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Weaver Ant Farming



Dear AntAsk Team,

Weaver ant larvae is a commodity here in Indonesia, we use weaver ant larvae for dietary supplement to improve the performance of songbirds before bird singing competition and carp fishing bait. Throughout the year weaver ant larvae is harvested and sold, because demand for weaver ant larvae has increased in recent years some areas are being over harvested and as a result diminishing in weaver ant colony in the nature.
From that point, I and some friends trying to establish a weaver ant farm so we could meet the demand for weaver ant larvae and by doing so also help to reduce over harvesting in the nature.

Right now we have 42 jar of weaver ant nest in our colony which started from 30 jar of nest (the farming have started 1.5 month ago).
The diet of our farm is sugar water, caterpillar, crickets, diluted honey, diluted white egg, diluted fish oil.
Note: we haven't tried to harvest the larvae. Attached pictures of our farm setup.

DSC_0007.JPG DSC_0195.JPG

My question is:
1. Is it true that weaver ant tend to grow in population the most in shaded or dark places(because of these rumor we build a shed using paranet)?
2. What diet is the best for weaver ant to produce more egg?
3. After 1.5 month from the initial start now our weaver ant produce less and less egg what could go wrong?
4. How to join the antblog? I registered but there is no confirmation e-mail for activation.
Thank You in advance. I apologize if I'm not courteous enough or there is any mistaken words since English is not my native language.

Best Regards,

Mario


Hello Mario,

Thanks for your questions, and congratulations on your initiative: edible insects are the way to go!

We contacted an expert on many aspects of Oecophylla biology, Dr. Joachim Offenberg; and here is what he had to say:

"1. In nature they prefer sunny places for their leaf nests. However, as it looks like you keep the ants in plastic bottles it may be better under shady conditions as the bottles are transparent and temperature may build if exposed to direct sunshine. You can find a study on this issue via this link. On the other hand, the ants prefer temperatures usually above 30 degrees Celsius. Brood development increases with temperature.

2. The diet you describe seems to be adequate for the ants but it is important they have ad libitum access to a 20-30% sugar solution (they seem to prefer sucrose) and also remember to provide pure water ad libitum. In general they accept most types of protein but they prefer it in a wet condition. I.e. fresh rather than dried meat and fish etc. As insects are their natural source of protein it think it would be wise to include insects to some extend in their protein diet.

3. First of all you need to be sure that you do not mix nests from different colonies. In that case they will fight each other rather than producing offspring. Secondly you need to be sure that the maternal queen of the colony is included in your ant farm. The maternal queen (the queen without wings) is the only member of the colony that can produce eggs that are able to develop into brood. Weaver ant colonies will not accept introduced queens which makes it important to find the maternal queen of the colony (which can be difficult!). A last reason for limited brood production could be limited availability of space in the ant farm. I know from my laboratory colonies that colonies that live under limited space, reduce the production of new workers, since the colony is able to match the production of new workers to their actual need. I do not, yet, know the mechanism behind this regulation and have therefore not found a way to trick them to continue a high brood production. If you find a way I will be happy to hear about it!

4. Lastly, it is important to protect the ant farm against smaller ant spices as e.g. Pheidole spp., crazy ants etc. They like weaver ant larvae as much as the birds and are in many cases able to win a fight against weaver ants.

Good luck with your ant farm and best wishes,"

Joachim Offenberg, Flavia Esteves & the AntAsk Team

p.s. Mario, you began your AntBlog membership when you sent your questions to us! We really appreciated that, and hope to hear more interesting questions from you soon!
p.p.s. Your English is great!



I have another question involving ants.

About three years ago, I put a hummingbird feeder outside my office in the home. I fill it with a mixture that is four parts water and one party plain old white sugar.
A few female and male hummingbirds visit every day.

However, black ants would also walk down the pole that the feeder hangs from and actually enter through the holes designed to admit hummingbird beaks and wind up dead in the so-called nectar inside the feeder. I looked for an online solution and found what is called an "ant moat." It's the red cylinder that the feeder is suspended from. It holds water and this prevents ants from crawling down to the feeder.

It works great and I haven't had a single drowned ant in the nectar since I installed the ant moat.

Amazingly, though, over the last two years I've only seen one ant actually walk down the pole, discover the moat, and retreat. *Just one*. Granted I'm not watching every minute, but I'm looking out there enough to be surprised that I've only seen one ant and that was last year when I first installed the moat.

It strikes me that perhaps that original ant left a chemical message for others that communicates that the nectar is inaccessible so don't even try.

What do you think?

Many thanks,

Ted

AntMoatHB-Feeder.jpg
* * *

Dear Ted,

Thanks for all of the details on your ant deterrent, it seems to be quite effective! In fact, there are many potential ways that the colony of ants learned to avoid your trap, likely involving some of the avenues of ant communication discussed in this post. One thing to keep in mind is that collective foraging often works on signals of reinforcement by multiple foragers. Thus, if none of the ants were able to return back to the nest with the nectar, then they would have a hard time "convincing" any other ants to forage in that direction, and there would be little reason to walk towards the moat other than random chance.

Hope this helps!

Max Winston & the AntAsk Team


How difficult, if possible, is it to transfer an ant colony from a small easy maintenance starter farm to a much larger farm. Also how big would my farm have to be to have a full colony of pavement without 'controlling' population size? I can build one as big as I need. And what are the chances that my pavement ant colony will have more than one queen producing, I read that they will sometimes have more than one producing queen per colony. I think it would be very interesting to watch a multi queen colony.

Thank you so much,
Justin

Dear Justin,

It should not be too difficult to transfer your colony to a new farm, though you will probably lost some individuals in the process. Take a look at our previous post here.

I doubt that there will be any need to "control" the population size. The colony will grow until it is mature or runs out of resources so keep it well fed and it should be fine. Pavement ant colonies can grow to tens of thousands of workers so if you want your colony to reach its maximum possible size, you should probably make the farm rather large. Be sure to take a look at this previous post for tips on building a habitat.

Steiner et al. (2003) found multiple queens in five of 35 pavement ant colonies collected, so it is certainly possible that your colony contains multiple queens. Although you may need to do some more whole colony collecting if you are determined to find this type of colony.

Good luck with the farm!
Ben Rubin & the AntAsk Team

References:
Steiner FM, Schlick-Steiner BC, Buschinger A. 2003. First record of unicolonial polygyny in Tetramorium cf. caespitum (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Insectes Sociaux 50: 98-99.


How do I get my ant farm to produce more queens and how do I collect them?

Dear Anthony,

This can be a very difficult goal to accomplish. Ant colonies need to be very well established before they will begin producing reproductives. Depending on the species, this can take up to a few years. Also, if your ant farm doesn't have its own queen, it can't possibly produce new ants because, with a few exceptions, worker ants cannot produce fertile eggs.

Allowing your colony to grow and providing it with abundant resources is the best way to ensure that it will attain maturity and will eventually be able to produce new queens.

Good luck!
Ben Rubin & the AntAsk Team



Hi there,

I live in Vancouver, Canada, and am wanting to establish an army ant farm. Can you suggest how best to go about this?

Thanks,
Paul
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Dear Paul,

Starting an army ant farm in Vancouver, Canada could be very difficult for a number of reasons. First off, by nature, army ants are inherently nomadic predators, and thus keeping them in a confined space such as an indoor "farm" might be next to impossible if you want them to last very long. Secondly, most of the 5 genera of New World army ants (Cheliomyrmex, Neivamyrmex, Nomamyrmex, Labidus, and Eciton) are primarily Neotropical. While some species of Neivamyrmex have been seen as far north as Iowa (see this helpful ant distribution website), Vancouver is still hundreds of miles farther north, and with the cold humidity, it is doubtful any species of army ant could survive. Those that could for a short period would probably be subterranean, and you would need quite an arena to visualize and house a colony of thousands to millions of nomadic predators.

However, in 2005, Dr. Brian Fisher--myrmecologist extraordinaire--was able to import a colony of Eciton burchellii army ants to the California Academy of Sciences for the exhibit "Ants: Hidden Worlds Revealed". The advantage of importing Eciton burchellii in comparison to the many other army ant species is that they're generalists--they'll eat just about anything. The downside is that the millions of workers need a lot of space and have quite an appetite. Dr. Fisher informed me that Cal Academy was feeding the colony over 25,000 crickets a day, which they let loose in a giant chamber housing the colony in the museum.

Thus, unless you have the resources to build an arena and find the appropriate diet (smaller colonies will have more restricted diets--such as ant, wasp, or bee larvae), it might be a difficult task.

Best,

Max Winston and the AntAsk Team

I'm thinking about doing a science fair project on ants. I was hoping to create a habitat for two colonies of ants and then connecting them by removing a plastic divider. Wanted to observe what the colonies would do and how it would change their behaviors finding food, etc. Also, I read that certain ants can float by linking together on top of water. Is this true? Will ants from two colonies link to survive?

Marion


Hi Marion,

We have several posts on ant farms here, and particularly this post might be of interest to you.

Almost all ant species will viciously defend their colony against ants from a different colony. This being said, once you remove the plastic divider, the two colonies would fight each other. If the two colonies are from the same species, workers usually fight one-on-one in often lethal fights and the larger colony would win. Check out this post by Alex Wild on territorial fights of pavement ants. If the ants you bring together are from different species, it is hard to predict which one would survive.

ant_battle1.jpg

Two pavement ant colonies fighting (Tetramorium). Photo by Alexander Wild (http://myrmecos.net/2010/09/21/the-battle-for-clinton-lake/).

To answer your second question, fire ants can link together to float. This behavior actually helps this invasive species to survive during floods and to colonize new habitats. (To find out more about fire ants read this post.) Researchers have discovered the mechanisms behind these living floats and found that ants use the buoyancy of air bubbles to float. Linking their bodies together increases water repellent activity. Here is an article on the study by Mlot and colleagues, which was published in 2011 ("Fire-ants self assemble into waterproof floats to survive floods" PNSA 108:7669-7673).

Fire ant.jpg

Air bubbles enable fire ants to float. (Picture is courtesy of Mlot, Tovey and Hu, Ant Laboratory, Georgia Institute of Technology).

I hope this answers your questions!

Steffi Kautz & the AntAsk Team



I bought the uncle Milton's ant farm for my son. We want to purchase some ants, but I don't want to have to replace them every few months. Do you have any suggestions for how to do this.

Thank you for your time.

Sincerely,
Melissa

------

Dear Melissa,

Good to hear you are already on your way to starting an ant farm! Luckily, colonies can last much longer than a few months, and we have had some very detailed posts on building and maintaining ant farms.

Please follow the instructions here, and here for a successful, long-living ant farm!

Good luck!

Max Winston & the AntAsk Team

Hi AntBlog,

I am an elementary school teacher and I am looking for a project to do with my students on ants? Do you have any ideas?

Thank you,
Maria

********
Dear Maria,

We are really glad you want to include ants into your classroom activities!

There are many potential ways to include ants into classroom and teaching, including 1) having a living ant farm in the classroom, 2) participating in the School of Ants, or 3) becoming an Urban Ant Collector.

Ant Farm: You can learn more on making your own ant farm and finding and/or purchasing ants for the farm here, here, and here.

School of Ants: School of Ants is a nationwide citizen science program interested in getting people from across the USA to collect their local ants and send them into a lab in North Carolina so they can make a map of all the ant species found. It is easy to participate and all you need are a few common items (read here for the list). Once you have put out your "baits" you just put them in the freezer overnight to kill the ants, and then ship them off for identification. Once identified you can log in and see what ant species your classroom collected! It is a great way to see not only your local ant diversity, but also how your ant community compares to other locations.

Urban Ant Collector: Using an Android smart phone app, you can collect ants like a professional while adding to our knowledge of the planet's biodiversity. You can read more about this program here.

Best of luck,
Corrie Moreau & the AntAsk Team

I dug up a pogo ants nest and I have about 10 queen and 10 kings but none of them are fertilized how do I get them to mate?

Javaris

**********
Dear Jarvis,

We are glad to hear you are interested in ants! Unfortunately it is very difficult (and impossible for many species) to get ants to mate in captivity. Most ant species need to go on a mating flight, where unmated queens and males (these are often called "sexuals") leave their nests to reproduce based on environmental queues. During these mating flights, the sexuals from all the nearby nests will congregate in a single location to find mates. Below is an image taken by Alex Wild showing one of these mating swarms.

Mating swarm.jpg

Ant mating swarm - Photo by Alex Wild (www.alexanderwild.com/)

For more tips on keeping ants and getting mated queens for your ant farm, see the following three posts here, here, and here.

Best of luck!
Corrie Moreau & the AntAsk Team

Hello,

Thanks for writing such an awesome website! Would you please help me.
I have several panes of glass and instructions on how to build an ant
farm. That's not the problem. The problem is where do I get ants from?
I live in Northeast Arkansas and I do see ants outside, mainly little
black ones. A day ago I saw larger red ones going through my garden
collecting every insect they could find. Today they were nowhere to be
found. Do I always need to start with one queen? Do I just dig one up.
Hope you can help me. My son is very impatient :) He wants his ant
farm. Well, I am just as eager to get this going too.

Thanks for your time,
Daniel


Hi Daniel,

Thank you very much for contacting us! It is a very common question how to get ants for an ant farm and we have several posts on the topic. Check out this link:

http://www.antweb.org/antblog/ask-an-ant-expert/ant-farms/

If you want some ants quickly, I suggest just collecting a bunch of workers from one colony. They will die within a couple of weeks, but your son will have something to look at in the meantime and it will be interesting to observe them for a while. After most or all the workers have died, remove the remaining once and add new once. Without a picture, it is always hard to tell which ant species you might have encountered. However, largish red ants in NE Arkansas are probably a Formica species. They do not sting, but are very fast-running and a bit difficult to catch. Right now it's so hot and dry in that part of the country that all the ants have gone pretty deep under ground. Still, early in the morning, one might be able to find some near the surface, in their mounds (Formica builds mounts), or under cover objects such as rocks, logs and boards. It will be easier after we finally get some rain, though!

Good luck,
James Trager, Steffi Kautz & the AntAsk Team

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