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Species: Crematogaster scutellaris   (Olivier, 1792) 

Classification:
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See Also:

Crematogaster scutellaris alii, Crematogaster scutellaris atratula, Crematogaster scutellaris christowitchii, Crematogaster scutellaris corsica, Crematogaster scutellaris degener, Crematogaster scutellaris grouvellei, Crematogaster scutellaris hybrida, Crematogaster scutellaris lichtensteini, Crematogaster scutellaris luisae, Crematogaster scutellaris medispina, Crematogaster scutellaris nigra, Crematogaster scutellaris rectangulata, Crematogaster scutellaris schmidti luisae, Crematogaster scutellaris schmidti rectangulata, Crematogaster scutellaris tenuispina

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2014)

3 subspecies

Formica scutellaris Olivier, 1792: 497 (w.) FRANCE. Palearctic. AntCat AntWiki

Taxonomic history

Mayr, 1855 PDF: 469 (q.m.).
Combination in Crematogaster: Mayr, 1855 PDF: 469; in Crematogaster (Acrocoelia): Emery, 1922c PDF: 143; in Crematogaster (Crematogaster): Bolton, 1995b: 166.
Senior synonym of Crematogaster rediana, Crematogaster rubriceps, Crematogaster ruficeps: Mayr, 1855 PDF: 469; of Crematogaster haematocephala: Roger, 1863b: 36; of Crematogaster grouvellei, Crematogaster lichtensteini: Bernard, 1967a PDF: 164; of Crematogaster corsica, Crematogaster degener: Casevitz-Weulersse, 1990a: 137.
Material of the unavailable name Crematogaster hybrida referred here by Baroni Urbani, 1964a PDF: 4.
Current subspecies: nominal plus Crematogaster scutellaris alii, Crematogaster scutellaris nigra (unresolved junior homonym), Crematogaster scutellaris tenuispina.

Overview:

Crematogaster scutellaris is a medium-sized species with a dark brown to black body contrasting with a shiny reddish head. The species is relatively common and dominant component of Mediterranean Europe’s ant fauna (Marlier et al., 2002), and is frequently introduced into central and northern Europe (Boer & Vierbergen, 2008; Klotz et al., 2008; Rasplus et al., 2010). López-Sebastián (2004)provides a brief review of the biology of C. scutellaris. The nests are made of chewed wood and soil. in a large variety of microhabitats, including dead wood, human structures, and even stone walls (Soulié, 1956;1961 (1960)). The colony founding is independent, and colonies can live for several decades. All the workers are believed to be sterile (Casevitz Weulersse, 1991). The diet of the species is not well studied, but it is known to be an avid tender of hemipterans and will also take living and dead arthropods. Crematogaster scutellaris makes strong chemical trails used for recruiting large numbers of foragers that form conspicuous columns (Soulié, 1961 (1960)).   

Distribution:

Native Range. Mediterranean Europe.
Introduced Range. Northern Europe: Germany, Netherlands.

Biology:

It had been presumed that the species was unable to establish outdoor colonies north of its native range on account of climatic conditions, but recent discoveries of such colonies in Germany (Heller, 2004)and the Netherlands (Boer & Vierbergen, 2008; Vierbergen, 1994)suggest establishment is possible and becoming more likely as the climate warms. In Germany, interceptions are most often associated with deliveries of cork and timber (Heller, 2004). Crematogaster scutellaris has also been intercepted as US ports of entry, though no records of establishment are known.  


Xerothermous forests, forest edges, nests in wood (Source unkown).

Identification:

Diagnosis among workers of introduced and commonly intercepted ants in the United States. Head shape ovoid. Antenna 11-segmented. Antennal club 3-segmented. Antennal scapes not conspicuously short; easily extended beyond eye level. Antennal scrobe lacking. Eyes medium to large (greater than 5 facets) but distinctly less than half head length. Mandibles triangular. Pronotal spines absent. Propodeum armed with spines or teeth. Waist  2-segmented. Petiole flattened; lacking a distinct node; lacking peduncle; lacking large subpetiolar process. Petiole shape subrectangular. Postpetiole attached to upper surface of gaster. Head and mesosoma lacking abundant short flattened, semierect hairs. Head often reddish in color and contrasting with rest of body.

Crematogaster scutellaris can be easily distinguished from C. obscurata (which is introduced to the United States and commonly intercpted) by the following characters: (1) a 3-segmented club (versus 2-segmented); (2) a more trapezoidal petiole (versus triangular); (3) lack of abundant, flattened semierect hairs on its dorsal surfaces; (4) head often a reddish color that contrasts with rest of body.

Notes:

(Dutch vernacular name: rode schoripoenmier)

References:

Boer, P. & Vierbergen, B. (2008) Exotic ants in The Netherlands (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Entomol. Ber. (Amsterdam), 68, 121-129.

Casevitz Weulersse, J. (1991) Reproduction et développement des sociétés de Crematogaster scutellaris (Olivier, 1791) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Ann. Soc. Entomol. France, 27, 103-111.

Heller, G. (2004) Ein Vorkommen von Crematogaster scutellaris (Olivier, 1791) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Süddeutschland. Myrmecol. Nachr., 6, 1-3.

Klotz, J., Hansen, L., Pospischil, R. & Rust, M. (2008) Urban ants of North America and Europe. Cornell University Press,  196 pp.

López-Sebastián, E., Tinaut, A. & Selfa, J. (2004) Acerca de Crematogaster scutellaris (Olivier, 1791) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) como depredador de huevos de la procesionaria del pino. Bol. Sanid. Vegetal Plagas, 30, 699-701.

Marlier, J.F., Quinet, Y. & de Biseau, J.C. (2004) Defensive behaviour and biological activities of the abdominal secretion in the ant Crematogaster scutellaris (Hymenoptera: Myrmicinae). Behav. Process., 67, 427-444.

Rasplus, J.Y., Villemant, C., Paiva, M.R., Delvare, G. & Roques, A. (2010) Hymenoptera. BioRisk, 4(2), 669-776.

Soulié, J. (1956) Le déclenchement et la rupture de l'état d'hibernation chez Crematogaster scutellaris Ol. (Hymenoptera: Formicoidea). Insect. Soc., 3, 431-438.

Soulié, J. (1961 (1960)) Des considérations écologiques peuvent-elles apporter une contribution à la connaisance du cycle biologique des colonies de Cremastogaster (Hymenoptera - Formicoidea)? Insect. Soc., 7, 283-295.

Vierbergen, G. (1994) Hymenoptera / Formicidae / Crematogaster scutellaris in The Netherlands. Verslagen en Mededelingen (Annual Report 1993, Plant Protection Service, Wageningen, The Netherlands) 173: 51-52

Taxon Page Author History

On 2012-07-11 16:07:07 Eli Sarnat modified References
On 2012-07-11 16:06:29 Eli Sarnat modified Identification
On 2012-07-11 16:05:30 Eli Sarnat modified Biology
On 2012-07-11 15:56:46 Eli Sarnat modified Distribution
On 2012-07-11 15:54:46 Eli Sarnat modified Overview
On 2011-03-31 23:46:13 Eli Sarnat modified Distribution
On 2011-03-31 23:46:13 Eli Sarnat modified Biology

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Smith, F.:
Formica scutellaris, Oliv. Encycl. Meth. vi. 497. 32.
Latr. Hist. Nat. Fourni. 261.
Myrmica Rediana , Duf. Rech. Anat. Hym. Mem. Ac. Sc. vii. 477.
Gene, Men. Soc. Ital. Sc. Pt.fis. xxiii.
Myrmica Algirica , Lucas, Expl. Sc. de l'Alger, iii. 300. pl. 16. f. 9.
Myrmica rubriceps, Nyl. Addit . Alt. Adno. Mon. Form. Bor. Eur. 44.
Acrocoelia rubriceps . Mayr. Ein. neue Ameis. in Verhandl. des zool.-bot. Vereines in Wien, Band ii. 1852.
Acrocoelia Schmidti , Mayr. Ein. neue Ameis. in Verhandl. des zool.-bot. Vereines in Wien, Band ii. 1852.
Crematogaster scutellaris , Mayr. Form. Austr. 197. 1- Myrmica scutellaris , Nyl. Form. Fr. et d'Alger. 100. 28.
Hab. Europe; France; Austria; Switzerland; Tuscany; Sardinia; Hungary; Dalmatia.

Forel, A., 1904:
1 [[ worker ]], Algerie; 1 [[ male ]], Transcaucasie (vallee de l'Araxes, Leder!).
Crimee (Mis'chor, 19 [[ worker ]], 3. VII. 1899; Aluschta, 1 [[ worker ]], 18. V. 1900. N. Kuzne- cov!). Transcaucasie (Gouv. Kutais, Artvin, 5 [[ worker ]], 23. VI. 1898. Derjugin!. Zakataly, Lagodechi, 1 [[ queen ]], 21. X. 1896. Mlokosevic!).

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 1 times found in Port of entry

Elevations: collected at 40 m

Type specimens: syntype of Crematogaster scutellaris corsica: casent0912720; syntype of Crematogaster scutellaris degener: casent0912721

(-1 examples)



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