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Species: Pheidole gangamon   Wilson, 2003 

Classification:
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Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2018)

Pheidole gangamon Wilson, 2003A: 626, figs. (s.w.) MEXICO. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Distribution:

  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Americas: Mexico

Comments:

J. Longino, 17 Mar 2014: Wilson named four species from Mexico and Central America that are all extremely similar and together form a very distinctive group with no similar species in the region. They are thrasys from Panama, simonsi from Costa Rica, gangamon from southern Mexico, and arctos from Tamaulipas, Mexico. Minor workers all look identical to me. Major workers show some geographic variation, with southern versions having longer, thinner propodeal spines, and the dorsal pilosity is longer. Specimens from Guatemala northward have shorter propodeal spines and are more bristly-looking, with shorter dorsal pilosity. DNA barcoding data are all from the southern populations and show two clusters. One has numerous Panama specimens and one specimen from Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Another cluster has numerous specimens from Guanacaste and many specimens from the Atlantic lowlands of Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and southern Honduras. There is clearly one clade that is common in lowland wet forest throughout Central America and southern Mexico, exhibiting what appears to be uniform habitat preference, behavior, and nesting habits. It will probably emerge as a set of cryptic species, but at present I have no evidence of sharp morphological discontinuities at any one site or anywhere across the range of the clade. I am treating them all as simonsi (just because I started using that name first, for Costa Rican material) until further evidence.

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Treatment Citation: Wilson, E. O., 2003, Pheidole in the New World. A dominant, hyperdiverse ant genus., Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press

Pheidole gangamonHNS new species

Types Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard.

Etymology Gr gangamonHNS, a small, round net, referring to the occipital rugoreticulum of the major.

Diagnosis Close to arctosHNS, but distinguishable from it (and other members of the scrobiferaHNS group) by the pattern of sculpturing and details of body form in the major, and in the unusually long, needle-like propodeal spines and piligerous cornicles of the humeri, also as shown.

Measurements (mm) Holotype major: HW 1.24, HL 1.54, SL 0.58, EL 0.16, PW 0.72. Paratype minor: HW 0.58, HL 0.58, SL 0.58, EL 0.12, PW 0.38. color Major: body and appendages medium reddish brown; gaster dark brown. Minor: light brown.

Range Known only from the type locality.

Biology The nest of the type colony was in black clayey soil in the middle of a path through degraded lowland rainforest. The single entrance hole was surrounded by a narrow ring of excavated earth. Major workers were scarce (E. O. Wilson).

figure Upper: holotype, major. Lower: paratype, minor. MEXICO: Pueblo Nuevo, near Tetzonapa (E. O. Wilson). Scale bars = 1 mm.



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