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Macuata: Vunitogoloa 10, Vunitogoloa 36. Viti Levu: Mt. Evans 800, Mt. Evans 800, Nadarivatu 750. Yasawa: Tamusua 118.
The collections of C. fijianus are limited to a few workers collected from malaise traps on Macuata just off the north shore of Viti Levu, the Yasawa Islands and the western mountains of Viti Levu, in addition to the type material described from Nadarivatu. Although the closely related C. dentatus is quite widespread across the archipelago, Nadarivatu is the only site where it occurs sympatrically with C. fijianus. The co-occurrence in Nadarivatu suggests that despite their close similarities, the two species are reproductively isolated. It is possible that the difference in range reflects a preference for drier habitats in the case of C. fijianus, but little is known about the ecologies of either species.
Camponotus fijianus was first described by W. M. Wheeler upon inspection of Manns C. dentatus material. Wheeler proposed that the specimens collectively identified by Mann asC. dentatus could be split into a number of different species. He noticed that the humeri of some workers from Nadarivatu varied considerably from the other specimens. Indeed, the humeri of C. fijianus appear pinched so as to form broad concave depressions whose submarginate apical borders project anteriorly over the neck. The species can also be distinguished from C. dentatus by the concave posterior margin of the head between the median portion and posterolateral corners, and by the broad yellow posterior bands on gastral tergites.