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Species: Linepithema angulatum   (Emery, 1894) 

Download Data

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2019)

Iridomyrmex humilis subsp. angulatus Emery, 1894d PDF: 165, pl. 1, fig. 3 (w.q.) BOLIVIA. Neotropic. AntCat AntWiki

Taxonomic history

Wild, 2007A PDF: 31 (m.).
Combination in Linepithema: Shattuck, 1992a PDF: 16.
Raised to species and senior synonym of Linepithema pordescens: Wild, 2007A PDF: 29.


  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Americas: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, Venezuela
  Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):

Distribution Notes:

Costa Rica south to the Brazilian Pantanal.


Natural History:

From Wild 2007:

Collection records of L. angulatum range across a broad array of habitats from sea level to over 2800 meters. Two collections are from leaf litter in montane forest, one under a stone in a montane forest edge, one under bark in second-growth forest, one in rotting wood, and two in high elevation urban parks in Colombia and Ecuador. Wheeler (1942: 214) reports this species (as ÒpordescensÓ) nesting in a Tillandsia bromeliad in Costa Rica. This species has been observed recruiting to tuna baits placed 30cm underground in Peru (M. Frederickson, pers. com), to surface sausage baits in Venezuela, and to surface tuna baits in the Pantanal (Orr et al. 2003). One collection records L. angulatum tending pseudococcids on Croton gossypifolia in Colombia and another tending root-aphids in a nest in Ecuador. Male alates have been taken in June in Ecuador and in December in Colombia.

A series of studies by Orr and various coauthors (Orr and Seike 1998, Orr et al. 2001, Orr et al. 2003) documented the interactions between L. angulatum (as ÒL. humileÓ or ÒL. piliferumÓ) and the phorid parasitoid Pseudacteon lontrae Mattos and Orr 2002 in the Pantanal. The presence of phorid flies significantly alters the behavior of this species in the field, leading to changes in the ecological dominance hierarchy in the ant community.

Linepithema angulatum has been intercepted several times with orchids in various ports of entry into the U.S., suggesting that it has the opportunity to spread further with human commerce.

In Costa Rica, this species occurs sporadically in various habitats. At Sirena Station in Corcovado National Park, during extensive field work in the early 1980's, JTL collected the species three times: once under epiphytes in a canopy tree, once in a recent treefall, and once at extrafloral nectaries of a Passiflora. At Fila Cruces, a 1200m elevation site in the southern mountains, JTL found a nest under a stone along a roadside. It was a populous colony, with an acidic smell, an odor more like Formicinae than Dolichoderinae. Workers are also known from the Central Valley, from suburban areas.


Orr, M. R., De Camargo, R. X., and Benson, W. W. 2003. Interactions between ant species increase arrival rates of an ant parasitoid. Anim. Behav. 65:1187-1193.

Orr, M. R., and Seike, S. H. 1998. Parasitoids deter foraging by Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) in their native habitat in Brazil. Oecologia 117: 420-425.

Orr, M. R., Seike, S. H., Benson, W. W., and Dahlsten, D. L. 2001. Host specificity of Psuedacteon (Diptera: Phoridae) Parasitoids that attack Linepithema (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in South America. Environ. Entomol. 30:742-747.

Wheeler, W. M. 1942. Studies of Neotropical ant-plants and their ants. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 90:1-262.

Wild, A. L. 2007. Taxonomic Revision of the Ant Genus Linepithema (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 8 times found in rainforest, 3 times found in cloud forest, 5 times found in Port of entry, 4 times found in mature wet forest, 3 times found in montane wet forest, 3 times found in vienna sausage, 1 times found in pasture clearing in montane wet forest, 2 times found in tropical rainforest, 1 times found in montane wet forest, small patch at edge of road, probably 2ndary, evidence of herbicide at road edge, 1 times found in wet forest, ...

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 14 times ex sifted leaf litter, 2 times nest in soil, 2 times under stone, 1 times soil tunnels on vertical shaded rock face, 2 times at bait, 2 times sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood), 2 times on low vegetation, 2 times litter, 2 times ex pan trap, 1 times beating veg., 1 times at cookie bait, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods: 7 times search, 11 times miniWinkler, 3 times maxiWinkler, 2 times bait, 3 times surface bait trap, 1 times baiting, 1 times beating, 2 times pan trap, 1 times 6L sifted litter, extracted in Winkler sack over 36 hours, 1 times phorids attack, 1 times beating low vegetation, ...

Elevations: collected from 10 - 2810 meters, 717 meters average

Type specimens: syntype of Iridomyrmex humilis angulatus: casent0905063; Type of unavailable quadrinomial: Linepithema humile angulata pulex: casent0911561

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