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Extant: 9 valid subspecies
Native range. Neotropics from Argentina to Nicaragua and presumably parts of the Caribbean.
Introduced range. Florida (Dade Co.); Bahamas (New Providence); possibly other Caribbean islands.
USA POE Intercept records. Brazil; Trinidad-Tobago.
Costa Rica: Atlantic and southern Pacific lowlands.
What is currently referred to as C. sexguttatus, like many of its widespread congeners, may well prove to be a complex of cryptic species. In his investigation of C. sexguttatus and its relatives in Paraguay, Wild (2007) concluded that while C. sexguttatus in the broad sense may contain a number of cryptic species over its entire range, it is unlikely that the current subspecies reflect actual population boundaries.
Camponotus sexguttatus was originally described from the Antilles, but the designation of Bahaman populations as introduced (Deyrup, 1998) raises into question which, if any, of the Caribbean populations are native to the islands. Although purportedly collected in Hawaii where it was nesting in a house (Smith, 1879), it has not currently believed to be established on any of the islands (Krushelnycky et al., 2005). The species was intentionally introduced to Biosphere 2 (Arizona, USA), but was not found in any surveys subsequent to the original introduction (Wetterer et al., 1999).
The earliest known specimens from Florida date to 1993 (Deyrup et al., 2000), but the species is considered rare and currently confined to Dade County (Deyrup, 2003). In addition to nesting in saw grass stems at the edges of marshy areas, Florida colonies have also been discovered inside the thorns of non-native ant-acacias (Wetterer & Wetterer, 2003) and workers are known from the vegetation of the invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Costello et al., 2003).
In Paraguay, C. sexguttatus is reported as common, particularly in disturbed or edge habitats (Wild, 2007), and was frequently sampled from vegetation in the Ecuadorian Amazon (Ryder Wilkie et al., 2010). In Costa Rica, Jack Longino (2012) reported very few collections of C. sexguttatus, all from very weedy open areas.In Costa Rica (Jack Longino)
Diagnosis among workers of introduced and commonly intercepted ants in the United States. Worker caste polymorphic. Antenna 12-segmented. Antennal club indistinct. Antennal scape length less than 1.5x head length. Eyes medium to large (greater than 5 facets); lacking distinct ocelli. Antennal sockets and posterior clypeal margin separated by a distance equal to or greater than the minimum width of antennal scape. Head length longer than head width. Metanotal groove distinctly impressed. Propodeum and petiolar node both lacking a pair of short teeth. Propodeum not angulate and lacking a distinct dorsal and posterior face; also lacking posteriorly projecting protrusion. Metapleuron lacking a distinct gland orifice. Waist 1-segmented. Petiole upright and not appearing flattened. Gaster armed with acidopore. Distinct constriction not visible between abdominal segments 3+4. Hairs not long thick and produced in pairs. Gaster concolorous or often with yellowish white spots on lateral portions of second tergite, but always lacking dark transverse bands running near posterior margins of tergites that contrast with the rest of gaster and body.
Camponotus sexguttatus is diagnosed from other members of the genus introduced or commonly intercepted in the United States by the following characters: (1) metanotal groove distinctly impressed (versus all others); (2) gaster concolorous or often with yellowish white spots on lateral portions of second tergite (versus variegated in C. variegatus); and (3) propodeum not angulate and lacking a distinct dorsal and posterior face (versus C. rectangularis).
Costello, S.L., Pratt, P.D., Rayamajhi, M.B. & Center, T.D. (2003) Arthropods associated with above-ground portions of the invasive tree, Melaleuca quinquenervia, in South Florida, USA. Florida Entomol., 86, 300-322.
Deyrup, M. (1998) Composition of the ant fauna of three Bahamian Islands. In: Wilson, T.K. (Ed.) Proceedings of the 7th symposium on the natural history of the Bahamas. Bahamian Field Station, San Salvador, Bahamas, pp. 23-31.
Deyrup, M. (2003) An updated list of Florida ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Florida Entomol., 86, 43-48.
Deyrup, M., Davis, L. & Cover, S. (2000) Exotic ants in Florida. Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc., 126, 293-326.
Fabricius, J.C. (1793) Entomologia systematica emendata et aucta. Secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, adjectis synonimis, locis observationibus, descriptionibus. Tome 2. C. G. Proft, Hafniae [= Copenhagen], 519 pp.
Forel, A. (1879) tudes myrmcologiques en 1879 (deuxime partie [1re partie en 1878]). Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat., 16, 53-128, pl. I.
Jaffe, K. & Lattke, J.E. (1994) Ant fauna of the French and Venezuelan islands in the Caribbean. In: Williams, D.F. (Ed.) Exotic ants. Biology, impact, and control of introduced species. Westview Press, Boulder. xvii + 332 p., pp. 181-190.
Kempf, W.W. (1972) Catlogo abreviado das formigas da regio Neotropical. Stud. Entomol., 15, 3-344.
McGlynn, T.P. (1999) The biogeography, behavior, and ecology of exotic ants. Ph.D. dissert., University of Colorado at Boulder, 178 p.
Ryder Wilkie, K.T., Mertl, A.L. & Traniello, J.F.A. (2010) Species diversity and distribution patterns of the ants of Amazonian Ecuador. PLoS ONE, 5(10): e13146, 12 p.
Wetterer, J.K., Miller, S.E., Wheeler, D.E., Olson, C.A., Polhemus, D.A., Pitts, M., Ashton, I.W., Himler, A.G., Yospin, M.M., Helms, K.R., Harken, E.L., Gallaher, J., Dunning, C.E., Nelson, M., Litsinger, J., Southern, A. & Burgess, T.L. (1999) Ecological dominance by Paratrechina longicornis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), an invasive tramp ant, in Biosphere 2. Florida Entomol., 82, 381-388.
Wetterer, J.K. & Wetterer, A.L. (2003) Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on non-native neotropical ant-acacias (Fabales: Fabaceae) in Florida. Florida Entomol., 86, 460-463.
Wild, A.L. (2007) A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Zootaxa, 1622, 1-55.
|Camponotus sexguttatus||Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 29, (download)||29||21367|
|Camponotus sexguttatus||Wild, A. L., 2007, A catalogue of the ants of Paraguay (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)., Zootaxa 1622, pp. 1-55: 47-48, (download)||47-48||21367|
|Camponotus sexguttatus||Mayr, G., 1862, Myrmecologische Studien., Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 12, pp. 649-776: 656, (download)||656||4445|
|Camponotus sexguttatus||Forel, A., 1886, Études myrmécologiques en 1886., Annales de la Societe Entomologique de Belgique 30, pp. 131-215: 39, (download)||39||3923|
Found most commonly in these habitats: 10 times found in Yard in the urban area, 1 times found in 20m from La Selva Gate, 5 times found in Port of entry, 2 times found in littoral vegetation, 3 times found in beach, 1 times found in river edge, 1 times found in Gallery forest, 1 times found in wet forest, 1 times found in Administration area, 1 times found in lowland rainforest, ...
Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 1 times Unshaded tree, 2 times on low vegetation, 1 times ex Acacia ruddiae thorns, 1 times at blacklight, 1 times on vegetation, 1 times Nest in rotting wood, 1 times cut flowers, 1 times at light, 1 times with bromeliads, 1 times sugar cane, 1 times strays on ground, ...
Collected most commonly using these methods: 5 times search, 8 times Manual sampling, 4 times direct collection, 3 times hand collecting, 1 times Blacklight, 1 times porch light, 00-4 times beating vegetation, 3, 1 times collected at lights, 1 times Hand, 1 times sweep.
Elevations: collected from 5 - 600 meters, 111 meters average
Type specimens: Holotype of Formica albofasciata: casent0903635; Lectotype of Camponotus sexguttatus fusciceps: casent0905475; paralectotype of Camponotus sexguttatus fusciceps: casent0905476; syntype of Formica bimaculata: casent0903629; type of Camponotus sexguttatus: focol0567