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Species: Crematogaster longispina   Emery, 1890 

Classification:
Download Data

See Also:

Crematogaster longispina naumannae, Crematogaster longispina nura

Taxonomic History (provided by Barry Bolton, 2018)

Extant: 2 valid subspecies

Crematogaster (Orthocrema) longispina Emery, 1890c PDF: 53 (w.) COSTA RICA. Neotropic. AntCat AntWiki HOL

Taxonomic history

[Also described as new by Emery, 1894l PDF: 57.].
Combination in Crematogaster (Eucrema): Santschi, 1918d PDF: 182 [misspelled here as Crematogaster longissima]; in Crematogaster (Orthocrema): Emery, 1922c PDF: 136; Santschi, 1923c PDF: 250.
Current subspecies: nominal plus Crematogaster longispina naumannae, Crematogaster longispina nura.
See also: Longino, 2003A PDF: 82.

Distribution:

  Geographic regions (According to curated Geolocale/Taxon lists):
    Americas: Costa Rica, Ecuador, Nicaragua, Panama
  Biogeographic regions (According to curated Bioregion/Taxon lists):
    Neotropical

Distribution Notes:

Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Ecuador.

Biology:

Natural History:

Crematogaster longispina occurs in very humid conditions in wet forest. Although it occurs at sea level, it is more common at elevations slightly higher, around 500m. It forms small carton nests, usually no more than 10-15cm across, on low vegetation and tree trunks (figs. 1,2). The carton is very loose and friable, and falls away easily on disturbance. These carton nests often host an array of sprouting epiphytes, and are penetrated by roots from epiphytes growing in the vicinity. Nests are usually packed with workers and brood, one or more physogastric queens (polygyny is common), and scattered coccoid Homoptera on the penetrating roots. Nests are locally abundant, occurring on many adjacent trunks or scattered through low vegetation. The nest dispersion and polygyny suggest polydomy and perhaps unicoloniality. In spite of many observations of nests, I have never observed adult males or alate queens.

Kleinfeldt (1978) studied a colony or colonies of C. longispina at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica, investigating its relationship to a common ant garden inhabiting epiphyte, Codonanthe crassifolia (Gesneriaceae).

The site at La Selva where Kleinfeldt carried out her study has been increasingly developed as a laboratory clearing, and the surrounding landscape has seen increasing deforestation. Crematogaster longispina no longer occurs at Kleinfeldt's study site, and in fact appears very rare at La Selva. I have only encountered it near the back edge of the La Selva station property, along a stream margin in a deep forested ravine. This species may require constantly high humidity levels and be particularly sensitive to habitat fragmentation and edge effects, especially at low elevations.

Taxonomic Treatment (provided by Plazi)

Treatment Citation: Longino, J. T., 2003, The Crematogaster (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae) of Costa Rica., Zootaxa 151, pp. 1-150

Crematogaster longispina EmeryHNS 1890

Plate 1, 5

Crematogaster longispina EmeryHNS, 1890:53 [Also described as new by Emery, 1894:57]. Holotype worker: Costa Rica, Prov. Limon, Jimenez [MCSN] (examined). Santschi, 1918:182: combination in C. (Eucrema)HNS [misspelled here as longissimaHNS]. Emery, 1922:136; Santschi, 1923:250: combination in C. (Orthocrema)HNS.

Range

Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Ecuador.

Description of worker

Color dark red brown to black, head and gaster darker than mesosoma, tarsi, and terminal2-3 segments of antenna yellow or at least much lighter brown.

Mandibles smooth and shiny; in full face view anterior margin of clypeus weakly convex; clypeus convex, shiny; face smooth and shiny; scapes smooth and shiny, slightly clavate, with abundant curved erect setae, setae about as long as width of scape; terminal 2-3 segments of antenna gradually lengthening to form club, becoming increasingly densely pubescent, terminal two segments the largest and most conspicuous; face with abundant erect flexuous setae; in full face view with abundant setae projecting from sides and posterior margin of head, both anterior and posterior to eyes; ventral surface of head with moderately abundant suberect setae.

In lateral view, promesonotum elongate, pronotum forming sigmoidal curve as it rises from anterior collar to weakly convex dorsal surface, continuous with anterior half of mesonotum, posterior half of mesonotum dropping steeply to propodeal suture; promesonotum elevated above propodeum; mesonotum with pair of pronounced lateral carinae, rounded and smooth anteriorly, becoming sharper posteriorly and converging to join small lateral carinulae that bridge propodeal suture; dorsal and posterior faces of propodeum differentiated, meeting at an angle; propodeal spines large, long, narrowly acute and spiniform, projecting upward and strongly diverging; side of pronotum always smooth and shining, pronotal dorsum smooth and shining or with faint longitudinal etching; katepisternum smooth and shining or with variably developed faint microareolate sculpture; side of propodeum smooth and shining or with faint microsculpture; dorsal face of propodeum smooth and shining to finely and faintly longitudinally striate; posterior face of propodeum smooth and shining; pair of long erect flexuous setae on pronotal humeri and anterior mesonotum, shorter erect setae scattered over promesonotum, dorsolateral margins of propodeum, and onto propodeal spines; legs with abundant short erect setae, setae shorter than width of tibiae.

Petiole in side view elongate, smooth and shining or with faint microsculpture, with variably developed small anteroventral tooth; in dorsal view, dorsal face of petiole long triangular, strongly and regularly converging anteriorly, widest posteriorly, smooth and shining, with seta projecting from side near spiracle, and 1-2 setae on posterolateral corners; petiole with slight bulge at petiolar spiracle, visible in both dorsal and along ventral margin in lateral view; ventral margin of postpetiole with denticle; postpetiole in dorsal view globular, with 2 pairs erect setae; fourth abdominal tergite smooth and shining or with faint microareolate sculpture, with abundant long flexuous erect setae.

Measurements

HL 0.660, 0.655, 0.761; HW 0.646, 0.634, 0.776; HC 0.593, 0.570, 0.700; SL 0.738, 0.717, 0.812; EL 0.149, 0.150, 0.168; A11L 0.282; A11W 0.106; A10L 0.142; A10W 0.079; A09L 0.083; A09W 0.057; A08L 0.061; A08W 0.049; WL 0.830, 0.798, 0.944; SPL 0.278, 0.309, 0.427; PTH 0.147, 0.142, 0.178; PTL 0.290, 0.276, 0.326; PTW 0.161, 0.170, 0.202; PPL 0.175, 0.147, 0.184; PPW 0.171, 0.159, 0.213; CI 98, 97, 102; OI 23, 23, 22; SI 112, 109, 107; PTHI 51, 51, 55; PTWI 56, 62, 62; PPI 98, 108, 116; SPI 33, 39, 45; ACI 0.79.

Queen

A normal queen (dorsal face of propodeum drops steeply from postscutellum and much of propodeum appears ventral to scutellum and postscutellum, Fig. 1); head and mesosoma often covered with wax layer; color red brown, usually with lighter yellow scapes, antenna tips, and legs; head pilosity and sculpture characters as in worker; terminal 5 segments of antenna gradually enlarging to form club, the last two largest and most conspicuous; pronotal dorsum short, perpendicular, forming continuous profile with large mesonotum; propodeal spine variable, low and broadly triangular with blunt tip or somewhat produced with well-defined acute tip; abundant medium length setae on dorsal mesonotum and scutellum, anterolateral pronotum, lower katepisternum, and clustered around base of propodeal spine; femora and tibiae with abundant erect setae; petiole subtriangular in side view, anteroventral tooth small, bluntly obtuse to subacute; in dorsal view, dorsal face of petiole strongly convex posteriorly, strongly tapering anteriorly, with distinct tumosities at petiolar spiracle, with small erect seta projecting laterally near spiracle, and long erect seta on each posterolateral corner; postpetiole with no ventral tooth, subtrapezoidal in dorsal view, smooth and shiny, widest anteriorly, with a dorsal pair and posterior pair of long setae; fourth abdominal tergite smooth and shiny with sparse erect setae; size characters as in Figures 4 and 5.

Biology

Crematogaster longispinaHNS occurs in very humid conditions in wet forest. Although it occurs at sea level, it is more common at elevations slightly higher, around 500m. It forms small carton nests, usually no more than 10-15cm across, on low vegetation and tree trunks. The carton is very loose and friable, and falls away easily on disturbance. These carton nests often host an array of sprouting epiphytes, and are penetrated by roots from epiphytes growing in the vicinity. Nests are usually packed with workers and brood, one or more physogastric queens (polygyny is common), and scattered coccoid Homoptera on the penetrating roots. Nests are locally abundant, occurring on many adjacent trunks or scattered through low vegetation. The nest dispersion and polygyny suggest polydomy and perhaps unicoloniality. In spite of many observations of nests, I have never observed adult males or alate queens.

Kleinfeldt (1978) studied a colony or colonies of C. longispinaHNS at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica, investigating its relationship to a common ant garden inhabiting epiphyte, Codonanthe crassifolia (Gesneriaceae).

The site at La Selva where Kleinfeldt carried out her study has been increasingly developed as a laboratory clearing, and the surrounding landscape has seen increasing deforestation. Crematogaster longispinaHNS no longer occurs at Kleinfeldt's study site, and in fact appears very rare at La Selva. I have only encountered it near the back edge of the La Selva station property, along a stream margin in a deep forested ravine. This species may require constantly high humidity levels and be particularly sensitive to habitat fragmentation and edge effects, especially at low elevations.

Comments

The combination of very long, divergent propodeal spines and abundant erect tibial setae uniquely identify this species. Crematogaster nigropilosaHNS has similar large spines, but the pilosity on the tibiae is appressed.

Specimen Habitat Summary

Found most commonly in these habitats: 29 times found in montane wet forest, 21 times found in mature wet forest, 13 times found in wet forest, 5 times found in 25yr old second growth and primary forest, 2 times found in Dense low second growth at river edge, backed by primary forest, 2 times found in primary tropical rainforest, 1 times found in rainforest, 1 times found in rainforest damaged by hurricane, 1 times found in primary wet forest edge, 1 times found in 25yr old second growth forest, ...

Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 26 times ex sifted leaf litter, 4 times Sobre Vegetacion, 2 times in loose carton nest, 1 times in dead stick, 2 times in carton nest on trunk, 1 times in carton nest, 3 times Hojarasca, 1 times carton nest over knot, 1 times Beaten ex dry banana leaves, plantation, 1 times at tuna bait on ground, 1 times at cookie bait, ...

Collected most commonly using these methods: 20 times miniWinkler, 15 times Malaise, 7 times search, 4 times maxiWinkler, 4 times Sweeping, 3 times baiting, 3 times Mini Winkler, 2 times flight intercept trap, 2 times Fogging, 2 times Winkler, 2 times beating, ...

Elevations: collected from 5 - 1350 meters, 463 meters average

Type specimens: syntype of Crematogaster longispina: casent0902156, casent0904522; syntypes longispina: jtl027810



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