In Missouri, J. Trager observed males, followed by females, flying from the nest, one by one, shortly after sunrise. Despite rather frequent capture of males at lights after dusk, the actual mating flight period is in the morning. In eastern Missouri, J. Trager has over the years caught numerous recently mated females walking about in late morning or early afternoon. Dates of these captures occur from 26 June into early July.

Unlike other species of this group, worker pupae most often lack cocoons in F. pallidefulvaHNS. Wheeler (1904) first noted this contrast between F. pallidefulvaHNS and F. incertaHNS in Connecticut, and it was also later noted by Talbot (1948) in Michigan. This difference holds true in numerous colonies of the two species sampled in Missouri by J. Trager. In some colonies of F. pallidefulvaHNS, male pupae may also lack cocoons, but queen pupae nearly always are enclosed in cocoons.

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 0 times found in Black oak dunes, 2 times found in mixed hardwood forest, 1 times found in Oak woodland, 0 times found in Meadow, 0 times found in Mixed deciduous forest, 0 times found in Pasture, 0 times found in Pinyon-cedar-oak-woodland, 1 times found in grass, sage, bare soil, 0 times found in Ponderosa pine-oak forest, 1 times found in in recently burned sandhill, red hill, ...

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 1 times stray foragers on trail, 1 times nest, 1 times stray foragers on large rock, 1 times hardwood trees, 1 times under stone.

Collected most commonly using these methods: 1 times under rock, 0 times Under wood, 2 times Search, 0 times malaise trap, 2 times hand collecting, 0 times under log, 0 times under stone, 0 times log stage 3, 0 times log stage 4, 0 times under dung, 0 times log stage 5, ...

Elevations: collected from 135 - 2377 meters, 1480 meters average

Type specimens: Lectotype of Formica schaufussi: casent0915638; Lectotype of Formica pallidefulva fuscata: casent0905709; paratype of Formica pallidefulva succinea: casent0905707; type of Formica schaufussi: focol2743, focol2744

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