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The ant fauna of Baja California consists of a large number of species that are endemic or show pronounced geographical restrictions within the peninsula. About 28% of the ant fauna consists of endemic species, which closely corresponds to the proportion of endemic plant species within the peninsula. Additionally, about 30% of the species and 20% of the genera are restricted within Baja California to the relatively mesic California Floristic Province of northwestern Baja California. Nearly all of these species also occur in California. Moreover, habitat diversity, especially that related to topographic relief, appears to be the most important factor affecting the gradient of ant species richness in Baja California.