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Species: Pheidole gymnoceras   Longino, 2009 

Classification:
Download Data

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2019)

Pheidole gymnoceras Longino, 2009 PDF: 34, fig. 8 (s.w.) COSTA RICA. Neotropic. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Distribution:

  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Americas: Costa Rica, Nicaragua
  Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):
    Neotropical

Distribution Notes:

Nicaragua, Costa Rica. Costa Rica: Cordillera Volcanica Central (Barva transect, 1100-1500m).

Biology:

Natural History:

This species inhabits mid-elevation wet forest. During ALAS project sampling of the Barva transect it was found at the 1100m and 1500m sites. At the 1100m site it was most frequently captured in flight intercept traps, suggesting it is an epigaeic forager. At the 1500m site (Finca Murillo) a small queenrite nest was found beneath rotten wood; the workers had a foetid odor.

Notes:

For a time I misidentified this species as variegata.

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Treatment Citation: Longino, J. T., 2009, Additions to the taxonomy of New World Pheidole (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 2181, pp. 1-90

Pheidole gymnocerasHNS new species

Figure 8

Holotype major worker. Costa Rica, Heredia: 10km NE Vara Blanca, 10.23333°N 84.08333°W, ±2000m, 1500m, 9 Feb 2005 (J. Longino#5412) [INBC, unique specimen identifier INB0003659251].

Paratypes: major and minor workers. Same data as holotype [BMNH, CAS, EAPZ, ECOSCE, FMNH, INBC, JTLC, LACM, MCZ, MHNG, MIZA, MZSP, MEL, UCD, UNAM, ICN, USNM].

Geographic Range

Costa Rica.

Diagnosis

With the morphometric profile of P. aciculataHNS, minor workers very similar to the sympatric P. indagatrixHNS. Minor worker: scape with all setae shorter than maximum width of scape versus with many erect setae longer than maximum width of scape ( aciculataHNS, indagatrixHNS); hind femur with subdecumbent setae on dorsal surface versus with suberect setae on dorsal surface ( aciculataHNS, indagatrixHNS). Major worker: relative to aciculataHNS, inner hypostomal teeth more widely spaced; mesosoma less shiny; scapes with shorter setae; hind femur with dorsal setae subdecumbent versus suberect; sides of head with shorter, less erect setae; posterior margin of head more cordate.

Description of minor worker

Measurements (paratype): HL 0.83, HW 0.63, HLA 0.30, SL 1.17, EL 0.20, ML 1.11, PSL 0.10, PMG 0.04, SPL 0.04, PTW 0.13, PPW 0.19, CI 76, SI 185, PSLI 12, PMGI 5, SPLI 5, PPI 150.

Measurements (n=9): HL 0.78-0.85, HW 0.59-0.65, SL 1.10-1.17, CI 74-77, SI 176-190.

Mandible and clypeus smooth and shining; face with a few concentric rugae around antennal insertion, small patch of foveolate sculpture between frontral carina and compound eye; rest of face smooth and shining; margin of vertex rounded; occipital carina narrow, visible in full face view; scape with dense suberect setae but all shorter than maximum width of scape; promesonotal groove present, conspicuous; propodeal spines present; pronotum with patches of foveolate sculpture on humerus and anterior border, smooth and shining elsewhere; katepisternum and lateral and dorsal faces of propodeum foveolate overlain with inconspicuous rugulae; abundant setae on promesonotal dorsum; dorsal (outer) margin of hind tibia with abundant suberect setae, some longer than maximum width of tibia; dorsal face of hind tibia with setae appressed to subdecumbent; first gastral tergum smooth and shining; gastral dorsum with abundant suberect setae; color red brown.

Description of major worker

Measurements (holotype): HL 1.42, HW 1.39, HLA 0.40, SL 1.07, EL 0.24, ML 1.43, PSL 0.08, PMG 0.04, SPL 0.06, PTW 0.26, PPW 0.34, IHT 0.50, OHT 0.57, CI 98, SI 77, PSLI 6, PMGI 3, SPLI 4, PPI 130, HTI 88.

Mandible smooth and shiny; clypeus smooth and shining, flat, with distinct anterior notch; short longitudinal rugae between mandibular insertion and compound eye, a few concentric rugae around antennal insertion, grading to reticulate rugae between frontal carina and compound eye, rest of face smooth and shining; head with abundant short subdecumbent setae projecting from sides of head in face view; scape smooth and shining, terete at base, with abundant short subdecumbent setae, none longer than maximum width of scape; hypostomal margin straight; median tooth absent; inner hypostomal teeth thin and sharp, widely-spaced, much closer to outer hypostomal teeth than to midline; promesonotal groove present; propodeal spines present; pronotum smooth and shining with small irregular patches of faint foveolate sculpture; katepisternum smooth and shining anteriorly, grading to rugose-foveolate posteriorly and on lateral and dorsal faces of propodeum; dorsal (outer) margin of hind tibia with abundant suberect setae, some longer than maximum width of tibia; pilosity abundant on mesosomal dorsum; postpetiole in dorsal view globular; first gastral tergite smooth and shining, with abundant suberect setae; color red brown.

Biology

This species inhabits mid-elevation wet forest. During ALAS project sampling of the Barva transect it was found at the 1100m and 1500m sites. At the 1100m site it was most frequently captured in flight intercept traps, suggesting it is an epigaeic forager. At the 1500m site (Finca Murillo) a small queenrite nest was found beneath rotten wood; the workers had a foetid odor.

Etymology

The name is in reference to the lack of longer erect setae on the scape of the minor worker.

FIGURE 8. Pheidole gymnocerasHNS. Major worker: A, face view; B, lateral view; C, dorsal view; D, hypostomal margin. Minor worker: E, face view; F, lateral view; G, dorsal view; H, hind tibia. A-C, Holotype major worker; D, non-type major worker; E-H, Paratype minor worker. Scale bar 0.5mm for E, 1mm for others.

Additional material examined

COSTA RICA: Heredia, 16km SSE La Virgen, 10°16'N, 84°05'W, 1100m (multiple collectors and collections).

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 35 times found in cloud forest, old second growth forest, 1 times found in cloud forest, 22 times found in montane wet forest, 22 times found in cloud forest, primary, along steep ridge near peak, 6 times found in tropical wet forest, 1 times found in 2nd growth cloud forest, 1 times found in wet forest, 1 times found in cloud forest, probably old second growth, matrix of dense bamboo and more open forest.

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 62 times at bait, 1 times nest under dead wood, 5 times bajo de M/20, 1 times bajo de M/08, 2 times ex sifted leaf litter, 1 times nest in clay bank, 2 times Hojarasca, 1 times bajo trampa M/04, 2 times bajo de M/10, 2 times bajo de M/04, 2 times Sobre Vegetacion, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods: 61 times baiting, 4 times search, 11 times flight intercept trap, 5 times Malaise, 3 times Mini Winkler, 2 times miniWinkler, 2 times Sweeping, 1 times beating.

Elevations: collected from 680 - 1500 meters, 1263 meters average

Type specimens: Holotype major Pheidole gymnoceras: inb0003659251; Paratype: fmnhins0000050025, fmnhins0000050026; Paratype Pheidole gymnoceras: casent0608953, casent0608954, casent0608955, casent0608956, casent0608957, casent0608958, casent0608959, casent0608960, casent0608961, casent0608962, casent0608963, casent0608964, casent0608965, casent0608966, casent0608967, casent0608968, casent0608969, casent0608970, casent0609233, casent0610084, inb0003659250



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