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|Junior synonym of Formica rufa: Nylander, 1856b PDF: 60; Emery & Forel, 1879: 450; Wheeler, 1913i PDF: 425; Emery, 1925d PDF: 253; Stitz, 1939: 328.|
|Revived from synonymy and status as species: Yarrow, 1955a PDF: 5; Betrem, 1960b: 77; Dlussky, 1967a PDF: 91; Dlussky & Pisarski, 1971 PDF: 180; Baroni Urbani, 1971c PDF: 218; Kutter, 1977c: 271; Gösswald, 1989: 19; Kupyanskaya, 1990a: 198; Atanassov & Dlussky, 1992: 274.|
|Senior synonym of Formica congerens: Yarrow, 1955a PDF: 5; Dlussky, 1967a PDF: 91; Radchenko, 2007 PDF: 36; of Formica nylanderi, Formica santschii: Yarrow, 1955a PDF: 5; of Formica montana Sadil, [no year]: Samsinák, 1964 PDF: 157; of Formica unicolor: Dlussky, 1967a PDF: 91; Dlussky & Pisarski, 1971 PDF: 180.|
Worker. Bicoloured with distinct but not well demarcated dark patch on promesonotum. Frontal groove distinctly shining. Large punctures coarse and deep, widely dispersed among close set microscopic puncturation. Occiput with a thick fringe of hairs extending forward over area between ocelli and sides of head and laterally round to the eyes. Eye hairs erect and prominent. Body pilosity including gula, tibiae and femora more or less densely pilose. Some populations have scape hairs. Head width of largest workers 2.1 mm. Length: 4.5-9.0 mm.
Queen. Hairs and sculpture as in worker. Scale, basal face of gaster always with more or less numerous long hairs bent at the tip. Gaster, scutellum and frontal groove shining. Length: 9.5-10.5 mm.
Male. Black, legs and external genitalia yellowish to testaceous brovn. Hairs on eyes, genae below the eyes and dorsum of gaster prominent and clearly visible. Coarse punctures of head, alitrunk and gaster widely spaced among close set micropunctures. Gaster and scutellum always at least moderately shining. Length: 9.5-10.5 mm.
Figs. 249-254. Formica lugubris ZettHNS. - 249: worker in profile; 250: male in profile; 251: queen in profile; 252: head of queen in dorsal view; 253: head of male in dorsal view; 254: head of worker in dorsal view. Scale: 1 mm.
Distribution. Absent from Denmark and South Sweden; abundant throughout Norway and Finland and from Central Sweden northward. - Locally common in North Britain, local in South Ireland. - Range: northern Eurosiberia and European mountains from Pyrenees to Kamchatka and Japan, Italy to North Norway.
Biology. This is a robust active species. Colonies are often in groups with inter-connecting nests. It has similar habits to F. rufaHNS but is able to forage at much lower temperatures and replaces F. rufaHNS entirely from Central Fennoscandia to the far north. This species varies in the presence, abundance or absence of scape hairs in the female castes and some local populations in South Finland and in the Alps with such hairs have widely spaced micropunctures on the dorsum of the gaster as in F. rufaHNS. Because of great variability among local populations in these areas it has not been possible to demarcate the extreme forms as a separate species but samples mainly from coastal areas and offshore islands in Nylandia include some extremely hairy specimens with queens consistently having wide spaced micropunctures which are well outside the range of F. lugubrisHNS as described by Yarrow (1955) and Betrem (1960). Bondroit (1917) briefly described a form, F. rufa var. nylanderiHNS, as having long outstanding body and antennal hairs and F. nylanderiHNS could be a suitable name for this form, if distinguished as a species.
Figs. 256-261. Formica pratensis RetziusHNS. - 256: worker in profile; 257: male in profile- 258: queen in profile; 259: head of queen in dorsal view; 260: head of male in dorsal view; 261: head of worker in dorsal view. Scale: 1 mm.
F. lugubrisHNS spreads by colony fission but also by the adoption of fertile queens by Formica lemaniHNS. Such mixed incipient nests often under stones have frequently been seen in Norway and North Sweden (Collingwood, 1959).
Found most commonly in these habitats: 0 times found in pine forest, forest edge, 1 times found in Prado, 1 times found in sphagnum log, 1 times found in P. mugo+prado, 1 times found in P.mugo, Abies, 0 times found in pine forest.
Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 1 times nido broza, 1 times Nest under stone, 0 times nest mound next to large open rock, 0 times mound, forest edge, 1 times ground forager(s), 1 times Rotten log.
Collected most commonly using these methods: 3 times Hand, 0 times search, 1 times bait trap, 1 times bait traps.
Elevations: collected from 58 - 2200 meters, 1505 meters average
Type specimens: syntype of Formica rufa alpina: casent0912249; type of Formica lugubris: casent0903279; type of Formica nylanderi: antweb1008416; type of Formica rufa alpina: antweb1008385; type of Formica congerens: casent0903278