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Prionopelta antillana: worker: anterior clypeal margin subangular, not evenly rounded; face medial to eye with distinct puncta and smooth shiny interspaces; propodeum possibly with shallower angle between dorsal and posterior faces (angle on P. amabilis seems sharper, more defined somehow); color often lighter orange yellow; dorsal pilosity in profile scruffier. Queen: larger, margins of head with more prominent projecting pilosity, with setae of varying lengths.
Prionopelta amabilis: worker: anterior clypeal margin evenly rounded; puncta on face very small and closely spaced, so that face does not look punctate and also looks somewhat duller than P. antillana; propodeal angle sharper and more defined; color often a bit duskier, amber; dorsal pilosity in profile a more even, shorter pile. Queen: smaller; margins of head with very even, very short pubescence.
I have very little material from beyond Central America. One collection from Rancho Grande, Venezuela, matches most characters of amabilis, but the face is shinier than Central American specimens. The puncta are still tiny, hardly visible. Specimens from the Santa Marta area of Colombia and the island of Guadeloupe are nearly identical and a close match to the types of P. antillana from St. Vincent. They match the characters of antillana workers described above, but the face puncta are more closely spaced relative to Central American specimens.
Alto Paraná, Amambay, Canindeyú (ALWC, BMNH, IFML, INBP, LACM, MHNG).
Found most commonly in these habitats: 58 times found in Big Scrub Camp area, Quercus geminata thicket, 8 times found in Rainforest, 8 times found in tropical rainforest, with big trees, probably primary, 8 times found in tropical rainforest, with some big trees, probably a mix of primary and secondary forest, 4 times found in wet forest, 1 times found in moist forest, 1 times found in Trampa#2,274G,10m., 1 times found in montane wet forest, 1 times found in montane wet forest edge, 1 times found in Puesto1,293G. 10m., ...
Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 25 times ex sifted leaf litter, 3 times under stone, 3 times Sifted litter, 1 times under rotten log, 1 times under moss mat at base of tree, 1 times in treefern base, 1 times in soil, 1 times Wet forest. Ex sifted leaf litter., 1 times soil-litter layer, 1 times sifted litter, soil, and sticks, 1 times sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood), ...
Collected most commonly using these methods: 12 times miniWinkler, 7 times Winkler, 8 times maxiWinkler, 6 times hand collection, 4 times Berlese, 3 times search, 1 times Berlesate, 2 times berlese funnel.
Elevations: collected from 19 - 1169 meters, 439 meters average