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Costa Rica to Brazil. Costa Rica: moist and wet forested habitats throughout the country, sea level to 500m elevation (Braulio Carrillo National Park, La Selva, Est. Maritza in Guanacaste Conservation Area, Hitoy Cerere, Osa Peninsula, Carara).
This species inhabits mature wet to moist forest habitats. It is usually encountered as individual foragers on vegetation in the forest understory. Foragers appear to be strictly nocturnal; I have only seen foragers at night. I have twice collected major workers, also as isolated workers collected at night. On one of the occasions there were raiding army ants in the vicinity, so it could be that major workers are only encountered when they are flushed by army ants. I have never found a nest.
At La Selva this species has been collected mainly by manual search at night, although a few workers and an alate queen were collected in a Malaise trap. The species has not occurred in canopy fogging samples. Thus C. ager appears to be a relatively low density species, and the nesting habits are completely unknown. In spite of its apparent low density, workers are relatively easy to find because they are dramatically large ants, easily seen at night by searching with a flashlight.
Smith, F. 1858. Catalogue of hymenopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part VI. Formicidae. London: British Museum, 216 pp.
Found most commonly in these habitats: 17 times found in montane wet forest, 4 times found in lowland rainforest, 4 times found in wet forest, 2 times found in ridgetop cloud forest, 2 times found in Trampa #5, 1 times found in mature moist forest, 1 times found in Plateau, 1 times found in Primary wet forest, 1 times found in Sura, 1 times found in 2nd growth veg., ...
Found most commonly in these microhabitats: 5 times Malaise trap, 2 times nocturnal foragers, 2 times nocturnal strays, 1 times moist forest at night, 1 times wet forest, 1 times strays, 1 times Sobre Vegetacion, 1 times Nocturnal strays., 1 times nocturnal forager, 1 times Night collecting, SOC 0-300m., 1 times Night collecting along Claro trail, st. 129, st. 136., ...
Collected most commonly using these methods: 16 times Malaise, 13 times search, 6 times flight intercept trap, 2 times Malaise trap, 1 times Pitfall72h, 1 times Sweeping, 1 times baiting, 1 times beating, 1 times blacklight, 1 times direct collection, 1 times FIT, ...
Elevations: collected from 10 - 1110 meters, 375 meters average
Type specimens: syntype of Camponotus ager: casent0903648