To cite this page, please use the following:
· For print: . Accessed
· For web:
(Figs 85 – 87)
Ponera (Hypoponera) occidentalis BernardHNS, 1953: 205, fig. 3I. Syntype workers, GUINEA: Crête de Nion, 1300 m, 19.iv., st. B6 26 (Lamotte) (MNHN) [examined]. [Combination in HypoponeraHNS: Bolton, 1995: 215.]
Ponera (Hypoponera) intermedia BernardHNS, 1953: 206, fig. 3H. Holotype worker (teneral), GUINEA: ravin 1 du Mont Tô, st. B1 30 (Lamotte) (MNHN) [examined]. Syn. n. [Unresolved junior primary homonym of Ponera piliventris intermediaHNS Forel, 1900a: 63 (now in PachycondylaHNS). Combination in HypoponeraHNS: Bolton, 1995: 215.]
WORKER. Measurements: HL 0.61 – 0.75, HW 0.48 – 0.60, HS 0.545 – 0.670, SL 0.44 – 0.55, PrW 0.38 – 0.48, WL 0.84 – 1.08, HFL 0.46 – 0.58, PeNL 0.20 – 0.24, PeH 0.42 – 0.52, PeNW 0.32 – 0.39, PeS 0.310 – 0.377 (40 measured). Indices: CI 76 – 82, SI 86 – 96, PeNI 76 – 89, LPeI 40 – 48, DPeI 150 – 180.
Eyes variably developed; sometimes absent, sometimes a vague eye spot, but frequently with 1 and less commonly with 3 – 4 small ommatidia discernible. Apex of scape, when laid straight back from its insertion, just fails to reach, or less commonly just touches, the midpoint of the posterior margin in full-face view; SL/HL 0.68 – 0.75. Cephalic dorsum sharply reticulate-punctate. Pronotal dorsum almost smooth, with spaced, minute, superficial punctures, obviously much less strongly and densely sculptured than cephalic dorsum. Metanotal groove absent from dorsum of mesosoma or at most with a faint impression. Mesonotal-mesopleural suture feebly present to absent on side of mesosoma. Propodeum weakly marginate between declivity and side. Posterior surface of petiole node without short cuticular ridges that radiate upward from the peduncle. Node of petiole in profile tall and relatively thick, with the anterior and posterior faces parallel or very nearly so and the dorsum convex. Subpetiolar process with a distinct ventral angle. Maximum width of first gastral tergite in dorsal view greater than the width of the second gastral tergite at its midlength. Base of cinctus of second gastral tergite glossy and polished, without trace of cross-ribs. Midline length of second gastral posttergite, from posterior margin of cinctus to apex, is less than the width of the segment at its midlength. Disc of second gastral tergite with sharply incised, small punctures that are widely separated by areas of glossy cuticle; the diameters of the punctures are less than the distances that separate them. First and second gastral tergites dorsally pubescent and with a number of short, standing setae that conspicuously project above the level of the pubescence in profile.
Seven Afrotropical species are known which have the following characters in combination: metanotal groove absent from dorsum of mesosoma; base of cinctus of second gastral tergite smooth and shining, without cross-ribs; posterior surface of petiole node without vertical cuticular ridges basally; maximum width of first gastral tegite in dorsal view greater than width of second tergite at its midlength; disc of second gastral tergite with spaced, small punctures that are separated by wide areas of polished cuticle. Two species, aproraHNS and dis, both Tanzanian endemics , are small with maximum dimensions of HL 0.53, HW 0.42, SL 0.36, PeH 0.32, HS 0.470 and PeS 0.250; all other species in the complex are considerably larger than these. A single species, productaHNS, has relatively long scapes, with SI 99 – 108. H. importunaHNS and comisHNS have the petiole node relatively short and very broad, with DPeI 182 – 200 (mean of 190). In the other five species combined DPeI is 133 – 180. Only a very few individuals of occidentalis approach the upper limits of this range, but in that species the mean value for DPeI is 165. The final species , odiosaHNS, is very closely related to occidentalisHNS and is best separated by the characters noted in the key.
No obvious intercastes could be discerned in the occidentalisHNS material examined (i.e. no worker-like specimens with eyes of 10 or more ommatidia), but it is possible that the specimens with 3 – 4 ommatidia may represent intercastes with much smaller eyes than is usual.
The series recorded below from Zimbabwe (MHNG, BMNH) is slightly different from the mass of examined material. In these specimens the punctate sculpture on the first gastral tergite, especially on the side just above the tergosternal suture, is fainter and more superficial, but this is more a matter of degree than of actual difference in form. The series is currently retained within occidentalisHNS, because the specimens match the diagnostic characters given above, to be reassessed when more samples have accumulated.
Material examined. Guinea: Créte de Nion (Lamotte); Mont Tô (Lamotte). Ivory Coast: Abidjan, Banco For. (I. Löbl). Ghana: Bunso (R. Belshaw); Atewa For. Res., nr Kibi (R. Belshaw). Cameroun: Prov. Sud-Ouest, Mnt Cameroon, Mapanja (B.L. Fisher); Prov. Sud, N’Kolo, Bondé For., Elogbatindi (B.L. Fisher); Prov. Sud, Res. Faune de Campo, Ebodjé (B.L. Fisher). Gabon: Prov. Ogooue-Maritime, Res. Monts Doudou, Doussala (B.L. Fisher); Prov. Estuaire, F.C. Mondah, Libreville (B.L. Fisher); For. de la Mondah, Cap Esterias, N. of Libreville (Bartolozzi & Taiti). Equatorial Guinea: Bioko, Moca (M. Boko). Central African Republic: Res. Dzanga-Sangha , Bayanga (B.L. Fisher); Dzanga-Ndoki, Lidjombo (B.L. Fisher). Kenya: Western Prov., Kakamega Forest, Kaimosi (G. F i s c h e r ). Ta n z a ni a : Mahale Mts N.P (M. Kiyono); Morogoro Reg., Mamiwa-Kisara For. Res. (Hawkes, Makwati & Mtana). Zimbabwe: Umtali, Melsetter (R. Mussard).
Found most commonly in these habitats: 13 times found in rainforest, 2 times found in littoral rainforest, 1 times found in cactus-palo verde desert, 1 times found in forest/fern meadow ecotone, 1 times found in mature swamp forest, 1 times found in montane rainforest, 1 times found in primary forest.
Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 12 times sifted litter (leaf mold, rotten wood), 1 times under stone, 1 times leaf litter, 1 times ground nest, 1 times ex sifted leaf litter, 1 times ex rotten log.
Collected most commonly using these methods: 12 times MW 50 sample transect, 5m, 2 times EC28 Malaise trap, 2 times winkler, 1 times pitfall traps.
Elevations: collected from 10 - 1989 meters, 593 meters average