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Costa Rica to W. Ecuador (Brown 1976). Costa Rica: Atlantic slope wet forest to 700m elevation, from Cordillera de Guanacaste to the Talamancas.
This species is common and, with its bright red head, conspicuous in the Atlantic lowland rainforests of Costa Rica. It inhabits mature forest, foraging on the ground and low vegetation, and nesting in rotten wood on the ground or rotten stumps. In one case I was collecting at the edge of an old lava field on Volcan Arenal, an area of boulders and open sand, with very little vegetation. A populous colony was under a stone in a narrow strip of grass.
Brown, W. L., Jr. 1976. Contributions toward a reclassification of the Formicidae. Part VI. Ponerinae, tribe Ponerini, subtribe Odontomachiti. Section A. Introduction, subtribal characters. Genus Odontomachus. Studia Entomol. 19:67-171.
Emery, C. 1890. Studii sulle formiche della fauna neotropica. I-V. Boll. Soc. Entomol. It. 22:38-80.
Found most commonly in these habitats: 19 times found in montane wet forest, 6 times found in tropical rainforest, some big trees, 5 times found in tropical rainforest, with some big trees, probably a mix of primary and secondary forest, 4 times found in mature wet forest, 3 times found in tropical rainforest, with big trees, probably primary, 3 times found in Primary wet forest, 2 times found in rainforest, 2 times found in tropical rainforest, old second growth, 2 times found in tropical rainforest, some big trees, primary forest, 2 times found in wet forest, ...
Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 14 times ex sifted leaf litter, 10 times at bait, 5 times Sobre Vegetacion, 4 times Hojarasca, 3 times bajo de M/04, 3 times nocturnal strays, 2 times ground nest, 1 times ex rotten log, 2 times bajo de M/05, 2 times bajo de M/01, 2 times strays, ...
Collected most commonly using these methods: 11 times miniWinkler, 10 times baiting, 8 times flight intercept trap, 7 times search, 5 times Malaise, 5 times Sweeping, 4 times Mini Winkler, 4 times winkler, 2 times Berlese, 1 times pan traps, 1 times Blacklight, ...
Elevations: collected from 5 - 1800 meters, 373 meters average
Type specimens: syntype of Odontomachus haematodes erythrocephalus: casent0904006